Advances in Global Leadership

ISBN: 978-1-78754-298-3, eISBN: 978-1-78754-297-6

ISSN: 1535-1203

Publication date: 26 November 2018


(2018), "Prelims", Advances in Global Leadership (Advances in Global Leadership, Vol. 11), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 1-30.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited

Half Title Page


Series Page


Series Editors: Joyce S. Osland, Mark E. Mendenhall and Ming Li

Recent Volumes:

Volume 1: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, M. Jocelyne Gessner and Val Arnold
Volume 2: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley and Morgan W. McCall, Jr.
Volume 3: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley and Peter W. Dorfman
Volume 4: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley and Elizabeth Weldon
Volume 5: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, Ying Wang and Ming Li
Volume 6: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, Ming Li and Ying Wang
Volume 7: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by William H. Mobley, Ying Wang and Ming Li
Volume 8: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Ming Li and Ying Wang
Volume 9: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Ming Li and Ying Wang
Volume 10: Advances in Global Leadership – Edited by Joyce S. Osland, Ming Li and Ying Wang

For the past decade Advances in Global Leadership has landscaped the contours and the anatomy of this evolving field. Volume 11 builds on previous exemplary contributions by bringing together a judicious collection of theoretical and empirical manuscripts with several carefully chosen contributions tackling the perennial question of whether global leadership can be taught. I wholeheartedly recommend it to scholars and practitioners alike for both its accessibility and its insights.

Michael J. Morley PhD, Professor of Management, Kemmy Business School, University of Limerick, Ireland

Advances in Global Leadership (AGL) is a unique and exemplary contribution to the field of global leadership. It has for the last decade been pushing the boundaries on rigorous foundational research on global leadership while also seeking to make contributions to practice. It is home to work by world-renowned scholars and newcomers to the field of leadership. Volume 11 highlights work on the all-important issue of the efficacy of university programs focused on developing global leaders. Given the significant resources expended on these programs such an in-depth review is long overdue. I commend the editorial team for their continuing and significant role in the development of the field of global leadership.

Nakiye A. Boyacigiller, Sabanci University School of Management, Istanbul, Turkey

Global leaders are able to reach across cultures, building bridges of understanding, and the need for these capabilities has never been greater. Advances in Global Leadership consistently delivers the very latest in innovative academic research and practical experiences that define these capabilities. Volume 11 brings a special focus on Global Leadership development programs in academia, which is an important first step in defining what we must keep in mind when working to develop ourselves and the next generation of leaders.

Lisa H. Ruiz, Latin America Area Head, Regulatory International, AbbVie Inc.

Developing global leaders has become a key priority in for-profit and non-profit organizations. Today’s executives face unprecedented levels of complexity and challenges of huge proportions and consequence. Navigating these challenges requires “new” leadership competencies, such as agility, imagination, and the ability to engage a diverse set of stakeholders spread across the globe. The papers included in the present volume offer numerous insights into the nature of global leadership and how global leaders can be developed.

Günter Stahl, Professor, International Management, WU (Vienna University of Economics and Business), Vienna

Editorial Board

  • Nancy Adler

    McGill University, Canada

  • Roya Ayman

    Illinois Institute of Technology, USA

  • Joanne Barnes

    Indiana Wesleyan University, USA

  • Cordula Barzantny

    Toulouse Business School, France

  • Schon Beechler

    INSEAD, France

  • Janet M. Bennett

    The Intercultural Communication Institute, USA

  • Allan Bird

    Northeastern University, USA

  • J. Stewart Black

    INSEAD, France

  • Nakiye Avdan Boyacigiller

    Sabanci University, Turkey

  • Rachel Clapp-Smith

    Purdue University, USA

  • Juergen Deller

    Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany

  • Mary F. Sully De Luque

    Thunderbird at Arizona State University, USA

  • Juergen Deters

    Leuphana University of Lüneburg, Germany

  • Charles Dhanaraj

    Temple University, USA

  • Hal B. Gregersen

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

  • Ernie Gundling

    Aperian Global

  • Mila Lazarova

    Simon Fraser University, Canada

  • Yih-teen Lee

    IESE, Spain

  • Gretchen Vogelgesang Lester

    San Jose State University, USA

  • Orly Levy

    Cranfield University, UK

  • Thomas Maak

    University of South Australia Business School, Australia

  • Susan R. Madsen

    Utah Valley University, USA

  • Kristiina Mäkelä

    Aalto University School of Business, Finland

  • Martha Maznevski

    Western University, Canada

  • Jeanne M. McNett

    Northeastern University, USA

  • Christof Miska

    Vienna University of Economics and Business Institute, Austria

  • Allen Morrison

    Thunderbird at Arizona State University, USA

  • Kyoung-Ah Nam

    San Jose State University, USA

  • Faith Wambura Ngunjiri

    Concordia College, USA

  • Minna Paunova

    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

  • Maury A. Peiperl

    George Mason University, USA

  • Nicola M. Pless

    University of South Australia Business School, Australia

  • B. Sebastian Reiche

    IESE Business School, Spain

  • Margaret A. Shaffer

    University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, USA

  • Ibraiz Tarique

    Pace University, USA

  • Sully Taylor (Emeritus)

