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Changes in Children’s Time Use, India 1998–2019

aWilliams College, USA
bUniversity of Colorado Denver, USA
cDeakin Business School, Australia

Time Use in Economics

ISBN: 978-1-83753-605-4, eISBN: 978-1-83753-604-7

Publication date: 14 December 2023


Using the two waves of the India Time Use Survey, 1998–1999 and 2019, we document a 110-minute (30%) increase in average daily learning time. The largest offsetting decrease was in work time: 61 minutes. The composition of leisure changed, with television rising by 19 minutes, while talking fell by 10 minutes and games by 17 minutes. We then implement a Gelbach decomposition, showing that 68 minutes of the unconditional learning increase are predicted by demographic covariates. Of these predictors the most important are a child's state of residence and usual principal activity, which captures extensive-margin transitions into schooling.




We thank Daniel Hamermesh and Solomon Polachek for guidance on this project and two anonymous referees for helpful comments.


Gibson, M., Jagnani, M. and Pullabhotla, H.K. (2023), "Changes in Children’s Time Use, India 1998–2019", Hamermesh, D.S. and Polachek, S.W. (Ed.) Time Use in Economics (Research in Labor Economics, Vol. 51), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 55-88.



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