Index

Sustainable Logistics

ISBN: 978-1-78441-062-9, eISBN: 978-1-78441-061-2

ISSN: 2044-9941

Publication date: 4 December 2014

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2014), "Index", Sustainable Logistics (Transport and Sustainability, Vol. 6), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 317-324. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2044-994120140000006017

Publisher

:

Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2014 Emerald Group Publishing Limited


INDEX

Acting and shifting see Four As of sustainable logistics

Aerodynamics

rail transport
, 48

road transport
, 8–9, 47, 48, 55

Alternative fuels
, 9, 33, 50–3

biofuels
, 4, 9, 12, 50–1, 52, 53

compressed NG (CNG)
, 51, 52

dimethyl ether (DME)
, 51

dual fuel vehicles
, 9, 51, 52

electricity see Electric vehicles; Electricity

hybrid engines
, 52

hydrogen
, 4, 9, 51

liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
, 51

natural gas (NG)
, 5, 9, 51, 52

passenger transport
, 4

use in logistics
, 51–3

Amazon
, 66

Anticipation see Four As of sustainable logistics

ArcGIS Network Analysis
, 63, 70, 71, 73–5

Austria

rail transport
, 37, 39

Avoidance see Four As of sustainable logistics

Awareness see Four As of sustainable logistics

Backloads
, 41–2, 43–4

see also Collaboration

Barges

break-even distances
, xxi, 231–4, 235, 236, 237

load factor
, 237

vehicle technology
, 49–50

see also Inland waterways

Belgium

inland waterways
, 231–4

LAMBIT
, 228, 231–4

rail transport
, 37

urban light rail
, Brussels, xxi, 255–60

Berlin

intermodal shift
, 167

bestLog programme
, 38, 58

BESTUFS
, 58

Biofuels
, 4, 9, 12, 50–1, 52

biodiesel
, 9, 50, 52

Greenenergy
, 51–2

mixtures
, 53

rail transport
, 53

rapeseed
, 52

Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation
, 51

second-generation
, 50–1, 52

sustainability
, 50, 52, 53

Biogas
, 9

Break-even distances

cost analyses
, 222, 236–8

cost modelling
, 224–5, 227

defining
, 220, 223

inland waterways
, xxi, 231–4, 235, 236, 237

intermodal transport
, xxi, 217–41

literature
, 219–27

lowering
, 234–40

measurement for distance
, 222–3

rail transport
, xxi, 227–31

reported break-even distances
, 223–7

theory on break-even analysis
, 219–23

Brussels

urban light rail
, xxi, 255–60

Bulgaria

road transport
, 37

Bundling
, xix, 10, 52, 281, 283

city logistics
, 267

EFVs
, 279

Twin Hub project
, 227–31

Business models (BM)
, 196–200

challenges
, 200–1

complete transport company model
, 198

Coop
, 201–12

customer interface
, 203–5

defining
, 196–7

financial aspects
, 207

four pillars
, 197, 202–7

infrastructure management
, 205–7

intermodal transport
, xx–xxi, 193–214

local cooperation model
, 198

nine building blocks
, 197

Osterwalder's model
, 193, 197, 198–207, 208–9

own–account transport model
, xxi, 129, 193, 195, 198–9, 201–14

product
, 202–3

subcontractor model
, 198

Volvo
, 201, 202–12

Canals see Inland waterways

Cap & trade system
, 23–4

Carbon footprint
, 18, 19–20, 21, 90

Cargo Domizil
, 38

Cargo trams
, xxi, 245–61

Amsterdam
, 249–51

Brussels
, xxi, 255–60

Dresden
, 249–51

literature
, 248–55

Paris
, 249–51

Vienna
, 249–51

Zurich
, 249–51

see also Electric freight vehicles

Cargohopper
, 277, 282–4

Cellulosic crops
, 51

rapeseed
, 52

City logistics
, xxi, 57, 59, 266–7

bundling and
, 267

CO2 emissions reduction
, 9–10

EFVs and
, xxiii, 266–9

European Union
, 267, 268

SEVs and
, xxiii, 295–313

traffic disturbance
, 299, 300, 312

Clean air programme
, xvii

CLECAT
, 48, 55–6

Climate change
, xxii, 166

fossil fuels and
, 4, 5

mode shift and
, 10–11

CNG (Compressed natural gas)
, 51, 52

CO2 emissions
, xvi, xvii, 1–27

biofuels and
, 4, 9, 12, 50–1, 52

carbon footprint
, 18, 19–20, 21

city logistics
, 9–10

delivery services and
, 63–80

economic growth and
, 4–5, 14, 25–6