    Portland State University, USA

  • David C. Thomas

    Simon Fraser University, Canada

  • Vlad Vaiman

    California Lutheran University, USA

  • Charles Vance

    Loyola-Marymount University, USA

  • Stephen J. Zaccaro

    George Mason University, USA

  • Lena Zander

    Uppsala University, Sweden

See more at:

Title Page





School of Global Innovation & Leadership, Lucas College and Graduate School of Business, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, USA


College of Business, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN, USA


Management School, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

Copyright Page

Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2019

Copyright © 2019 Emerald Publishing Limited

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No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying issued in the UK by The Copyright Licensing Agency and in the USA by The Copyright Clearance Center. Any opinions expressed in the chapters are those of the authors. While Emerald makes every effort to ensure the quality and accuracy of its content, Emerald makes no representation implied or otherwise, as to the chapters’ suitability and application and disclaims any warranties, express or implied, to their use.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN: 978-1-78754-298-3 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-78754-297-6 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-78754-299-0 (Epub)

ISSN: 1535-1203

List of Contributors

Gesow Azam Brighton College, Canada
Franziska Bieri Indiana Tech, USA
Allan Bird Northeastern University, USA
Shina Boparai University of British Columbia, Canada
Lisa Corak Royal Roads University, Canada
Fabricio Cordova Ecuadorian Armed Forces, Ecuador
Denise Cumberland University of Louisville, USA
Jürgen Deters Leuphana University, Germany
James Gustafson Benedictine University, USA
Jonathan Hartel Frankfurt School of Finance and Management, Germany
Gary Hayes Royal Roads University, Canada
Noreen Heraty University of Limerick, Ireland
Ann Herd University of Louisville, USA
Jörg Hruby Steinbeis Consulting Center Global Mindset & Leadership, Germany
Komal Kalra Peter B. Gustavson School of Business University of Victoria, Canada
Wanda Krause Royal Roads University, Canada
Rikke Kristine Nielsen Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark
Ming Li University of Liverpool Management School, UK
William Lovely, III Northeastern University, USA
Rodrigo Jorge de Melo University of Vaasa, Finland
Mark E. Mendenhall University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, USA
Michael J. Morley University of Limerick, Ireland
Janet Ann Nelson Nelson Coaching and Consulting, LLC, USA
Anna Olszewska Kozminski University, Poland
Joyce S. Osland San Jose State University, USA
Martha C. Petrone Miami University, USA
Stephanie L. Quirk College of DuPage, USA
Wendy Rowe Royal Roads University, Canada
Eyden Samunderu International School of Management (ISM), Germany
Mike Szymanski EGADE Business School, Mexico
Yulia Tolstikov-Mast Indiana Tech, USA
Vlad Vaiman California Lutheran University, USA
Robert Borbua Vargas Ecuadorian Armed Forces, Ecuador
Fabricio Varela War College, Ecuador Armed Forces, Ecuador
Pooja B. Vijayakumar University of Limerick, Ireland
Jennie L. Walker Indiana Tech, USA
Robert Sean Wilcox Department of National Defence, Canada
Alicia Wireman Indiana Tech, USA

About the Editors

Joyce S. Osland, Senior Editor (PhD, Case Western Reserve University), is the Lucas Endowed Professor of Global Leadership and Executive Director/Founder of the Global Leadership Advancement Center at San Jose State University’s Lucas College and Graduate School of Business. Dr Osland is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and interna-tional management and is a past president of the Western Academy of Management. She has received numerous awards for both teaching and scholar-ship and has published over 150 books, chapters, cases, and articles. She co-authored Global Leadership: Research, Practice, and Development and has co-edited Advances in Global Leadership from Volume 8 onward. Dr Osland consults with global organizations and is a visiting scholar and professor at various foreign universities.

Mark E. Mendenhall (PhD, Brigham Young University) is the J. Burton Frierson Chair of Excellence in Business Leadership at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga. Dr Mendenhall is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and international human resource management and is a past President of the International Management Division of the Academy of Management. He has co-authored numerous scholarly articles and 24 books, some of which include Global Leadership: Research, Practice, and Development, 3rd edition (Routledge); Managing Culture and Human Resources in Mergers and Acquisitions (Stanford); Developing People Through International Assignments (Addison-Wesley); Blackwell Handbook of Global Management: A Guide to Managing Complexity (Wiley-Blackwell); and Global Assignments: Successfully Expatriating and Repatriating International Managers (Jossey-Bass). In the past, Dr Mendenhall has held the Ludwig Erhard Stiftungsprofessur endowed chair at the University of Bayreuth (Germany) and has been a visiting professor at the Europa Institut at the University of Saarland (Germany), WU Vienna University of Economics and Business (Austria), and Reykjavik University (Iceland).

Ming Li is a Senior Lecturer in International Human Resource Management at University of Liverpool Management School. She received her PhD in Management from University College Dublin, Ireland. Her current research interests include modeling of the competencies in managers to operate effectively in a global business environment and application of research methods. She has co-edited Advances in Global Leadership for 10 years. She serves on the editorial review board of the Academy of Management Learning and Education and Journal of Management. Her research has appeared in journals such as Academy of Management Learning & Education, Organizational Research Methods, and Personality and Individual Differences.

About the Authors

Gesow Azam is an Employment Coordinator in the Career Services Department at Brighton College. In the past, she has worked in the nonprofit sector helping immigrants and refugees find meaningful employment. She received her BA in Political Science at SFU and her master’s degree in Global Leadership at Royal Roads University.

