To read this content please select one of the options below:

On the heterogeneity and equifinality of knowledge transfer in small innovative organizations

Martin Spraggon (Dean of School of Business and Quality Management, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates)
Virginia Bodolica (The Said T. Khoury Chair of Leadership Studies, School of Business Administration, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates)

Management Decision

ISSN: 0025-1747

Article publication date: 30 September 2020

Issue publication date: 2 July 2021




To date, it remains unclear whether the experiences of large corporations with regard to knowledge transfer and process formalization can be successfully replicated in small companies. In this paper, the authors seek to contribute to the specialized literature on internal knowledge transfer processes and their degree of formalization in the context of small-sized innovative firms.


The authors adopt a multiple case study approach to perform an in-depth comparative analysis of processes deployed to transfer knowledge internally and their degree of formalization, relying on rich narratives shared by informants during the data gathering stage. This sample is composed of five small innovators operating in the software industry in Quebec and Ontario.


The authors identify seven knowledge transfer processes in our sample, namely communities of practice, within project teams, across project teams, non-project related meetings, in-house exchanges with clients, technological devices, and playful activities. Uncovering a high cross-case variation in terms of process formalization, the findings imply that the degree of formalization of intra-firm knowledge transfer processes has no direct bearing on the innovative success of small software companies.


The study sheds new light on the topic of heterogeneity of small organizations from the perspective of knowledge transfer endeavors and provides empirical evidence in support of equifinality for a subset of small-sized innovators from the software sector.



Spraggon, M. and Bodolica, V. (2021), "On the heterogeneity and equifinality of knowledge transfer in small innovative organizations", Management Decision, Vol. 59 No. 6, pp. 1421-1441.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited

Related articles