To read this content please select one of the options below:

Music and emotion links to visitor harassment: a look at Jamaica

Annmarie Nicely (School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA)
Raslinda Mohd Ghazali (Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia)

Tourism Review

ISSN: 1660-5373

Article publication date: 27 November 2018

Issue publication date: 19 June 2019




The purpose of this paper is to use a study conducted on the Caribbean island of Jamaica to make the case that music might be a plausible suppressant of negative visitor harassment (VH). The goal of the study in question was to determine the genres of songs and music likely to have a positive effect on emotions the antithesis of the ones associated with VH but would have positive effect on visitors’ shopping behaviors as well.


A mixed method pre-experimental design was used for the study. Forty-two craft traders from a single craft market in Jamaica participated in seven music experiments and the data gathered were analyzed using predominantly paired and independent t-test analyses.


The researchers found that music likely to result in positive shopper behaviors also resulted in positive trader emotions, in particular in emotions the antithesis of those associated with trader harassment. In addition, the researchers discovered that old non-instrumental local songs had a significantly greater positive effect on these emotions than local contemporary songs and instrumental music.


The study discussed was original as it was the first known that looked at music as a possible treatment for negative VH.



The author would like to express our sincere thanks to Miss A. Denise Gooden, Lecturer in the School of Hospitality & Tourism Management at the University of Technology, Jamaica; Dr. Carolyn Hayle, Senior Program Officer, Institute for Hospitality and Tourism at the University of the West Indies; Mr. Desmond Malcolm, former General Manager, and his team at the Urban Development Corporation and the wonderful craft traders all in Jamaica for their tremendous assistance and participation in this important project.


Nicely, A. and Mohd Ghazali, R. (2019), "Music and emotion links to visitor harassment: a look at Jamaica", Tourism Review, Vol. 74 No. 3, pp. 371-384.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles