Index

Four Dead in Ohio

ISBN: 978-1-80071-808-1, eISBN: 978-1-80071-807-4

ISSN: 0163-786X

Publication date: 6 July 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Solomon, J.A. (Ed.) Four Dead in Ohio (Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change, Vol. 45), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 229-237. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0163-786X20210000045015

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 by Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Ableism
, 2

Activism. See also Youth activism
, 193, 198

Activists
, 163

Adequate yearly progress (AYP)
, 50

Adolescents, young people become
, 40–42

Adult-dominated social movement spaces
, 78–79

Adultism
, 35–36

and ephebiphobia
, 52

structural inequality of
, 51

Advancement Project
, 50–51

Affirmative governmentality
, 52

Ageism
, 63

Agents provocateurs
, 51

Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI)
, 135

Al-Askariya Mosque bombings
, 137

Al-Nahrain University
, 134

Albeit police presence
, 109–110

Altruism
, 40–41

American high school
, 43

Analytic approach
, 196

Anti-apartheid activism
, 12–13

Anti-Drug Abuse Act (1986)
, 48

Anti-protest narrative
, 2

Anti-Vietnam war movements
, 45

Anti-war movement
, 14

Antiwar activists
, 213–214

Apartheid in South Africa
, 13

Arab Spring 2.0
, 129

Arab Street
, 139

Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Promoting Advocacy and Leadership (AYPAL)
, 52

