Public libraries' role in supporting e-learning and spreading lifelong education: a case study

El-Shaimaa Talaat Abumandour (Information Institutions and Professional skills Department, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt)

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning

ISSN: 2397-7604

Article publication date: 3 April 2020

Issue publication date: 12 July 2021

9018

Abstract

Purpose

Public libraries play a pivotal role in supporting education and literacy. They provide numerous services, activities, collections and resources for education and leisure. Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) is an international renowned public library that provides numerous services for different users worldwide. E-learning is an emergent and promising method for teaching and learning different subjects such as the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The e-learning educational system is quite novel in Africa and the Middle East; hence, this paper presents the whole concept to the reader. In addition, it demonstrates number of e-courses tackling different domains provided by different educational institutions, national and public libraries worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2017, the BA inaugurated its e-learning services to cope with the new educational trend and to consolidate the lifelong learning concept in the community. The author showed special interest to the case of e-learning in the BA, as it is a regional public library. The main idea of this paper is to attract attention toward public libraries as a promising venue for e-learning implementation for general knowledge, library information sciences, soft skills, elementary and informal STEM education. The paper discusses in details e-learning and its characteristics.

Findings

In addition, the paper compares traditional education (face-to-face) with e-learning education, mentions both their pros and cons and recommends blending the two educational methods as they complement each other. Furthermore, the author has selected a sample of different STEM e-courses (203 different e-courses). These e-courses were selected to assert the possibility of presenting STEM topics in the form of e-courses.

Originality/value

This study would be one of the emergent research studies that connect e-learning to both STEM disciplines and public libraries. Additionally, this research highlights the importance of public libraries and all the services they provide. In the mean time, it shed light on the important and unique role of specialized librarians. Briefly, public libraries with all their resources, services and expert librarians could provide an exceptional e-learning experience to their community and be of great help to educational institutions and organizations.

Keywords

Citation

Abumandour, E.-S.T. (2021), "Public libraries' role in supporting e-learning and spreading lifelong education: a case study", Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 178-217. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIT-06-2019-0063

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2020, El-Shaimaa Talaat Abumandour

License

Published in Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


Introduction

During the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the whole world witnessed the industrial revolution, which had a powerful impact on all aspects of human lives. Since then, people have been facing unstoppable challenges in education, social, economic and environmental welfare. The most outstanding breakthrough was achieved in both the science and technology fields. Science and technology are key elements toward development in different domains, such as economics, trade, industry, health improvement, education and infrastructure. Therefore, innovative and advanced education systems have lately attracted more attention (Chetty, 2012) and (Eagleton and Manolopoulou, 2017). Recently, the information and communication technology (ICT) field has been extensively developed. The growing demand for novel educational techniques and the emerged ICT produced a new method of learning called e-learning. E-learning is an abbreviation that refers to electronic learning; it fluctuates between supporting classroom education to providing totally online distance-education. E-learning emerged due to the increasing number of population and learners, as well as an increasing demand for better, convenient and feasible education systems. Coinciding with this, the first computer-based learning system, PLATO, was developed by Bitzer in 1962 at University of Illinois. Additionally, there were pioneer researchers in this field such as Porter (1959), Uttal (1962) and Suppes (1964) (Bhatnagar, 2016).

State-of-the-art

Different authors have defined e-learning in the published literature according to the topic covered, providers, techniques and tools used. Sharifabadi (2006) defined e-learning as the use of the Internet to disseminate educational resources and learning materials. Furthermore, the system develops interaction between learners and instructors and/or trainers to enhance the teaching and learning experience (Bhatnagar, 2016). In 2009, Kumbhar defined e-learning as a learning system supported by electronic media. The e-learning educational system depends on computer devices, networks, telecommunication, storage and sharing technology. Moreover, the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA, 2016) defined e-learning as an efficient teaching technique developed by gathering digital content and learning support and services. NSTA stated that e-learning could be used to enhance the teaching of science and technology.

The author intended to point out the role of public libraries in spreading and supporting the e-learning system. Recently, this topic was discussed from different perspective in the published literature (Abbasi and Zardary, 2012; Han and Yates, 2016; Kumbhar, 2009). Abbasi and Zardary were interested about the role of digital libraries on supporting e-learning. They stated that digital libraries could provide both digitized services and electronic resources via Internet to support e-learning. Han and Yates presented a case of an academic library called Monash University Library, Australia that has adopted e-learning system for both research and learning skills development within the university. In this study, the authors showed special interest about the library staff members gained competencies and the impact of this on the sustainability and improving of the e-learning strategy. They concluded that their case study could give a positive sign for organizations which consider integrating e-learning. Additionally, they recommended the presence of qualified and centralized e-learning team who could create and develop easy to use manuals and support e-learning techniques. In 2009, Kumbhar presented a review of e-learning initiative in Library Information Science (LIS). The author stated that traditional and e-learning education systems are complementing each other in spreading LIS education.

Different educational systems (e-learning vs traditional learning)

The e-learning system is a web-enabled system that provides information and knowledge to various audiences anywhere, anytime. There are different terminologies for e-learning, such as online education, web-based training/learning (WBT, WBL), virtual university, computer-based education, etc. E-learning systems could support educational and teaching systems by using modern ICT tools and through effective use of different educational resources. Furthermore, e-learning facilitates lifelong learning and self-pace education. Time and place cannot limit the e-learning education, and e-learners could enroll and learn any topic anywhere, 24/7.

Nowadays, a large number of organizations are implementing e-learning educational systems as a flexible and timesaving method to train and increase the competence of their employees. In the meantime, educational institutions such as universities and research centers are heading toward the adoption of e-learning. Educational institutions usually combine face-to-face (traditional/classroom) learning and e-learning systems in what is called “blended learning” (NSTA, 2016). Currently, e-learning uses diverse tools and techniques to facilitate the covering of numerous topics and fields; starting from LIS to engineering sciences, which will be discussed in detail later. Pros and cons of both e-learning and traditional (classroom) learning systems can be briefly outlined in Table I.

From all the above propositions, it could be noticed that both learning systems have advantages and disadvantages. The author recommends using both learning systems, which is called the blended system, which is a combination of both e-learning and traditional methods.

Library definition

Throughout time, libraries have supported education and played a key role in literacy dissemination. The word “library” is derived from the Latin word liber, which means “book”. Libraries ensure the provision of educational materials, books collections, electronic resources, periodicals, multimedia materials, referral services, etc. At the same time, this term could refer to the building or space itself, which includes all the previously mentioned materials (Shukla et al., 2013).

In 1994, International Federation of Library Associations/The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (IFLA/UNESCO) (1996) defined public libraries as the perpetual source of information and knowledge. Public libraries promote lifelong learning, cultural development, peace and social welfare for the public. Public libraries are hubs of information, providing all kinds of knowledge available to users nationally and internationally. Public libraries help communities to develop, improve and carry out decision-making independently. The manifesto stated that public libraries deliver different services and materials for various categories of users based on equity and equality. In addition, IFLA/UNESCO recommended public libraries to disseminate special services, materials and reference sources among users who cannot have access to the regular libraries services and materials, such as linguistic minorities, disabled, hospitalized or imprisoned people (IFLA/UNESCO, 1996).

Users of different categories could easily access all the provided materials and organized collections through the help of well-trained and skilled librarians. Skilled subject librarians act in significant roles in both public and academic libraries. Generally, these tasks include collection-cataloging, development, reference services, building collaboration with educational organizations (schools, universities and research institutions) and providing instructional lectures to users.

The main aim of this study is to investigate the potential role of public libraries in spreading science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) e-learning education. In this paper, the author will focus on STEM e-courses available, list providers (libraries, educational organizations, educational platforms, etc.) and the learning management system (LMS) used to present scientific context. Educational resources could take different formats (text, videos, interactive presentations, audio, animation, etc.) according to the subject covered. Finally, the main target of this study and previously published studies is to shed light on the role of libraries in supporting e-learning education, developing both e-learning and traditional educational systems and to use the advantages of both systems to the maximum for the sake of learners.

Types of libraries

Libraries have essential influence on education. Libraries could deeply support education by different means. Different types of libraries are listed and defined below:

Public library

As mentioned earlier, public libraries are national organizations, funded and supported by governments and communities. Public libraries have a great impact on society, and they play the vital mission of spreading literacy and lifelong learning to improve and fulfill needs of society. Public libraries are no longer limited to their buildings, physical collection or indoor services. Most public libraries successfully cope with the publics' increasing demands, as well as technological and educational challenges. Thanks to open access and open educational resources, public libraries can offer educational materials, courses, trainings, scientific publications, etc. to users. They manage to deliver their services not only face-to-face but also online. Earlier, all these resources were restricted to educational institutions, accessed in definite places, during specific times and at fixed prices. Nowadays, users and students have a vast amount of raised references on different topics, such as educational and reference resources, digital tools and services. Users access public libraries (physically or virtually) seeking the guidance and help of skilled and competent librarians. Thus, public libraries should be classified as information hubs and central sources of a multitude of educational materials, ranging from traditional to online-based courses. Nevertheless, public libraries should collaborate with regional educational institutions (schools, universities and adult learning) to execute students' demands and to avoid redundancy (Lifelong Learning, 2012; Balapanidou, 2015). Creelman (Lifelong Learning, 2012) stated that public libraries depend on their librarians' professionalism and expertise. Balapanidou (2015) reviewed a number of published studies and stated that public libraries have played a fundamental role in every community by providing various services to different user categories, for both educational and recreational purposes. Nowadays, they are facing challenges in keeping up with technological evolution, moreover, maintaining and upgrading their services. In the meantime, they should reach and support all types of users, such as the literate, illiterate, children, youth, adults, the disabled, minorities, the hospitalized and/or imprisoned people. There are numerous examples of illuminating and inspiring public libraries, such as the Library of Congress (Washington D.C., USA), Bibliothèque Nationale de France BNF (the National Library of France) and the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) (The Library of Alexandria). In this study, the author will focus on the BA and its different facets. This paper will highlight the efforts done by the Library of Alexandria to spread and increase public participation and support the e-learning educational system.

Special library

Special libraries could be briefly defined as establishments concerned with a specific subject or field with their own specialized collections. They provide help and guidance for their particular clientele (academia or professionals) (Bilawar, 2013). Generally, specialized libraries are involved in any research and/or educational process in any academic, industrial and business organizations. Special libraries include the following:

  1. Science libraries;

  2. Law libraries;

  3. Medical libraries;

  4. Music libraries and

  5. Museum libraries.

Academic library

Academic libraries are entities that fall under the umbrella of educational or academic organizations, such as schools, universities, colleges or research institutions. They have two fundamental and integral functions: first, to support the curriculum of the educational organization, and second, to promote research in these organizations. Academic libraries are usually located within campuses, and they have materials and collections that help teachers, professors, researchers and students to fulfill their missions.

Examples of academic libraries are as follows:

  1. American University in Cairo Libraries and

  2. University of Lorraine Libraries

Digital library

Digital libraries are emerging paradigms of the rapid development of ICT. Trivedi (2010) defined digital libraries as virtual entities offering very large organized collections stored in digital formats that can be accessed remotely. They consist of three main elements: the library materials (data), information about the library materials (metadata) and the performed functions that link all the library elements (processes) (Rajput, 2013).

Examples of digital libraries are as follows:

  1. Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB);

  2. Peking University Digital Library (China) and

  3. Digitale Bibliothek Information und Medien (Germany).

Recently, it is noticeable that a large number of traditional libraries are heading towards digitizing their collections.

Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA)

The BA was officially reborn on October 16, 2002. The main target of the modern library is to be a hub of merit in acquaintance creation and spreading. In addition, the BA aspires to be a destination of interchange, learning, tolerance and understanding. This paper will discuss the BA e-learning services as the case study.

The BA provides numerous services for all users. Most of these services are listed on the BA website. The core services, which are offered by the BA, are listed hereunder:

  1. Free computers, Internet access and free Wi-Fi;

  2. Electronic resources (open and closed access);

  3. Community events;

  4. Study rooms and reading space;

  5. Printing and copying centers;

  6. Reference and inquiry services;

  7. Adult learning courses;

  8. The BA catalog (enables users to search for items anytime, anywhere);

  9. Specialized courses for librarians;

  10. Researchers' services;

  11. Celebrity authors events;

  12. Numerous cultural and scientific events and

  13. Exhibitions, seminars, conferences, concerts and theatrical performances.

BA e-learning services

The BA has established an online educational service in January 2017. The main aim of this service is to enable the BA users (from all over Egypt, the Arab world, Africa and the worldwide) to attend the BA educational courses. This service will introduce the self-learning concept to the BA users and will increase their enthusiasm for self-improvement. This service ensures providing sustainable educational services for all types of users anytime anywhere. The BA e-learning services aim to provide access to massive open online courses (MOOCs), online courses and other e-learning modules. In addition, the BA e-learning Services strive to provide e-learning courses about different topics not limited to LIS. The BA improves its e-learning resources, techniques and materials indoors and keen to cooperate with other educational organizations and institutions. This could be a positive indication for other public libraries looking forward to implement e-learning system. The BA develops its e-learning service internally depending on the subject expert librarians and externally by cooperating with educational institutions such as Alexandria University, Senghor University, The National Superior School of Information Science and Libraries (ENSSIB), the National Library of France (BnF), etc. Table II shows the available e-courses and online orientation sessions provided by the BA e-learning services.

All the previously mentioned e-courses, sessions and trainings are presented using the Moodle platform. The BA e-learning services adopted Moodle platform due to its special features such as:

  1. Open access learning management system (LMS);

  2. Free platform with unlimited time;

  3. User-friendly platform (learners, tutors and administrators);

  4. A well-organized and easy to navigate platform;

  5. The design to be responsive and accessible (it is easy to navigate on both desktops and smart devices);

  6. Multilingual capability platform (The BA uses Arabic, English and French);

  7. Various modules, features, tools, and customizable themes and layout;

  8. Modular design that simplifies syllabus and curriculum arrangement;

  9. Interactivity between tutors and learners through various activities and collaborative tools (i.e. forums, chats, wikis, glossaries, databases, quizzes, etc.);

  10. Easy plugin (sign in) management;

  11. Consistent security updates;

  12. Supports multimedia integration (courses could be uploaded in all types of formats as text and multimedia files);

  13. Can integrate with different cloud storage services to share files such as MS OneDrive, Dropbox and Google Drive and

  14. Implements both synchronous and asynchronous learning.

Application of e-learning in international public libraries

A number of published researches have indicated that public libraries are playing a key role in spreading and serving as remote sites for e-learning. Public libraries play a critical role in developing and expanding e-learning education (Proudfoot and Kebritchi, 2017). The traditional role of a public library is to offer information resources for users and play as information keepers. Nowadays, this role should be expanded to include being information providers and a gateway to knowledge (Sharifabadi, 2006). In this study, the author has listed a number of e-courses provided by three examples: the National Library of New Zealand, the American Library Association (ALA) and Australian Library and Information Association in Table III. The three selected examples are using Moodle as the LMS. From the previous context, it is clear that e-learning education is growing and developing rapidly; hence, libraries are pressured to support and embrace e-learning at massive scale.

Research design and sampling procedure

This study implemented an empirical data analysis, which applied qualitative and quantitative approaches to data collection and analysis. The collected data were retrieved via web searches. The collected data were e-courses provided by different universities and educational organizations and hosted by different MOOCs platforms. In order to make the study representative, data were collected based on three criteria: the selected e-courses should be limited to STEM topics, should have best review and rating, the educational institution/organization which provided the e-course should have high-ranking. The selected data are listed in Table AI.

STEM e-learning education

In this part, the author has selected a sample of different STEM e-courses that are relevant to the spectrum of the study. Additionally, the author was keen to choose e-courses based on the following factors to narrow down the sampling process:

  1. Topic is limited to STEM fields;

  2. E-courses should have best review and rating and

  3. Educational organization/institution which provided the e-courses should have high ranking.

The list of these e-courses are shown in. Table AI. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the STEM fields were covered, the number and percent of the e-courses provided.

From the collected data, the selected STEM e-courses were categorized into five main classes: the scientific discipline or field, the educational organization, the country, language of the e-course and the used platform. From Figure 3, it is noticeable that the chosen STEM e-courses are offered by countries in the following order: the USA, the UK and Egypt. Switzerland, Australia, South Africa, Canada, Denmark and Italy offered the remaining 8 percent of the covered STEM e-courses. Accordingly, the topics covered by the USA and UK are illustrated in Figures 4 and 5. The collected data show that the fields are represented as follows: 22.3 percent computer science, 12.9 percent engineering, 12.4 ;percent medicine, 11.4 percent biology, 10.9 percent physics, 5.4 percent mathematics, 5.4 percent STEM, 5 percent chemistry, 5 percent environmental sciences, 3 percent statistics and probability, 2.5 percent astronomy, 1.5 percent science, 1 percent bioinformatics, 0.5 percent Earth science, 0.5 percent quantum mechanics and 0.5 percent urban planning.