Franziska Bieri received her PhD in Sociology from Emory University. She is a Visiting Professor at Indiana Tech’s Global Leadership Doctoral Program. Her areas of research include civil society organizations, global governance, and comparative labor markets. She has published on the institutional contexts of public–private partnerships, the role of trust in civic engagement, and school-to-work transitions. For the past decade, she has designed and taught a range of undergraduate and graduate classes in the social sciences and is a frequent lecturer of distance education courses.

Allan Bird (PhD, University of Oregon) is the Darla and Frederick Brodsky Trustee Professor in Global Business at Northeastern University’s D’Amore-McKim School of Business. He is also Director of the school’s Global Leadership Initiative. He has authored, co-authored, or edited nine books, more than 90 journal articles, and book chapters. His most recent book (with M. E. Mendenhall, J. S. Osland, G. R. Oddou, M. L. Maznevski, M. Stevens, and G. Stahl) Global Leadership: Research, Practice, and Development (3rd Edition) was published in 2017. His research interests focus on global leadership and effective management in intercultural contexts, with a particular emphasis on assessment and development.

Shina Boparai is a visionary who connects people and organizations to create a positive impact in society. Shina has worked in the public sector for 15 years, specifically in the fields of health and education with a focus on communications, volunteer management, alumni relations, fundraising, and events. Shina holds an MA in Global Leadership, diploma in Public Relations, certificate in Fundraising Management, and is a certified Yoga Instructor. She currently resides in Vancouver, BC.

Lisa Corak has an extensive background in tourism, dance and theatre stage, and production and festival management. She has a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree from the University of Victoria and recently completed a Graduate Certificate in Strategic Global Communications at Royal Roads University. Lisa has worked at Royal Roads University for 18 years in many different leadership programs. Currently, she works in the MA in Global Leadership program where a large but enjoyable part of her work is building relationships with Ecuadorians and coordinating the logistics for the student and activities in study abroad trips.

Fabricio Cordova was born in Loja, Ecuador in April 16, 1976. He grew up in a modest family with four sisters. He enrolled in the Ecuadorian military 20 years ago. Also, he has a bachelor in Physical Education (Polytechnic Army School ESPE-Ecuador), Coordinator in Pedagogy (Center of Personnel Studies CEP-Brazil), and a Master of Arts in Interdisciplinary Studies (Royal Roads University, Canada). For now, he continues serving the Ecuadorian Army in one of the most operative Brigade in Ecuador.

Denise M. Cumberland (PhD, University of Louisville) is an Assistant Professor in the Organizational Leadership and Learning Program at the University of Louisville. She teaches organizational analysis, ethics, organizational change, and program evaluation. Her research focuses on governance, entrepreneurship, and global leadership. She has authored five book chapters and has over 20 journal articles in publications such as Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, Human Resource Development Quarterly, and Human Resource Development Review. She serves on the Board of Governors for the International Franchise Association’s Institute of Certified Franchise Executives.

Jürgen Deters, PhD, is a Professor of Human Resource Management and Leadership as well as the Academic Director of the Master of Science degree in Management and Human Resource Management at Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany. In the past, he has been employed by a variety of global companies, for example, Europe’s largest media company as Head of Human Resource Development. Currently, he additionally works as a Consultant in Human Resource Management and as an Executive Coach. He acts as a Reviewer for various scientific journals in Human Resource Management and Organizational Psychology as well. Juergen’s most recent research interests include the acquisition (attracting, identifying, selecting, developing, and retaining) of global leaders, international talent management, designing, and implementing effective Human Resource Management systems and procedures, and global standardization of Human Resource Management.

Jonathan Hartel, B.Sc., is currently enrolled in the Master in Management program at the Frankfurt School of Finance and Management after completing his bachelor studies at the International School of Management. During his bachelor studies he gained experiences related to Global Mindset on a theoretical level by writing his thesis on the topic Global Mindset development as well as on the professional level by working as a project assistant for the Steinbeis Consulting Center Global Mindset & Leadership. Additionally, Jonathan Hartel was able to improve his intercultural skills by conducting a semester abroad in Barcelona and an internship in Switzerland. Alongside his studies, Jonathan Hartel is currently employed as a working student by a Tier 1 automotive supplier.

Gary W. Hayes is a Research Associate at Royal Roads University and a graduate of Royal Roads University’s MA in Global Leadership Program. He is also Co-founder/General Manger of Zen’s Outdoor Leadership Camp for youth – a volunteer-driven Canadian Nonprofit with a mission to cultivate positive wellbeing, leadership development, cultural perspectives, and social and environmental justice.

Noreen Heraty, PhD, is Senior Lecturer in Human Resource Management and Development at the Kemmy Business School, University of Limerick, Ireland. She is a Co-director of the Age in the Workplace Research Network (AWR-net), and the Course Director of the MSc in Human Resource Management. Her current research interests include age and attitudes toward age in the workplace, retention and career development, leadership in a cross-cultural context, and aspects of psychological contract development and fracture. She has co-authored a number of leading textbooks on Human Resource Management, Organizational Behavior, and Training and Development. Her research has appeared in leading international, peer-reviewed journals including Human Resource Management Journal, Journal of Managerial Psychology, International Studies in Management and Organization, and the International Journal of Human Resource Management.