environmental reporting
, 54–5

EU-ETS
, 24

European Union
, 3–4, 9–10, 12, 14, 19, 26, 218, 271

Lean and Green programme
, xvi, 16

levers for reducing
, 5–7

mitigation see Mitigation measures

objective and reliable information
, 19–20

passenger transport
, 4, 66

policy instruments
, 14, 20–4

reduction
, xvi, xvii, 1–27

retail chains
, 90–1

supply chain management
, 6–7, 10–11

taxation
, 22–3

VMT and
, 63–80

warehouse location
, 66, 67, 71, 73

Coastal freight
, xx, 167

accessibility/load size
, xx

Coca-Cola
, 282

Cold ironing
, 50

Collaboration
, 41–2

backloads
, 41–2, 43–4

horizontal
, xix, 115–16, 121

longitudinal
, 115

Company reports
, 54–5

Compressed natural gas (CNG)
, 51, 52

Consolidation of goods
, 45–6

Containerisation
, 37

swap bodies
, 37, 39, 49

Contract logistics
, 46

Contracts

green logistics contracts
, 85, 92–3, 97–8, 99, 100, 106

intermodal transport
, 206–7

Coop

intermodal transport
, 201–12

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting

green retail chains
, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 100, 102, 103

Czech Republic

road transport
, 37

DB Schenker
, 52, 53, 205, 206

Delivery services
, xvii-xviii, 46

ArcGIS Network Analysis
, 63, 70, 71, 73–5

depot locations
, 71–3

e-commerce
, 57, 66

emissions factors
, 70–1

environmental effects
, 63–80

greenhouse gas emissions
, 63–80

household data
, 73

large companies
, 46

last-mile passenger vehicles
, xvii-xviii, 68, 69, 73–4, 75–80

literature review
, 66–7

local depot truck delivery
, 68, 69, 75–80

network data set
, 68–70

reductions in externalities
, 66–7

regional warehouse truck delivery
, 68, 69, 75–80

vehicle travel
, 73–5

VMT and pollutants
, 63–80

warehouse location
, 66, 67, 71, 73

Depot location
, 45, 71, 73

see also Warehouse location

Diesel
, xxii, 33, 51, 53, 246

biodiesel
, 9, 50, 52

locomotives
, 48

Dimethyl ether (DME)
, 51

Double-decker trailers
, 42–3

Dresden

cargo trams
, xxi, 249–51

Driver feedback
, 6, 9, 54

Driver training
, 42, 53–4

fuel efficient driving
, 6, 9, 53–4, 55

Dual fuel vehicles
, 9, 51, 52

conversion kit
, 52

e-commerce
, 57, 66

Eco-driving
, 53–4

see also Fuel efficiency

Eco-efficiency

definition
, 140

packaging
, 139, 140–1

supply chain integration
, 140–1

Economic growth

CO2 emissions reduction and
, 4–5, 14, 25–6

green growth and
, 14

ECOSTARS
, xvii, 58

EFVs see Electric freight vehicles

ELAbestLog programme
, 38, 58

Electric freight vehicles (EFVs)
, xxiii, 33, 265–94

adding value
, 279

architecture
, 279

batteries
, 268, 273, 274, 276

bundling
, 279

cargo trams
, xxi, 245–61

in city logistics
, 266–9

compared to ICE vehicles
, 273, 274, 276

definition
, 268

economical performance
, 273, 274

environmental performance
, 273, 274–5

government policy and
, 275–6, 280–1

implementation
, 265, 268, 271–85

limited availability
, 272, 273, 284, 285

logistics facilities
, 277–80

long-term vision
, 280

operational performance
, 272, 273, 274

private initiatives
, 281–4

property requirements
, 279

purchase costs
, 272, 274, 284, 285

rapid technical development
, 285

social and attitudinal performance
, 273, 275

technical performance
, 272, 273

trains
, 48, 51, 53

weight of goods
, 278

Electric vehicles (EVs)
, xxii-xxiii, 4, 9, 24, 271, 284

batteries
, 268, 273, 274, 276, 311, 312

operational performance
, 272, 273, 274, 306–10

purchase costs
, 272, 274, 284, 285, 299, 310

running costs
, 299

see also Electric freight vehicles; Small electric vehicles

Electricity

prices
, 299

sources
, 9, 51

Emissions see CO2 emissions; Greenhouse gas emissions

Emissions trading
, 58

cap & trade system
, 23–4

CO2 emissions
, 18, 23–4, 58

EU-ETS
, 24

Empty running
, 11, 41–2, 90

Environmental reporting
, 54–5

retail chains CSR reporting
, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 100, 102, 103