Assassinations of Iraqi academics
, 137–140

Authoritarianism
, 2, 194

Backfire
, 159–160

Backpack movement (2011)
, 103–104

Banking Bill
, 24–25

Benevolent superordinates
, 60

Biographical information
, 109

Black, Indigenous, and People of Color communities (BIPOC communities)
, 35–37

Black Americans
, 60

Black Consciousness Movement
, 16

Black Lives Matter (BLM)
, 3–4, 34, 81

Black Power
, 15–16

Black Theology movements
, 16

Black Youth Project 100 (BYP 100)
, 4, 63

Blogs
, 65–66

Board of Trustees
, 20–22, 25–26, 216–217, 221

British Anti-Apartheid Movement
, 23–24

Brown scare
, 193

Brussels Tribunal
, 138

California’s Proposition 21
, 52

Campus activism
, 2

Center for Civic Engagement (CCE)
, 87

Center for Peaceful Change (CPC)
, 213

Child savers
, 43–44

Chile’s national police force
, 105–106

Chilean education system
, 102

Chilean student movement
, 106–107

Chilean Winter
, 102–104

Chun Doo Hwan administration
, 195

Chun Doo Hwan regime
, 192

Chun Massacres Gwangju Citizens
, 198

Civic engagement
, 87

Civil disobedience
, 45

Civil Rights

day
, 88

movements
, 45

Climate Strikers
, 3–4

Collective memory
, 192–193

Commemoration
, 213–215, 226

memory and
, 5–6

Committee on Academic Environment
, 21

Communist Youth Organization (CYO)
, 225

Community partnerships
, 88

Community-based youth organizations
, 62

Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act
, 26

Compulsory schooling
, 43–44

Constructivist camps
, 136

Content analysis
, 196

Contention
, 203

Contentious politics datasets of events
, 106–107

Contentious student politics
, 103–104

Council of Movement for People and Democracy (CMPD)
, 203

Counter-insurgency
, 140–143

Counter-memory narratives
, 193

COVID-19 exposure
, 34

Criminal behavior
, 44

Criminalization
, 3–4

Criminals, young activists become
, 45–47

Cult of domesticity
, 39

Cultural Center
, 203

Cultural cleansing strategy
, 139

Cultural uniqueness
, 60

Daily Kent Stater
, 214–215

Day of Dialogue
, 88

De facto
, 59–60

De-baathification
, 140, 148

Deficit model
, 58, 60

and inequality
, 59–60

leaked online
, 64–65

Demand-amplification
, 103

Democracy
, 38–39

in Chile
, 106

movement
, 195

Democratic restoration
, 115–116

Description bias
, 107

Detroit Free Press
, 17

Developmental psychology
, 41–42

Dialectic of repression’
, 4

Dialectics of repression
, 104, 116

Digital activism
, 59

Digital media
, 59

Digital space
, 68–70, 72–73, 78–80

Digital technologies
, 64

Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs (DDR programs)
, 141

Disempowerment
, 3–4

Displacement
, 149–150

Disruption
, 110–112

Dissent
, 162–163

Divestment
, 18–19

Diyala University
, 135

Dred Scott decision
, 59–60

Drug abuse
, 47

Dualisms
, 40–41

Dynamics of Collective Protest
, 108

Early Twentieth Century, young people in

adolescents
, 40–42

containment
, 42–45

Earth Day
, 85, 88

East Lansing
, 12–13, 15–16

Educational apartheid
, 4, 102

Educational institutions in US
, 13

Encapuchado
, 117–120

Environmental activism
, 73

Ephebiphobia
, 3–4, 35, 37, 49

early twentieth century
, 40, 42, 45

late twentieth century
, 47–51

mid-twentieth century
, 45–47

nineteenth century
, 38–40

oath of Ephebes
, 53–54

persistent myth of youth (in) danger
, 51–53

Epidemics
, 36–37

“Escalated force” model
, 109–110

Ethno-sectarian re-organization
, 147–149

European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR)
, 164

European culture
, 41

Event type scenarios
, 113

External digital space
, 70

Externally disruptive strategies
, 110–112

Facebook pages
, 65–66

Factionalism
, 225–226

Fan activism
, 81

Free Speech Movement
, 13

Gang Violence and Juvenile Crime Prevention Act
, 49–50

General Motors (GM)
, 20

Generation gap
, 42–43

Global Justice Day
, 88

Google API
, 66–67

Grass-roots movement
, 157–158

Gun Free Schools Act (1994)
, 49–51

Gwangju
, 192

data and methods
, 194–196

findings
, 196–205

Incident
, 197–198

memory work for mobilization
, 192–194

Uprising
, 192–194, 196–198

Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (HPER)
, 214–215, 217

Heroic defense of universities
, 134

High school
, 42–43

Higher education
, 127–128, 137

Higher education institutions (HEIs)
, 134

Highly disruptive events
, 113–114

Historic Site Preservation Society
, 216

Hofstra Peace Fellows
, 86

Homophobia
, 2

Honeymoon period
, 110

Idealism
, 40–41

‘Illinois’ 1903 Child Labor Law
, 43

Immigrants
, 44

Imperial grand strategy
, 131

Implicit deficit model
, 59–60

Incident
, 200

Incidente11”
, 113

Industrialization
, 39

Inequality

deficit models and
, 59–60

of education
, 102

Inertia
, 40–41

Injustice frame approach
, 161, 179

Instagram
, 64

Institute for Peace Studies (IPS)
, 94

Institutionalizing peace education (IPS)
, 94–95

and advocacy at Hofstra and beyond
, 94–96

Institutions behind peace fellows
, 86–88

Insurgencies
, 134–137

Interim Governing Council (IGC)
, 136

Internally disruptive tactics
, 110–112

Iraq
, 127, 130–132, 136

coalition responses to security challenges in
, 128

ethno-sectarian splintering
, 137

Iraqi higher education
, 137, 139

Iraqi responses to security dilemma
, 144–150

displacement
, 149–150

ethno-sectarian re-organization
, 147–149

politicization
, 145–147

protection measures
, 144–145

Japanese colonial rule
, 194

Jeonnammaeil
, 197

Juvenile Accountability Block Grant
, 49–50

Juvenile Court Act
, 43–44

Juvenile justice system
, 43–45

K-pop music fans
, 35

Kent Interhall Council
, 216

Kent Legal Defense Fund
, 222–223

Kent State University (KSU). See also Michigan State University (MSU)
, 161, 211–212, 226