Ann M. Herd (PhD, University of Tennessee) is an Assistant Professor in the Human Resources and Organization Development program at the University of Louisville. She researches, teaches, and regularly provides services to industry and the military in the areas of global leadership assessment and development, executive coaching, and talent acquisition and management. Her research has appeared in scholarly journals such as Human Resource Development Review, Human Resource Development International, Performance Improvement Quarterly, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Sex Roles, and Leadership and Organizational Development Journal.

James (Gus) Gustafson, PhD, is the Dean of Awaken University and Chief Learning Officer for Tuthill Corporation. He also serves as the Leadership Scholar-in-Residence and Core Faculty Member for the Daniel L. Goodwin College of Business at Benedictine University (where he international the first Executive Doctoral Program in Values-Driven Leadership). Gus currently serves on the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Leadership Studies and the International Journal of Servant-Leadership, is Chair of the Business Leadership Division of the International Leadership Association, former Editor-in-Chief of the Organization Development Journal, and was the 2010, 2011, and 2012 recipient of the Global Strategic Leader Award given by the World HRD Congress. He consults and speaks globally on a variety of topics, including Values-Driven Leadership, Cultural Transformation, and Servant-Leadership Development.

Jörg Hruby, PhD, conducts research and consults nationally in Germany on global mindset and global leadership. He is the Founder of the Steinbeis Consulting Center Global Mindset and Leadership located in Düsseldorf. He is a Lecturer at top private business schools with incoming students from all over the world. Currently, he teaches international and intercultural management, organization, and international human resources management. He has lived in Ireland and Austria. He designs and conducts professional development workshops, seminars, and webinars for colleagues and universities and especially for multinational corporations and German hidden champions mid-sized companies.

Komal Kalra is a PhD candidate at the Peter B. Gustavson School of Business, the University of Victoria, Canada. She holds a Masters in International Management degree from the IE Business School in Spain. Prior to starting the PhD Program, Komal was a Research Fellow at the Institute of Rural Management Anand, India, at the Center for Social Entrepreneurship & Enterprises, and was involved in helping set up entrepreneurship incubation hubs in different industrial sectors. Before that, she worked at Deloitte Touch Tohmatsu. Komal’s research revolves around the issues of diversity in teams and organizations. She is currently researching the role of within subsidiary linguistic diversity on knowledge transfer in multinational corporations.

William A. Lovely, III (Doctor of Law & Policy and MBA, Northeastern University; Master of Public Administration, Harvard University) is an Assistant Teaching Professor of International Business and Strategic Management at Northeastern University’s D’Amore-McKim School of Business where he also serves as Deputy Director of the Assessment Center for Global Effectiveness. His professional experience includes work in both the private and public spheres with assignments in over two dozen countries spanning four continents. His current research seeks to explore the transformative capacity of assessment center methodology in predicting global leadership competency. Other research interests include ethics and moral philosophy, social contract theory, and postconflict reconstruction.

Wanda Krause, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the MA in Global Leadership Program and School of Leadership Studies. Her work and interests span the areas of civil society, gender, integral theory and the Middle East. She is an award-winning and international best-selling author having written, edited, and contributed to five books and has also published several book chapters and journal articles.

Rodrigo Jorge de Melo is a PhD candidate who holds one of the 15 PhD positions funded by Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action “Global Mobility of Employees.” This is an international research project that is part of the Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the supervision of University of Vaasa (Finland) and Cranfield University (UK). He possesses significant international experience into cross-culture interactions. He earned his MBA in 2007 at the Fundacão Getúlio Vargas (FGV) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and an MA, in 2014, at the Cologne Business School in Cologne, Germany. He has professional experience in well-known multinational corporations such as Anheuser-Busch InBev (Brazil) and Lanxess (Germany). Currently, his research focuses on creating career success and the long-term career impacts of different types of international work experiences.

Mark E. Mendenhall (PhD, Brigham Young University) is the J. Burton Frierson Chair of Excellence in Business Leadership at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga. Dr Mendenhall is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and international human resource management and is a past President of the International Management Division of the Academy of Management. He has co-authored numerous scholarly articles and 24 books, some of which include Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development, 3rd edition (Routledge); Managing Culture and Human Resources in Mergers and Acquisitions (Stanford); Developing People Through International Assignments (Addison-Wesley); Blackwell Handbook of Global Management: A Guide to Managing Complexity (Wiley-Blackwell); and Global Assignments: Successfully Expatriating and Repatriating International Managers (Jossey-Bass). In the past, Dr Mendenhall has held the Ludwig Erhard Stiftungsprofessur endowed Chair at the University of Bayreuth (Germany) and has been a visiting Professor at the Europa Institut at the University of Saarland (Germany), WU Vienna University of Economics and Business (Austria), and Reykjavik University (Iceland).

Michael J. Morley, PhD, is a Professor of Management at the Kemmy Business School, University of Limerick, Ireland. Among his most recent published volumes are Global Human Resource Development: Regional and Country Perspectives (with T. Garavan and A. McCarthy, 2016), Manager-Subordinate Trust: A Global Perspective (with P. Cardona, 2013) and Managing Human Resources in Central and Eastern Europe (with N. Heraty and S. Michailova, 2009), all published by Routledge. His journal publications include sources such as Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of World Business, Human Relations, Group & Organization Management, Human Resource Management Journal, Human Resource Management Review and Industrial & Labor Relations Review. His professional service roles include Senior Associate Editor (Reviews) for European Management Review, Associate Editor of the Journal of Managerial Psychology (2007–2012), Chair of the Irish Academy of Management (2007–2010), and President of the International Federation of Scholarly Associations of Management (2012–2014).