EPA MOVES model
, 63, 70, 72

ESRI StreetMap
, 68, 70, 73, 75

Euro Terminal Model
, 228

European Logistics Association (ELA)

ELAbestlog
, 38, 58

European Modular System
, 37

European Organisation for Forwarding and Logistics
, 48

European Union

BESTUFS
, 58

biofuels
, 12

certification
, reporting and monitoring, 19

city logistics
, 267, 268

CO2 emissions reduction
, 3–4, 9–10, 12, 14, 19, 26, 218, 271

ECOSTARS
, 58

ELAbestlog
, 38, 58

Emission Trading System (EU-ETS)
, 24

Euro Standards
, 47, 52

European Commission Transport White Paper 2011
, xxi, 3, 4, 9–10, 18, 271

EVs
, 271

Freight Action Plan
, 37

Fuel Quality Directive
, 53

GIFTS
, 58

green corridors
, 37–8

height of vehicles
, 43

Innovation and Networks Executive Agency
, 38

intermodal transport
, 218–19

Marco Polo programme
, 38, 167, 168

mode shift programmes
, 37–8

policies
, 58

Roadmap to a Single European Transit Area
, 218–19

START
, 58

Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI)
, 39

TEN-T
, 37–8, 58

Twin Hub project
, 227–31, 241

Waste Directives
, 57, 154

EVs see Electric vehicles

Fossil fuels

climate change and
, 4, 5

economic growth and
, 4

methane
, 51

Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation
, 51

use
, 1, 3, 4

Four As (4As) of sustainable logistics
, xvi-xxiv

acting and shifting
, xx-xxii, 117, 119, 120, 125–7

anticipation
, xxii-xxiii, 118, 119, 120, 125–7

avoidance
, xviii-xx, 117, 119, 120, 125–7

awareness
, xvi-xviii, 117, 119, 125–7

hierarchic dashboard
, xix, 114, 116, 121, 123–5, 129–32

supply chain management
, 119–20, 125–7, 131

urban logistics pooling
, 113, 117, 118–21, 125–7, 131

Freight Best Practice
, 38, 41, 44, 47, 52, 56

Freight modal split see Modal split

Freight trams see Cargo trams

Freight Transport Association (FTA)
, 41

Logistics Carbon Reduction Scheme (LCRS)
, 52, 54

Freight transport intensity

definition
, 10

FreightArranger
, 39

Fuel efficiency
, 8, 47, 48, 55–6

automatic tyre inflation
, 48

driver training
, 6, 9, 53–4, 55

fuel intensity improvements
, 43, 47, 49, 55

fuel usage monitoring
, 55

ships
, 49

speed limiters
, 48

waste heat recovery
, 8, 49–50

Fuel tax
, 23

Gas filled vehicles

liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
, 51

natural gas (NG)
, 5, 9, 51, 52

Germany

cargo trams
, xxi, 249–51

intermodal shift
, 167

GIFTS
, 58

Global Intermodal Freight Transport System (GIFTS)
, 58

Global population increase
, 3–4

Globalisation
, xiii, 33, 45, 166

Government policies
, 58

EFVs
, 275–6, 280–1

see also Policy instruments

Green Cargo
, 205, 206

Green corridors
, 37–8

Green Freight Europe
, xvii, 55

Green growth
, 14

Green image

retail chains
, 85, 87–8, 96, 98–9, 100, 101, 102–4

Green logistics
, xiii, 2, 251

retail chains see Green retail chains

sustainable logistics distinguished
, xiii

Green retail chains
, xviii, 83–109

air emissions
, 90–1

CO2 emissions
, 90–1

CSR reporting
, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 96, 100, 102, 103

