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Quality characteristics of spent hen meat powder incorporated whole wheat breads

Pramila Umaraw (Division of Livestock Products and Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, India)
Geeta Chauhan (Division of Livestock Products and Technology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, India)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 26 April 2018

Issue publication date: 10 July 2018




This paper aims to standardize level of spent hen meat powder incorporation in whole wheat bread without affecting the bread structure.


Spent hen meat powder at 20, 30 and 40 per cent level was used for substitution of whole wheat flour.


The results revealed that increasing the level of meat powder brought about significant (p < 0.05) effect on physicochemical parameters, proximate composition, textural profile and instrumental colour values (except hue). The pH, baking loss, carbohydrate content, energy and moisture protein ratio decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with meat powder incorporation. Whereas, moisture, protein, fat, ash and moisture retention values increased significantly (p < 0.05) with whole wheat substitution. Meat powder addition increased all the textural profile parameters significantly (p < 0.05). Redness, yellowness and chroma values also increased significantly (p < 0.05) with replacement of whole wheat flour. Sensory evaluation showed variable effect of higher meat powder incorporation. The colour of crust, crumb and flavour evinced significant (p < 0.05) increase with level of incorporation, while porosity and texture decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The overall acceptability of 30 per cent replacement was the highest.

Research limitations/implications

Storage stability and preservation aspect can be further explored for better shelf life at ambient temperature.

Practical implications

The development of such a product would definitely be profitable to the poultry industry by opening new avenues for under-used spent hen meat and meat processors.

Social implications

Addition of meat not only channels better utilization of spent hen meat but also enhances economical return to farmers and the meat industry; it also helps in accomplishing protein requirement of consumers.


The addition of spent hen meat enhanced the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of the treated groups than control. It is a novel nutritionally rich alternative for regular breads.



The author sincerely acknowledges the financial support given to her by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India under the INSPIRE fellowship programme. The authors also acknowledge the support of Head, Department of Livestock Products Technology, COVS, GADVASU, Ludhiana for their help during texture profile analysis.


Umaraw, P. and Chauhan, G. (2018), "Quality characteristics of spent hen meat powder incorporated whole wheat breads", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 48 No. 4, pp. 579-588.



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