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Evaluation history of dietary food groups and nutritional habits of individuals diagnosed with a memory disorder: a case–control study

Seyedeh Narjes Marashi (Student Research Committee, Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran)
Shirin Amini (Department of Nutrition, Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran)
Setayesh Ebrahimian (Student Research Committee, Faculty of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 1 July 2024




Cognitive decline and dementia are major causes of disability. Research has suggested a relationship between dietary intake and memory problems in individuals. This study aims to examine the dietary histories of participants with newly diagnosed memory problems.


A total of 285 subjects (129 cases and 156 controls) were included in this retrospective case−control study. This paper used a food frequency questionnaire to determine the intake of dietary food groups in the previous year and a general questionnaire to assess food habits. The strength of the association between dietary history and memory problems was assessed using logistic regression and Pearson’s tests.


In this study, 73% of participants had a lower middle income and consumed less than the recommended number of meats, fruits and vegetables (1.2, 1.8 and 0.99 units/day, respectively). Participants with memory problems were more likely to take supplements than those without (P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in energy intake between the case and control groups (1634 Kcal vs 1656 Kcal). The results of the logistic regression showed that consuming any of the food groups in the previous nine months was not associated with memory problems. However, the Pearson test showed that an increase in the consumption of high-quality protein and vegetables had a slightly nonsignificant relationship with a decrease in the severity of memory disorder.


It is safe to suggest consuming adequate amounts of high-quality protein and affordable protein from sources such as dairy products, meats and vegetables. Research is insufficient to recommend the use of dietary supplements as a means of preventing memory disorders.



The authors are grateful for the support of the Vice Chancellor for Research at Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences.

Funding: The Vice-Chancellor for Research Affairs of the Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences funded this research (grant number: 401000009). The study protocol was approved by the Vice-Chancellor of Research at Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences.

Author contributions: Shoushtar contributed to the concept, design, interpretation of data, analysis, writing and revising of the manuscript and figures. Shoushtar was involved in conceiving and designing the study, collecting data and drafting the first draft. Shoushtar contributed to the design of the study, data collection and drafting of the first draft. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript before submission.

Data availability: Data used to support the findings of this study are available upon request from the corresponding author. These data are not publicly available because of the presence of information that could potentially compromise the privacy of study participants.


Competing interests: The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Ethics approval and consent to participate: Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Science Medical Ethics Committee approved the research protocol based on the 2013 Declaration of Helsinkiion. (Registration No. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC. 1402.004). All subjects signed an informed consent form before participating in the study.

Consent for publication: Not applicable.


Marashi, S.N., Amini, S. and Ebrahimian, S. (2024), "Evaluation history of dietary food groups and nutritional habits of individuals diagnosed with a memory disorder: a case–control study", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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