Janet Ann Nelson, EdD, an Executive Partner and Adjunct Professor at the Raymond A. Mason School of Business, College of William & Mary; an Adjunct Assistant Professor at the University of Richmond; and an Executive Coach in private practice. Previously, she was a global human resources leader in Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, with GE Healthcare for 34 years. Following her retirement, she recently completed her doctorate at George Washington University. She also holds a BS/MA from Virginia Tech and a Masters of Human Resources & Labor Relations from Michigan State University. Her research interests include global leadership, organizational change, paradox, networks and learning agility.

Rikke Kristine Nielsen holds a PhD in Management and Organizational Studies from Copenhagen Business School and is an Assistant Professor of organizational communication with the Department of Communication and Psychology at Aalborg University Copenhagen. Nielsen’s research interests center on global leadership and how strategic leadership in individuals and organizations is developed and changed. She prefers engaged scholarship that bridges the academia–practitioner gap, and a related stream of research activity relates to the impact of research on society and practice. Prior to embarking on a career in academia, Nielsen had 10 years of corporate work experience in leadership development and consulting. She also has previous work experience in the hospitality industry, during which she lived and worked in Germany, Morocco, Tunisia, Spain, and Turkey.

Anna Olszewska is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Management, Kozminski University (KU). She also holds the Academic Coordinator of Bachelor and Master Programs in Management position and is responsible for international cooperation. Anna received her academic training in Poland (KU, European Academy of Diplomacy), Singapore (Singapore Management University), France (Audencia Business School, ISC Paris), Spain (EADA), and United Arab Emirates (The Emirates Academy of Hospitality Management). She acquired her professional experience from institutions such as Chancellery of the President of the Republic of Poland, Encore Event Agency, or The Embassy of the Republic of Poland in Singapore. Her research interests span top management teams, leadership, and communication issues.

Joyce S. Osland (PhD, Case Western Reserve University) is the Lucas Endowed Professor of Global Leadership and Executive Director/Founder of the Global Leadership Advancement Center at San Jose State University’s Lucas College and Graduate School of Business. Dr Osland is an internationally recognized scholar in the field of global leadership and international management and is a past President of the Western Academy of Management. She has received numerous awards for both teaching and scholarship and has published over 150 books, chapters, cases, and articles. She co-authored Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development and has co-edited Advances in Global Leadership from volume 8 on. Dr Osland consults with global organizations and is a visiting scholar and professor at various foreign universities.

Martha Petrone MA is Professor Emerita in the Department of Communication at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, where she has also served as Director of Diversity in the Office of Multicultural Affairs and most recently as the Global Learning Project Specialist in Global Initiatives. She has over 30 years of experience in facilitating, teaching, and training with a focus on developing strategies for creating inclusive learning climates and pedagogical interventions that foster student intercultural development. She has presented at a wide variety of conferences and conducted workshops and training programs in higher education and across a broad and varied range of organizations in both the public and private sector.

Stephanie L. Quirk, PhD, is Coordinator of Student Life at College of DuPage where she oversees the design and administration of co-curricular leadership development programs for the institution’s 28,000 students. She specializes in leadership program design, student development theory, and experiential learning facilitation. Dr Quirk has served as an Executive Board Member of the Illinois Community College Student Activities Association. Her recent research has focused on global leadership development in study abroad participants.

Wendy Rowe, PhD, is a Professor at Royal Roads University, Canada and Program Head for the MA in Global Leadership Program. Her leadership work focuses on strategic analysis, stakeholder relationships and promoting organizational sustainability. Dr Rowe has worked extensively across Canada and United States, in addition to various international locations (India, China, New Zealand, Australia, Ecuador, and Kenya), developing and evaluating programs in the not for profit sector. She has published and is engaged in a number of research initiatives in areas of health system change, evaluation planning and methodology, action research methodology, and in personal and organizational resiliency, thriving, and leadership.

Eyden Samunderu is a leading expert in the area of air transport with extensive management consulting experience. He currently holds a PhD in Strategic Management and is a Program Director for a Master’s program at the International School of Management in Dortmund Germany. He is also sitting as an Advisory Board Member for the Hamburg Aviation Conference. His research interests include aviation, multimarket contact, strategic groups and competition dynamics, container logistics, maritime economics, and global leadership.

Mike Szymanski is a Research Professor of international business at EGADE Business School Guadalajara. Mike holds a PhD in International Management and Organizations completed at the Gustavson School of Business, the University of Victoria (Canada). He also holds a master’s degree in Strategic Management from the Warsaw School of Economics and a master’s degree in American Culture from the University of Warsaw (Poland). Before starting his PhD training, he worked in strategic management consulting (PWC and Deloitte). Mike’s research is at the confluence of international business, global leadership, and human resource management. The ultimate goal of his research is to understand how organizations can take full advantage of biculturals (i.e., people who have internalized two distinct cultures, such as Polish-British or Mexican-American individuals) and how these individuals can leverage their strengths in an organizational setting.