empirical study
, 95–107

energy use
, 90

fill rate/loading factors
, 90

green image
, 85, 87–8, 96, 98–9, 100, 101, 102–4

green logistics actions
, 83, 85, 86, 88–9, 91, 96, 99, 100, 101–2, 104–5

green logistics contracts
, 85, 92–3, 97–8, 99, 100, 106

green logistics measurements
, 89–91, 97, 99, 100, 102, 105–6

greenwashing
, 84, 85–6, 98, 101, 107, 108

literature review
, 86–93

management of transport resources
, 97, 99, 100, 102, 104–5

physical structure of logistics system
, 96, 99, 100, 101, 104

scheduling of freight flows
, 96–7, 99, 100, 101, 104

technology
, 90

Greenenergy
, 51–2

Greenhouse gas emissions
, 1, 2, 12, 33–4

criteria pollutants
, 64–6, 67, 79, 80

delivery services and
, 63–80

direct
, 32

indirect
, 32–3

mitigation see Mitigation measures

passenger transport
, 4

reduction targets
, 3

reporting
, 54

SCOPE 1 emissions
, 32, 33, 54

SCOPE 2 emissions
, 32, 54

SCOPE 3 emissions
, 33

VMT and pollutants
, 63–80

warehouse location
, 66, 67, 71, 73

see also CO2 emissions

Greenwashing
, 84, 85–6, 98, 101, 107, 108

Grocery delivery services see Delivery services

High-cube vehicles
, 42, 43, 49

Hoek Transport
, 282, 283

Horizontal collaboration
, xix, 115–16, 121

Howard Tenens
, 52

Hungary

rail transport
, 39

Hybrid engines
, 52

Hydrogen vehicles
, 4, 9, 51

ICT (Information and Computer Technology)
, xix, 235

vehicle routing
, 44–5

IKEA
, xviii, 45

Image see Green image

Inland waterways
, xx

Belgium
, 231–4

break-even distances
, xxi, 231–4, 235, 236, 237

see also Barges

Innovations and Networks Agency
, 38

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
, 3

Intermodal transport
, 11, 37

break-even distances
, xxi, 217–41

brokerage and tracking system
, 39

business models
, xx-xxi, 193–214

contracts
, 206–7

Coop
, 201–12

customer interface
, 203–5

economies of scale
, 221–2

European Modular System
, 37

European Union
, 218–19

infrastructure management
, 205–7

own-account model see Own-account business model

road-rail transport
, 193–214

synchromodality/synchronized multimodality
, 11

Volvo
, 201, 202–12

International Green House Gas Protocol Initiative (2001)
, 32–3

Ireland

empty running
, 41

John Lewis
, 42, 43

KNEG
, xvii

Kyoto Protocol
, 5, 117, 132, 271

Last-mile passenger vehicles
, xvii-xviii, 68, 69, 73–4, 75–80

Latvia

road transport
, 37

Lean and Green programme
, xvi, 16

Less-than-full truck loads (LTL)
, 38

Life-cycle assessment
, 42, 147, 154

Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)
, 51

Lithuania

road transport
, 37

Load consolidation/deconsolidation
, 45–6

Load factor
, xix

barges
, 237

Location Analysis Model for Belgian Intermodal Terminals (LAMBIT)
, 228, 231–4

Logistics Carbon Reduction Scheme (LCRS)
, 52, 54

Low-loaders/liners
, 37, 49

Maersk Line
, 49–50

Management issues
, 55–6

Marco Polo programme
, 38, 167, 168

Marks and Spencer
, 47

Methane see Natural gas

Mitigation measures
, 6, 7–12, 31–59

alternative fuels see Alternative fuels

biofuels
, 4, 9, 12, 50–1, 52

bundling see Bundling

cap & trade system
, 23–4

cost-effectiveness
, 1–2, 6, 12–18, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27