administration
, 216–217

board of trustees
, 215

police
, 222

slow movement
, 212

story
, 214

students at
, 212

Kent Weekly
, 215

Korean Democracy Foundation (KDF)
, 195

democracy movement
, 195

Kyiv Sociological Institute (KIIS)
, 167–168

Kyiv’s Maidan Square
, 158

Lake Chad Basin
, 129

Latin American Social Observatory
, 107

Law Enforcement Assistance Act (LEAA)
, 45–46

“Law of Coercive Responsiveness” model
, 110–112

“Law-and-order” frame
, 105

Legalism in Chile
, 114–115

Legitimacy
, 160–161

Lichbach’s model
, 159

Likelihood of police presence
, 110

Living memorial
, 1

Long Island Alliance for Peaceful Alternatives (LIAPC)
, 86

Long Island Alliance to Prevent Nuclear War
, 86

Long-Range Development Plan
, 214–215

Looters
, 133

Looting
, 133–134

Macro-level studies
, 192–193

Madison Area Committee on Southern Africa (MACSA)
, 15–16

Maidan Square
, 166, 177

Maoist groups
, 224

March for Our Lives
, 3–4

Massacre (haksal)
, 200, 203–204

Maximum probability
, 113–114

May 4th

coalition
, 216–218, 220

memorial committee
, 226

movement
, 214

task force
, 215

“McGoff Off” campaign
, 17

Mechanization
, 39

Media
, 116

Mediation
, 65

additional measures
, 69–70

youth focus and
, 67–69

Memory
, 212–214, 226

and commemoration
, 5–6

work for mobilization
, 192, 194, 199, 202–205

Meso-level studies
, 192–193

Michigan State University (MSU). See also Kent State University (KSU)
, 12–13, 23–24

banking bill
, 24–25

black consciousness
, 16

board of trustees
, 20, 25–26

divestment
, 18–19

east lansing
, 15–16

interim presidency
, 13–14

myriad traumatic developments
, 13

office of legal affairs
, 21–22

SALC
, 14–15, 17–18, 26–27

Sullivan principles
, 19–20

Micromobilization

of provisional Irish Army
, 160–161

of social efforts
, 166

Mid-decade events in South Africa
, 16

Middle-class youth
, 40

Military Industrial Commission
, 141

Military-grade tools
, 45–46

Mixed method approach
, 107

Mobilization
, 192, 194, 199, 202–205

Modern adolescent
, 40–41

Modern youth
, 2

MoHE-I
, 141

Moodiness
, 40–41

Moral shock
, 199

Mosul University
, 147

Movement for Black Lives
, 34

Multi-method approach
, 158, 168

Multiple logistic regression analysis
, 108

Mustansiriya University
, 137

Native Americans
, 60

Natural disaster
, 49

“Negotiated management” approach
, 106

New Social Movements in Western Europe
, 108

Ninewa PRT
, 143

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
, 50

Non-profit programs
, 52

Nondisruptive tactics
, 110–112

Nonviolent civil rights
, 45

Nonviolent social change
, 34

Oath of Ephebes
, 53–54

Observatorio Social de América Latina (OSAL). See Latin American Social Observatory