Yulia Tolstikov-Mast, PhD, is the Lead Faculty and Associate Professor at the PhD Program in Global Leadership at Indiana Tech. Her recent research and publications have focused on Russian followers’ roles and relationship with their leaders, global followership, and doctoral education, including scientific integrity and disciplinary development of the global leadership field. She holds Faculty of the Year award for outstanding doctoral level teaching and dissertation advising, and designs and oversees the doctoral curriculum. Her passion for teaching scholars nuances of international research resulted in the creation of the unique global leadership research course and, subsequently, inspired a book on international leadership research. The book is a multinational coedited work in progress. Yulia is the Advisor to The International Center in Indiana on Leadership across Cultures certificate and the recipient of international Lilly research grants.

Vlad Vaiman, PhD, is an Associate Dean and Professor at the School of Management of California Lutheran University and a visiting Professor at several premier universities around the globe. Dr. Vaiman has published five very successful books on managing talent in organizations as well as a number of academic and practitioner-oriented articles and book chapters in the fields of talent management and international human resource management. His work appeared in Academy of Management Learning and Education, Human Resource Management, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Management Review, Journal of Business Ethics, and many others. He is also a founder and Chief Editorial Consultant of European Journal of International Management, an SSCI/ISI indexed publication. Dr Vaiman is a highly sought-after consultant and speaker – he is frequently invited to speak on both professional and academic matters to a number of global corporations and highly acclaimed institutions around the world.

Fabricio Varela was born in Ecuador. He joined the Ecuadorian Army in 1989, and soon after, he became a Commando in the Special Forces. He has been in Command of several Units in the Army, including Special Forces Group 26 “Cenepa,” Jungle Battalion 55 “Putumayo”, and Special Forces Group “ECUADOR.” He was a Military Observer in Liberia, Africa with the United Nations. He completed a Master of Arts Degree in Interdisciplinary Studies from Royal Roads University in Canada. His research interest is global leadership.

Robert Vargas is a Lieutenant Colonel in the Ecuador Army, currently appointed as Director of Research and Technical Development of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces. He has served more than 25 years in various tactical, leadership, and educational roles, starting out as a signal army officer that included communications systems training at Motorola, in the US, and later at the US ARMY base in Georgia. He has worked as a Researcher and Project Manager on various telecommunications and cybersecurity projects. He holds an Instructor position at the Armed Forces University where he teaches in subjects related to research methodology, critical thinking, security communications systems and leadership development. Lt Colonel Vargas has a master’s degree in Interdisciplinary Studies at Royal Roads University (Canada 2015), a Master of Information System Management (Ecuador 2008), and also as Networking Master (Spain 2004).

Pooja B. Vijayakumar is currently a doctoral student pursuing PhD in Management with Dean’s Scholarship at Kemmy Business School, the University of Limerick in Ireland. She received her MS in Industrial-Organizational Psychology at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, USA and won several awards including Provost Student Research Award, Professional Development Award, and Graduate Student Association travel award to conduct her thesis. Her current research interests include cross-cultural management, expatriation, and global leadership. She also earned her MS in Electrical Engineering at Wichita State University, USA and has held various engineering positions in IT companies like Mindtree, Cisco Systems, and Dell SecureWorks.

Jennie L. Walker, PhD, is Lead Faculty in Organizational Development and Leadership at University of the Rockies and Visiting Faculty at Indiana Tech’s doctoral program in Global Leadership. Her research and publications focus on global leadership development, cross-cultural talent management, and dynamic learning methods. She is also active in the field of global leadership development, facilitating executive education and consulting with organizations around the globe on their talent and organizational development needs. Her professional expertise is drawn from first-hand experience working in leadership development within several multinational Fortune 500 companies. Her publications include a book on global mindset development, along with several book chapters, journal articles, a magazine column in Inside HR, and professional blogs. She is an active speaker, presenting at ILA, AOM, SHRM, ATD, AERA, AIB, and HCI conferences. Her PhD is from the University of Denver, and she completed a post-doctoral fellowship at Thunderbird School of Global Management.

Robert Sean Wilcox was born into a military family and describes himself as having “never stayed in one place very long.” He lived in Virginia, Alaska, Japan, and Africa while growing up before joining the Canadian Military when he was 18 years old. Currently, he works at AdmMat in Ottawa as the navy’s Electro Magnetic Signature Reduction and Survivability Chief Petty Officer (DNPS 2-5-9). He has been deployed three times to Afghanistan, twice to Bosnia, and once Cambodia In 2018, he completed a MA Degree in Global Leadership from Royal Roads University. As a follow up to his master’s degree work, he is working in conjunction with DND and the Ecuadorian Armed forces to establish a military leadership academy for the Ecuadorian militaries

Alicia Wireman, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Communication at Indiana Tech. Her primary research emphasis has been in the areas of global leadership, managerial and organizational communication, and organizational rhetoric. She has been actively presenting at regional, national, and international conferences, including the Lilly Conference on College Teaching, Central States Communication Association, and International Leadership Association. Some of the presentations have focused on the relationship between international students and faculty in complex classroom environments, pedagogy in higher education, and teaching needs of international students. Her passion for international education, and especially for international students, is apparent in her work at Indiana Tech where she is engaged in many activities with international students and serves as the Chair of International Committee.