driver training
, 6, 9, 42, 53–4, 55

e-commerce
, 57, 66

electric vehicles see Electric vehicles

emissions trading
, 18, 23–4, 58

environmental reporting
, 54–5

EU policies
, 58

freight modal split
, 10–11

fuel efficient driving
, 6, 9, 53–4

fuel tax
, 23

government policies
, 58

ICT
, 44–5

intermodal transport
, 37

load factor
, xix

logistical options
, 10–11

long haul logistics
, 31–59

management issues
, 55–6

modal shift and
, 10–11, 18–19

modal split
, 35–40

operational options
, 7, 9–10

options
, 7–12

reverse logistics
, 56–7

supply chain structure
, 45–6

technology see Alternative fuels; Vehicle technology

vehicle utilisation see Vehicle utilisation

Modal shift

benefits
, 167

CO2 emissions and
, 10–11, 18–19

flexibility issues
, 40

government policies
, 58

interoperability
, 39–40

major EU mode shift programmes
, 37–8

New Zealand
, xx, 165–91

rank-ordered logit (ROL) model
, 165, 168, 169–70, 181–9

revealed preference (RP) survey
, 165, 168–9, 171, 176, 181, 190

shipping sector
, 38–9

transport time
, xx

Modal split
, 35–40

CO2 emissions reduction
, 10–11

efficiency of vehicle routing
, 43–5

efficiency of vehicle usage
, 40–3

environmental credentials
, 35–6

major EU mode shift programmes
, 37–8

rail see Rail transport

ships see Ships

use of modes
, 36–7

Mode choice

New Zealand
, xx, 165–91

rank-ordered logit (ROL) model
, 165, 168, 169–70, 175–81

Mode shift see Modal shift

MOVES model
, 70, 72

Natural and Biogas Vehicle Association (NGVA)
, 52

Natural gas (NG)
, 5, 9, 51, 52

compressed NG (CNG)
, 51, 52

conversion kit
, 52

dual fuel vehicles
, 9, 51, 52

Netherlands

cargo trams
, 249–51

Cargohopper
, 277, 282–4

Lean and Green programme
, xvi, 16

printing on demand
, 10

New Zealand
, xx, 165–91

Night-time deliveries
, xxi-xxii, 251–2

cargo trams
, 259

NOx emissions
, 63–80

see also Greenhouse gas emissions

Oil

prices
, 4

shale gas and oil
, 5

shortages
, 4, 5, 298

Operations management
, 54

Osterwalder's business model
, 193, 197, 198–207, 208–9

Own-account transport business model
, xxi, 129, 193, 195, 198–9, 201–14

P400 megatrailers
, 39

Packaging
, xix-xx, 137–60

case selection
, 143–4

cross-functionality of process
, 142, 152–5, 157–8

data analysis procedure
, 146

data collection
, 144

design
, 10

eco-efficiency
, 139, 140–1

environmental efforts
, 143, 147, 154–5

external supply chain actors
, 142, 155–6, 158

life-cycle assessment
, 147, 154

logistical conditions
, 142–3, 147, 148, 152, 155

packaging requirements
, 142, 146–7, 148, 150–1, 152, 154, 155–6

packaging system levels
, 141–2, 151–2, 156–7

product characteristics
, 142, 146, 148, 149–50, 151–2

product development and
, 141, 149–51, 156

recycling
, 99, 100

supply chain integration (SCI)
, 140–1

Paris

cargo trams
, 249–51

intermodal shift
, 167

SEVs
, 300

urban logistics pooling
, 129

Passenger transport

alternative fuels
, 4

avoidance
, xviii

emissions
, 4, 66

EVs
, 284

last-mile passenger vehicles
, xvii-xviii, 68, 69, 73–4, 75–80

replacing with delivery services
, 63–80

trams
, 249, 251, 255, 257, 260

Piggybacking
, 39

PM10
, 63–80

see also Greenhouse gas emissions

Poland

IKEA
, 45

rail transport
, 228–31

road transport
, 37

Twin Hub project
, 227–31

Policy instruments
, 14, 20–4

cap & trade system for CO2 emissions
, 23–4

carbon footprinting
, 21

CO2 legislation for vehicles
, 22

CO2-tax on fuels
, 23

demonstration projects
, 22

EFVs
, 275–6, 280–1

European Union
, 58

internalising external costs by means of taxation
, 22–3

modal shift
, 58

pilots
, 22

standardized testing and evaluation procedures
, 22

Pooled distribution see Urban logistics pooling

Population increase
, 3–4

Porter hypothesis
, 14

Portugal

SEVs
, 300–13

Printing on demand
, 10

