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Ochratoxin A analysis in rice samples of different cities of Mazandaran (a province in Northern Iran)

Issa Gholampour Azizi (Department of Veterinary Science, Islamic Azad University Babol Branch, Babol, Iran)
Hassan Ghadi (Department of Science, High School Amol Branch, Amol, Iran)
Samaneh Rouhi (Department of Microbiology Science, Young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr, Iran)

Nutrition & Food Science

ISSN: 0034-6659

Article publication date: 6 May 2014




OTA is primarily produced by species of Penicillium and Aspergillus. This toxin has been detected worldwide in different grains such as rice. Due to OTA's toxicity and its effects on human's health, the authors performed this study to analyze the OTA's contamination levels in rice samples that gathered in different cities of Mazandaran (a province in northern Iran). The paper aims to discuss these issues.


In this study, 80 rice samples were collected from several cities of Mazandaran. Data were analyzed using CD-ELISA method for OTA. Conjugated enzyme was added to uncoated-antibody wells and standard solution and sample extract were added to it. Solutions were transferred to the coated-antibody wells. Then, substrate was added to produce blue color. Finally, stopping solution was added to stop the reaction. The color intensity was inversely proportional to the OTA concentration, measured with the ELISA reader and calculated by analysis of variance by using the SPSS software package.


None of the samples that were collected in Mazandaran were contaminated with >5 μg/kg of OTA in October. Also none of the samples from Amol, Fereydonkenar, Babol or Behshahr were contaminated with >5 μg/kg of this toxin in November. But in sari, Nowshahr and Ramsar the authors encountered samples that had >5 μg/kg of OTA contamination which is more than the acceptable limit.

Practical implications

Screening and analyzing the rice fields are vital to detect any OTA contamination and can be effective for removing the contaminated rice. So proper strategies and management tactics are required in order to prevent OTA production in rice fields in pre- and post-harvest time and people must share their experiences regarding fighting this contamination.


Since rice is used extensively all over the world, consumption of contaminated rice causes diseases for humans. Therefore, determination, management, and prevention of OTA should be considered seriously.



The study was supported by Faculty of Veterinary and Microbiology Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Babol, Iran.


Gholampour Azizi, I., Ghadi, H. and Rouhi, S. (2014), "Ochratoxin A analysis in rice samples of different cities of Mazandaran (a province in Northern Iran)", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 44 No. 3, pp. 223-229.



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