New Research on Global Leadership: Introduction to Volume 11

Joyce S. Osland, Mark E. Mendenhall and Ming Li

As one would expect from the name of this book and e-journal, Advances in Global Leadership publishes research and well-crafted essays that grow and advance the field. We seek articles that close the identified gaps in foundational research: construct definition clarification, theory development, identification of antecedents, outcomes and effective performance measures, assessment instruments for selection and development purposes, and developmental methods and processes, as well as richer descriptions and observations of phenomena and comprehensive literature reviews. We also echo calls for synergies between the field of traditional leadership and global leadership, given the limited theoretical and empirical cross-fertilization between these two fields.

There has been an upswing in global leadership research since 2010 (Mendenhall, Li, & Osland, 2016), and we are pleased to report that, according to a comprehensive systematic review (Vijayakumar, Morley, Heraty, Mendenhall, & Osland, 2018), Advances in Global Leadership is the most popular home for that research. The call for Volume 11 was unique in that it requested both traditional research topics and global leadership development in the university setting. Given the growth in university programs, we hoped the following suggested topics might foster effective university programs for future leaders:

  • Creative pedagogies for global leadership skill development

  • Institutional assessment of learning outcomes associated with global leadership skill and competency development

  • “Best Practices” in curriculum program design that develops global leadership skills and competencies in students

  • Faculty development programs that enhance global leadership knowledge, skills, and competencies in faculty and doctoral students

  • Developing global leadership skills in students through formal relationships with foreign universities

  • “Best Practices” in study abroad experiences specifically designed to develop the intercultural skills and competencies associated with global leadership

The majority of Volume 11 does in fact address these topics and serves as a wonderful primer for anyone tasked with creating or improving global leadership programs in a university setting.

Part I – Empirical Findings

Part I of Volume 11, however, contains empirical and theoretical articles on traditional global leadership topics. The first selection, Chapter 1, targets one of the most under-researched topics in the field – global change (Lane, Spector, Osland & Taylor, 2014). In “Here be Paradox: How Global Business Leaders Navigate Change,” Jan Ann Nelson describes a qualitative dissertation study of global business executives who described global changes in their globally integrated enterprises. The results indicated that they navigated complex, continuous change via paradox and sensemaking, aided by learning agility. This article furthers our understanding of the paradoxes faced by global leaders and the process they use to deal with them.

Chapter 2 presents “Leadership in the Global Context: Bibliometric and Thematic Patterns of an Evolving Field” by Pooja B. Vijayakumar, Michael J. Morley, Noreen Heraty, Mark E. Mendenhall, and Joyce S. Osland. This chapter systematically reviews the literature on leaders/managers/supervisors who hold global, expatriate, or international positions. This bibliometric analysis of 327 articles in key management and organizational behavior journals identifies the most cited articles, the most published first authors, the countries of first authors, and the most frequent publishing venues in this field. Next, content analysis identified two dominant themes, global leader development and global leader effectiveness, and the lenses used to study them, providing a point of departure for future research.

The fields of global leadership and global talent management have developed independently in research and practice, with the notable exception of Jürgen Deter’s book, Global Leadership Talent Management: Successful Selection of Global Leadership Talents as an Integrated Process (2017). We invited him to submit an excerpt from this book, entitled “Global Leadership Talent Selection as an Integrated Acquisition Process: What makes a Global Leader?,” which is found in Chapter 3. Deters takes a holistic HRM approach to selecting and developing global leaders in organizations that is useful for scholars and practitioners alike.

In Chapter 4, “Unpacking the Complexities of Global Mindset: A Multi-lens Analysis,” Jörg Hruby, Rodrigo Jorge A. de Melo, Eyden Samunderu and Jonathan Hartel carried out an extensive systematic review of the individual-level global mindset literature with the goal of assessing and evaluating its operationalization and measurement. Using an inductive thematic approach, they employed a multi-lens framework to enhance our understanding of this construct and its implications for the development of global mindset for HR professionals, coaches, and trainers.

Chapter 5 looks at behavioral manifestations of global mindset by exploring the intersection between organizational global mindset capability and managerial practices. In “Managerial Practices of Strategic Global Mindset: Forging the Connection Between Individual Competence and Organizational Capability,” author Rikke Kristine Nielsen reports the results of a three-year case study of middle managers at Solar, a Danish multinational. In this innovative example of an embedded and engaged research design, Nielsen and her co-inquirers identified four emergent managerial practices that supported the company’s global strategic needs with respect to global mindset.

Part II – Featured PAPERS: University Global Leadership Development

Chapter 6 is an example of a creative pedagogy used to teach global leadership skill development. In “The Use of Assessment Center Methodology to Develop Students’ Global Leadership Competencies: A Conceptual Framework and Applied Example,” Ann Herd, Denise Cumberland, William Lovely, III, and Allan Bird describe how they developed an assessment center at Northeastern University. This program, which targets international business majors, complements other international education opportunities, such as study abroad and a global cooperative work program.

Most descriptions of global leadership development programs in university settings make reference to David Kolb’s (1984) experiential learning theory and Mezirow’s (1978) transformative learning. The subfield of responsible global leadership shows that companies also rely on global experiences and reflection for developmental purposes (Stahl, Pless, Maak, & Miska, 2018). At the same time, both universities and companies are promoting online learning, prompting the question and title of Chapter 7: “Can Global Leadership Be Taught Online?” Mark Mendenhall answers this question and reflects on his experience moving to online teaching after decades of teaching global leadership in traditional, face-to-face classroom settings.