Procter & Gamble
, xix

Rail transport
, xx, 33, 34, 36

aerodynamics
, 48

barriers to rail use
, 39–40

biofuels
, 53

break-even distances
, xxi, 227–31

cargo trams
, xxi, 245–61

containerisation and
, 37, 39

decline in use
, 37

developments in
, 38–9

diesel locomotives
, 48

eco-driving
, 54

electric trains
, 48, 51, 53

European Union
, 34

flexibility issues
, 40

fuel intensity
, 49

Fuel Quality Directive
, 53

handling technology
, 49

intermodal road-rail transport
, 193–214

international transport
, 34

interoperability
, 39–40, 49

less-than-full truck loads (LTL)
, 38

loading gauges
, 39

low-deck rolling stock
, 39

modal shift
, 39–40

P400 megatrailers
, 39

piggybacking
, 39

regenerative braking
, 53

rolling roads
, 39

semi-trailers
, 37, 39, 49

service-related problems
, 40

ships and
, 38–9

size of trains
, 42, 49

sulphur emissions
, 53

trams see Cargo trams; Trams

urban light rail
, 245–61

vehicle size/type
, 42, 49

vehicle technology
, 48–9

vehicle utilisation see Vehicle utilisation

see also Trains

Rank-ordered logit (ROL) model
, 165, 168, 169–70

mode choice
, 175–81

mode shift
, 181–9

Rapeseed
, 52

Recycling
, 10, 48, 57

packaging
, 99, 100

see also Reverse logistics

Regional warehouse truck delivery
, 68, 69, 75–80

Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation (RFTO)
, 51

Retail chains see Green retail chains

Returnloads.net
, 44

Revealed preference (RP) survey
, 165, 168–9, 171, 176, 181, 190

Reverse logistics
, 10, 56–7, 87, 117, 139

Road transport
, 36, 37

aerodynamics
, 8–9, 47, 48, 55

alternative fuels see Alternative fuels

backloads
, 41–2, 43–4

delivery services see Delivery services

double-decker trailers
, 42–3

gas filled vehicles
, 5, 9, 51, 52

intermodal road-rail transport
, 193–214

speed limiters
, 48

tare weights
, 47, 48

tyres
, 48, 55

vehicle routing
, 43–5

vehicle size/type
, 42

vehicle technology
, 46–8

vehicle utilisation see Vehicle utilisation

VMT and pollutants
, 63–80

Roadmap to a Single European Transit Area
, 218–19

Rolling roads
, 39

Routing see Vehicle routing

Sainsburys
, 44

Scheduling
, 43

see also Vehicle routing

Sea and coastal freight see Ships

SECAs (sulphur emission control areas)
, 52

Semi-trailers
, 37, 39

low-loaders/liners
, 37, 49

piggybacking
, 39

size
, 42

SEVs see Small electric vehicles

Shale gas and oil
, 5

Ships

cold ironing
, 50

efficiency of vehicle usage
, 40–3

engine efficiency
, 49

filters
, 50

fuel efficiency
, 49

hull design and performance
, 50

kites
, 49

propellers
, 50

rail transport and
, 38–9

rudders
, 50

sails
, 49

scrubbers
, 50

sea and coastal freight
, 167

shore-based power
, 50

size
, 42

slow steaming
, 49

sulphur emissions
, 52, 53

vehicle technology
, 49–50

vehicle utilisation see Vehicle utilisation

waste heat recovery
, 49–50

Short Term Actions to Reorganize Transport of Goods (START)
, 58

Slovakia

road transport
, 37

Slovenia

road transport
, 37

Small electric vehicles (SEVs)
, xxiii, 295–313

advantages
, 297–8, 299–300

battery issue
, 311, 312

definition
, 297

external costs
, 306–10

operational performance
, 306–10

purchase costs
, 310

stakeholder perspectives
, 310–11, 312

state of the art
, 298–300

traffic performance
, 304–6

see also Electric vehicles

SmartWay
, xvi, 55

Sourcing practices
, 10

Spain

SEVs
, 300

Speed limiters
, 48

START
, 58

Streamlining
, 47, 48

Sulphur emissions

rail transport
, 53

SECAs (sulphur emission control areas)
, 52

ships
, 52, 53

Supply chain integration (SCI)
, 140–1

Supply chains

4As approach
, 113, 117, 118–21, 125–7, 131

CO2 emissions reductions
, 6–7, 10–11

contract logistics
, 46

ELAbestlog
, 38, 58

integration (SCI)
, 140–1

large logistics companies
, 46

level of integration
, 46