Occupy Wall street Movement
, 41–42

Offline activism, youth deficit model in
, 62–63

Offline protest actions
, 70

Ohio National Guard
, 211–212

#OKBoomer trend
, 41–42

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act (1968)
, 45–46

On-campus programming
, 88

Online magazines
, 65–66

Oppressive force
, 35–36

Ordered logit regression statistical model
, 168–169

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries (OECD countries)
, 102

Orphan trains
, 40

Outmoded deficit model
, 59

Ownership
, 194, 205–206

Paradox of repression
, 159–160

Parens patriae
, 44

Participatory politics
, 81

online
, 2

Peace Fellows program
, 86

assessments
, 91–94

curriculum
, 89–91

institutions behind peace fellows
, 86–88

IPS and advocacy at Hofstra
, 94–96

Penguin Revolution
, 103–104

People’s Movement Coalition for Democracy and Reunification (PMCMR)
, 203

People’s uprising (minjung hangjaeng)
, 203–204

Piñera’s right-wing government
, 112–113

Pinguino movement
, 115–116

Police brutality
, 105–106

Police repression
, 109–110, 112–114

Police violence
, 34, 117

Policing

capital
, 103

of education-related protests
, 105

tactics
, 109–110

Political jiu-jitsu effect
, 159–160

Political opportunities
, 103

Political power
, 104–105

Political system
, 194

Political violence
, 158, 163–164, 178

expectations
, 158

support for
, 164

Politicization
, 145–147

Post-2003 Iraq
, 128

assassinations of Iraqi academics
, 137–140

counter-insurgency and stabilization
, 140–143

immediate post-invasion environment
, 133–134

insecurity and violence
, 131–143

insurgencies
, 134–137

Iraqi responses to security dilemma
, 144–150

theoretical considerations
, 128–130

Post-2003 violence
, 148

Post-Soviet world
, 159

Post-war violence
, 5

Poverty
, 2

Power, normative forms of
, 3

Pre-2003 Iraqi higher education
, 128, 130–131

Pre-emptive strike
, 131

Pre-tested coding sheet
, 108

Precocity
, 40–41

Primordialist camps
, 136

Private educational institutions
, 102

“Pro-choice” digital content
, 66

“Pro-life” digital content
, 66

Process-tracing methodology
, 169

Prosumption
, 64

Protecting education from attack
, 129–130

Protection measures
, 144–145

Protesters
, 163

Protests
, 162–163

control and repression
, 104

cycle
, 192

management model
, 109–110

repression of
, 104–107

violence triggers police repression
, 114

Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs)
, 143

Purposive non-probabilistic sampling
, 109

Qualitative methodology
, 169

Quantitative database
, 109

Racism
, 2, 34–35

Recapitulation theory
, 41

Record-Courier
, 215

Regression models
, 107

Reinterpretation
, 199

Religious enthusiasm
, 40–41

Remembrance
, 193

Repression
, 35, 104, 158–160, 163

initial morphology of state force action during student protests
, 109–114

interview fragments about use of violence
, 119

methods
, 107–109

of protest
, 104–107

protest control and
, 104

repression-dissent nexus in Ukraine, Winter
, 164–168

responses to
, 4–5

scenarios of probability of protestor-police confrontation
, 114

and student protests in Chile unpacked
, 114–121

Resistance
, 162–163

Resistance for democracy (minjuhwa hangjaeng)
, 203–204

Revolution
, 162–163

Revolutionaries
, 163

Revolutionary Student Brigade (RSB)
, 224

RSB-led radical faction
, 224–225

Right-wing government
, 108

Righteous action for democracy (Ueguh)
, 203–204

Rockwell Hall
, 216–217

Safe and Drug Free Schools and Community Act (SDFSCA)
, 48

Salience
, 194

Samooborona units
, 166

School resource officers (SROs)
, 50–51

Secondary student movement organizations
, 109

“Secondary” tactic
, 117

Sectarian violence
, 136–137

Security forces
, 120–121

Selection bias
, 107

Self-directed digital engagement
, 81

Semi-dependence
, 38

Sexism
, 2

Shock
, 177, 197

Social anger
, 177