The next four chapters address study abroad in university settings. For many years, expatriation was heralded as the best way to develop global leadership (Black, Morrison, & Gregersen, 1999). More recently, short-term immersion programs including international service learning (Stahl et al., 2018) and even leveraged business travel (Johnson, 2014) have proven to be effective in global leadership development. Thus, it is not surprising that universities turn first to study abroad and international service learning as methods for developing global leadership or (its counterpart on some campuses) global citizenship.

Chapter 8 takes us on a deep dive into a small, carefully designed and researched study abroad program in Costa Rica. In “Developing the Next Generation of Global Leaders: Proposing an Iterative Framework for Student Global Leadership Development,” Stephanie Quirk and James “Gus” Gustafson took a grounded theory embedded mixed method approach to understand what type of study abroad experiences seem to lead to the development of global leadership competencies in a community college population. They also discussed personal characteristics that seemed to impact learning and personal growth. Based on these findings, they are the first to propose a process model for Student Global Leadership Development.

Chapter 9 describes and compares three different study abroad programs in “Do All Roads Lead to Global Leadership? Three Approaches to Teaching Global Leadership in Modern Business Schools.” Authors Komal Kalra, Mike Szymanski, and Anna Olszewska describe their school’s programs. Next, they analyze them based upon Brake’s (1997) competency framework and Oddou and Mendenhall’s (2018) depiction of methods that are most likely to result in personal transformation. This chapter lists positive and negative aspects of these programs, underscoring the point that not all programs are equally effective.

Chapter 10 describes a very different and creative approach to study abroad in a master’s program in global leadership. “Canadian Global Leadership Students Engaged in Strategic Partnerships in Ecuador” was written by ten authors, an indication of a dynamic partnership: Wendy Rowe, Wanda Krause, Gary Hayes, Lisa Corak, Sean Wilcox, Gesow Azam, Shina Bopari, Major Fabricio Cordova, Lt Colonel Robert Vargas, and Lt Colonel Fabricio Varela. The authors describe how the program, with its purpose of developing global-minded citizens who are interculturally competent and capable of working in international partnerships, unfolded and developed. Based on student interviews, they identified key aspects of the network building process.

Chapter 11 provides an interesting look at global leadership as an emerging discipline. In “The Global Leadership Field and Doctoral Education: Advancing the Discipline Through a Targeted Curriculum,” Yulia Tolstikov-Mast, Franziska Bieri, Jennie L. Walker, Alicia Wireman, and Vlad Vaiman explain how disciplines develop and the impact this has on curriculum development and revision. They compare and contrast doctoral-level degree programs in global leadership. Finally, they describe the curriculum revision process at Indiana Tech’s doctoral program in Global Leadership as an example of the complex and multidisciplinary approach required to prepare global leadership scholars-practitioners.


In our final chapter, “Global Leadership Development in the University Setting and Future Directions for Advancing Global Leadership Research,” the editors, with the help and wisdom of Martha Petrone, present the conclusions of on an Internet search for global leadership programs and courses. They list helpful research and criteria for designing and assessing effective university global leadership programs and study abroad programs with similar goals. Benchmarks are suggested to maximize the potential impact of various development programs. Finally, we summarize the book’s research findings and address future research needed to advance the field of global leadership.


Many people made important contributions to this volume who deserve our thanks and recognition. We are grateful to Niall Kennedy, publisher at Emerald Group Publishing Inc. for his support and to Kerry Laundon and Sujatha Subramaniane and the entire production team. We also want to recognize Jeanne McNett for her role as a writing coach and copy-editor on some of the manuscripts. Shyla Mallenahalli Chandrashekar deserves extra special recognition for her role in coordinating and supervising the endless details involved in manuscript preparation. She and Oceane Brouard carried out the university global leadership benchmarking study presented in the last chapter of this volume. Biz Eischen also deserves special mention for her contributions to the book.

This book would not have been possible without the funding Dr Osland receives from Donald and Sally Lucas and for their generosity to the Global Leadership Advancement Center (GLAC), housed in the School of Global Innovation & Leadership at San Jose State University. She also extends her thanks to Dean Dan Moshavi, Director Taeho Park, Prabha Chandrasekar, John Merz, and the GLAC staff: Biz Eischen, Oceane Brouard, Kyoung-Ah Nam, Almaz Negash, and Pamela Wells.

Mark Mendenhall is grateful for the support of the Gary W. Rollins College of Business and the J. Burton Frierson Chair of Excellence in Business Leadership at the University of Tennessee, Chattanooga.

Ming Li acknowledges support from the University of Liverpool Management School.

Research volumes like this one are seldom birthed without the support and sacrifice of the authors’ families. This volume is dedicated with special gratitude to them:

  • Joyce: To Asbjorn and our burgeoning family -- Jessica, Joe, Zoe, Lucy, Michael, Anna, Jacob, Gavin, Katrina, Scott, Isabelle, and June.

  • Mark: To Janet and my wonderful grandchildren: William, Thomas, Amy, James, Timothy, and Eleanor.

  • Ming: To my son Riqian Li, with pride for what you have achieved during your first year at university.


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Johnson (2014) Johnson, A. M. (2014). Short-term business travel and development of executive leader global mindset. In J.S. Osland, M. Li, & Y. Wang (Eds.), Advances in global leadership (Vol. 6, pp. 293316). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.

Kolb (1984) Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as a source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mezirow (1978) Mezirow, J. (1978). Perspective transformation. Adult Education, 28(2), 100109.

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