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3D printing of personalised stents using new advanced photopolymerizable resins and Ti-6Al-4V alloy

Diana Irinel Baila (Department of Technology Construction of Machines, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania)
Filippo Sanfilippo (Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder (UiA), Grimstad, Norway)
Tom Savu (Department of Technology Construction of Machines, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania)
Filip Górski (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Management, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland)
Ionut Cristian Radu (Department Bioresources and Polymer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania)
Catalin Zaharia (Department Bioresources and Polymer Science, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania)
Constantina Anca Parau (Department for Advanced Surface Processing and Analysis by Vacuum Technologies, National Institute for Research and Development in Optoelectronics, Măgurele, Romania)
Martin Zelenay (Department of Manufacturing, Bizzcom SRO, Bucany, Slovakia)
Pacurar Razvan (Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania)

Rapid Prototyping Journal

ISSN: 1355-2546

Article publication date: 19 March 2024

Issue publication date: 1 May 2024

87

Abstract

Purpose

The development of new advanced materials, such as photopolymerizable resins for use in stereolithography (SLA) and Ti6Al4V manufacture via selective laser melting (SLM) processes, have gained significant attention in recent years. Their accuracy, multi-material capability and application in novel fields, such as implantology, biomedical, aviation and energy industries, underscore the growing importance of these materials. The purpose of this study is oriented toward the application of new advanced materials in stent manufacturing realized by 3D printing technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology for designing personalized medical devices, implies computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) techniques. By realizing segmentation, reverse engineering and deriving a 3D model of a blood vessel, a subsequent stent design is achieved. The tessellation process and 3D printing methods can then be used to produce these parts. In this context, the SLA technology, in close correlation with the new types of developed resins, has brought significant evolution, as demonstrated through the analyses that are realized in the research presented in this study. This study undertakes a comprehensive approach, establishing experimentally the characteristics of two new types of photopolymerizable resins (both undoped and doped with micro-ceramic powders), remarking their great accuracy for 3D modeling in die-casting techniques, especially in the production process of customized stents.

Findings

A series of analyses were conducted, including scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, mapping and roughness tests. Additionally, the structural integrity and molecular bonding of these resins were assessed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy–attenuated total reflectance analysis. The research also explored the possibilities of using metallic alloys for producing the stents, comparing the direct manufacturing methods of stents’ struts by SLM technology using Ti6Al4V with stent models made from photopolymerizable resins using SLA. Furthermore, computer-aided engineering (CAE) simulations for two different stent struts were carried out, providing insights into the potential of using these materials and methods for realizing the production of stents.

Originality/value

This study covers advancements in materials and additive manufacturing methods but also approaches the use of CAE analysis, introducing in this way novel elements to the domain of customized stent manufacturing. The emerging applications of these resins, along with metallic alloys and 3D printing technologies, have brought significant contributions to the biomedical domain, as emphasized in this study. This study concludes by highlighting the current challenges and future research directions in the use of photopolymerizable resins and biocompatible metallic alloys, while also emphasizing the integration of artificial intelligence in the design process of customized stents by taking into consideration the 3D printing technologies that are used for producing these stents.

Keywords

Citation

Baila, D.I., Sanfilippo, F., Savu, T., Górski, F., Radu, I.C., Zaharia, C., Parau, C.A., Zelenay, M. and Razvan, P. (2024), "3D printing of personalised stents using new advanced photopolymerizable resins and Ti-6Al-4V alloy", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 30 No. 4, pp. 696-710. https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-10-2023-0360

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2024, Emerald Publishing Limited

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