Social control
, 117–118

Social dissent
, 159–162

Social justice
, 86–87

Social learning
, 103

Social mobilization
, 160–161

Social movement organizations (SMOs)
, 58

SMO-run digital spaces
, 74

Social movements
, 3–4, 34, 37, 78–79

Social revolution
, 162

Social shock
, 177

Socialization
, 44–45

South Carolina State College (SCSC)
, 46

South Jolla Province
, 195

South Korea
, 192, 194–195

South Korean collective memory
, 6

Southern Africa Liberation Committee (SALC)
, 3, 12–15, 17–20, 26–27

Space Planning Council
, 214–215

Stabilization
, 140–143

Standing Rock
, 3–4

State forces
, 104

State repression
, 159, 162–163

State violence interpretation
, 172–176

Statistical methods
, 107, 168–169

Stop War Working Group
, 86–87

Strategic calculus
, 120–121

Structural inequality of adultism
, 51

Structural injustices
, 2

Student activism
, 1–2, 12–13, 88

Student activists
, 214

Student mobilizations in Chile
, 117

Student movements
, 3–4, 115, 120–121

Student protests in Chile
, 109–114

unpacked
, 114–121

Student tactics
, 110–112

Student Teacher Education Program (STEP)
, 15

Students Rise Up (SRU)
, 53

Students’ legitimate demands
, 118

Subcultures of memory
, 193

Sullivan Principles
, 19–20, 25

Sunrise Movement
, 4, 63, 73

Support for political violence
, 164

Task Force
, 213–214

Teenager
, 37, 42

Teens4Equality
, 34–35

Tent City
, 212, 218–220, 223

establishment
, 219

removal of
, 222

residents
, 219

Threat approach
, 104–105

Tiananmen Square protests
, 206

Tikrit University
, 143

TikTok
, 64, 81

Time magazine
, 38

Titushki
, 164

Transphobia
, 2

Twitter
, 34–35

Ukrainian revolution
, 157–160, 162

data analysis
, 171–176

interview data
, 176–178

methodology
, 168–171

political violence
, 163–164

repression-dissent nexus in Ukraine, Winter
, 164–168

revolution
, 162–163

revolutionaries, activists, and protesters
, 163

sources of data
, 170–171

state repression and social dissent
, 159–162

support for political violence
, 164

Uniondale Community Land Trust (UCLT)
, 87–88

United Faculty Professional Association (UFPA)
, 216–217

United States National Guard
, 161

University of Baghdad (UoB)
, 130–131

University of Basra
, 134

University of Mosul
, 142

University of Technology (UoT)
, 133–134, 146–147

University student movement organizations
, 109

UoB-Abu Ghraib campus
, 141

Urban disorder
, 45–46

URLs
, 66

US Cultural Center
, 200

US Zero Hour
, 73

Valence
, 194

Value-based method
, 90

Vietnam War
, 12–13, 46–47

Violence
, 114, 117, 157–158

interview fragments about use of
, 119

Vulgar language
, 44

War on Drugs becomes War on Kids
, 47–51

Washington Star
, 17

Wealthier classes
, 39–40

Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
, 131, 141

Web-accessible spaces

data and methods
, 65–70

deficit models and inequality
, 59–60

findings
, 70–78

youth deficit model
, 60–65

youth focus and mediation
, 67–69

Web-addressable spaces
, 65–66

Weekly Standard
, 49

White men
, 41

White-owned businesses
, 46

WUNC
, 117

Young activists become criminals
, 45–47

Young people

adolescents
, 40–42

cultural movement for
, 36–37

demonization of
, 37

enter containment
, 42–45

middle-class projects
, 38–40

social construction of
, 35

Youth
, 2–3

digital technologies play in youth political engagement
, 64

in mid-nineteenth century
, 40

movements
, 3–4

political activism
, 4

youth-organized campaigns
, 81

youthful behaviors
, 44

Youth activism
, 2

and questions of citizenship
, 53–54

Youth Association for Democratic Movement
, 200

Youth deficit model. See also Deficit model
, 58, 60, 65, 79

deficit model leaked online
, 64–65

of engagement
, 4

evidence against
, 61–62

in offline activism
, 62–63

YouTube videos
, 65–66

Yushin” system
, 194

Zero Hour
, 4

Zimbabwe War of Liberation
, 12–13