load consolidation/deconsolidation
, 45–6

manufacturing location
, 45

packaging
, xix-xx, 137–60

performance measurement
, 118–21

structure
, 45–6

urban logistics pooling
, xix, xx, 113–32

warehouse location
, 45

Sustainable development
, 85, 95, 116–18, 297

Sustainable logistics
, xiii-xiv

fostering
, xiv-xvi

four As see Four As of sustainable logistics

framework
, xiv

green logistics distinguished
, xiii

measures
, xv

transition process
, 25–6

value of
, 18–19

Sustainable performance measurement
, 118–21

Swap-body containers
, 37, 39, 49

Sweden

business models for intermodal transport
, xx-xxi, 193–214

green retail chains
, xviii, 83–109

KNEG
, xvii

Switzerland

Cargo Domizil
, 38

cargo trams
, 249–51

rail transport
, 38, 39, 228–31

Twin Hub project
, 227–31

Synchromodality/synchronized multimodality
, 11

Tar sands
, 5

Tare weights
, 47, 48

Teardrop trailers
, 9, 47

Technology see Alternative fuels; Vehicle technology

TEN-T
, 37–8, 58

Tesco
, 51–2, 55

Trains see Rail transport

Trams

cargo trams see Cargo trams

passenger transport
, 249, 251, 255, 257, 260

Trans-European Network (TEN-T)
, 37–8, 58

TransMission
, 282, 283

Tupperware
, xix

Twin Hub project
, 227–31, 241

Tyres
, 48

maintenance
, 48

pressures
, 48, 55

United Kingdom

biofuels
, 51

efficiency of vehicle usage
, 41

empty running
, 41–2

food supply chain
, 41

Freight Best Practice
, 38, 41, 44, 47, 52, 56

FreightArranger
, 39

rail transport
, 37, 38, 39, 53

Renewable Transport Fuels Obligation
, 51

road transport
, 41

SEVs
, 300

United States

greenhouse gas emissions
, 64, 65, 70

night-time deliveries
, xxi

rail transport
, 34

SmartWay
, xvi, 55

VMT and pollutants
, 63–80

Urban consolidation centres
, 67, 113, 286, 300, 312

Urban distribution centres
, 67, 260

Urban light rail
, 245–61

see also Cargo trams; Trams

Urban logistics pooling
, xix, xx, 113–32

4As approach
, 113, 117, 118–21, 125–7, 131

assessing sustainability
, 113–32

group decision support
, 113, 116, 121–5, 131

hierarchic dashboard
, xix, 114, 116, 121, 123–5, 129–32

horizontal collaboration
, xix, 115–16, 121

key performance indicators (KPI)
, 118–21, 125–7

longitudinal collaboration
, 115

sustainable development
, 116–18

sustainable performance measurement
, 118–21

VECTO tool
, 19

Vehicle miles travelled (VMT)

pollutants and
, 63–80

Vehicle routing
, 43–5

backloads
, 43–4

ICT
, 44–5

Vehicle technology
, xxii-xxiii, 6, 7, 8–9, 46–53

aerodynamics
, 8–9, 47, 48, 55

barges
, 49–50

cab streamlining
, 47

CO2 emissions reduction
, 6, 7, 8–9, 19–20, 21

complete vehicle approach
, 21

engine technology
, 8

fuel intensity improvements
, 43, 47, 49, 55

lighter weight metals
, 48

objective and reliable information
, 19–20

ships
, 49–50

speed limiters
, 48

streamlining
, 47, 48

tare weights
, 47, 48

teardrop trailers
, 9, 47

tractor/trailer integration
, 47

trains
, 48–9

transmissions and drivetrains
, 8

trucks
, 46–8

tyres
, 48, 55

vehicle body
, 8–9

waste heat recovery
, 8, 49–50

Vehicle utilisation

backloads
, 41–2, 43–4

bundling see Bundling

collaboration
, xix, 115–16, 121

down time
, 42

efficiency
, 40–3

empty running
, 11, 41–2, 90

improving
, 41–2

maximising payload
, 41

road transport
, 11

vehicle size/type
, 42

Vienna

cargo trams
, 249–51

Volvo
, 51

intermodal transport
, 201, 202–12

Walmart
, 56

Warehouse location
, 45, 66, 67, 71, 73

regional warehouse truck delivery
, 68, 69, 75–80

Wärtsila
, 50

Waste

EU Directives
, 57, 154

recycling
, 10, 48, 57, 99, 100

reverse logistics
, 10, 56–7, 87, 117, 139

second-generation biofuels
, 50–1, 52

Waste heat recovery
, 8

ships
, 49–50

Waterways see Inland waterways

Wincanton Transport
, 42

World Economic Forum (WEF)
, 8, 139

Zurich

cargo trams
, 249–5