Discussion

Recently e-learning has shown significant expansion and attracted learners' attention worldwide. E-learning assists learners who are geographically remote from educational institutions, unable to participate as full-or part-time campus students and grownups. E-learning promotes the “lifelong-learning” concept, ensures learning equity and increases the competence of workforce in order to cope with the overwhelming development in the modern economy and industry. Generally, e-learning depends on three main factors:

  1. The instructor (teacher or tutor) and learner;

  2. Educational institution, which creates and influences the process and

  3. LMS that provides two-way communication between instructor, educational institution and learners.

In addition, LMS carries the e-courses materials and offers different tools and techniques to evaluate and transform courses into interactive and interesting e-courses.

In the twenty-first century, it is clear that science, technology, engineering and mathematic fields have great influence on the labor market (Chen et al., 2018). These fields are in continuous and hectic expansion. As a result, educators and learners are in great need of implementing technological innovations to become more engaged with STEM education and its latest topics. Nowadays, a number of researchers, scientists and professors are searching for more innovative techniques for STEM teaching. A number of published studies in literature have shown that e-learning plays a key role in STEM education (Tiwari, 2011). STEM education via e-learning could be of great help to schools and university students. E-learning could foster science literacy and introduce new scientific findings to the public. From the collected data, it is obvious that STEM education via e-learning is widely spreading, covering mostly all topics and offered by distinguished institutions worldwide.

From all the above propositions, international educational, commercial and cultural institutions have created numerous programs and e-courses. A number of international agencies are supporting e-learning, such as the Commonwealth and the World Bank Group. Public libraries have supporting elements and great potential to empower them to play significant roles in developing and spreading e-learning education. Each public library has different scope and objectives, nevertheless, all presented cases showed positive indications that e-learning education could be offered by public libraries depending on their resources, skilled librarian staff and collaboration with different educational organizations (Universities, research institutions, information services' centers, etc.). However, most of the libraries providing e-learning services are confined to the LIS field. The collected data show that STEM subjects are successfully presented in interactive e-courses carried by LMS. The author suggests that as learners participate in engaging positive STEM e-learning courses, they would become more concerned with STEM and STEM-related careers. From the collected data, it is obvious that public libraries have full capacity (potential) to offer e-learning in STEM fields. This paper points out the value in having e-learning team experts, this team could provide simple and/or deep scientific content; provide, support and develop e-learning technologies; as well as create interactive and entertaining e-courses. IT support teams could provide consultation to the e-learning teams. In this study, the author has attempted to shed light on the role of the BA in e-learning as a case study. The BA is a public library emerged as a hub for excellence providing a wide range of innovative services. Among the remarkable services come the BA e-learning services. The nascent service aims to deploy the lifelong learning approach and introduces emerging scientific findings in interactive and simple means to specialized and non-specialized audience. The BA e-learning services will achieve these goals by developing collaboration between the BA and different educational institutions (schools, universities and research institutions).

The BA e-learning service during three years was able to offer different e-courses categories that could match the requirements of various users (general and lifelong learner, LIS specialist, researchers and postgraduates). The BA in cooperation with Senghor University, The National Superior School of Information Science and Libraries (ENSSIB), the National Library of France (BnF) was able to award the DUSIB 2018–2019 alumni their diploma and launched its second round 2019–2020. In year 2019, it offered the Researchers' Program, which covers different topics, targets researchers and postgraduates and aims to enhance their competencies. Researchers, scientists and professors from academia and specialized librarians could cooperate to prepare and provide interactive, hands-on and useful scientific e-courses. The author would like to highlight the idea that the role of public libraries is providing online education to assist educational organizations, enhance society literacy, increase public awareness and to embrace lifelong learning concept. Indeed, public libraries could be partner to educational organizations not a substitute or alternative. There are varieties of e-learning platforms that produce STEM e-courses for individuals. Many library users are looking to public libraries to provide access to these platforms. Gale course, Knowledgecity and Skillsoft are examples of platforms that provide various e-courses topics for libraries. Briefly, public libraries with all their resources, services and expert librarians could provide an exceptional e-learning experience to their community and be of great help to educational institutions and organizations.

Conclusion

There is a diversity of e-courses, activities and programs that promote STEM education, but there are limited models of extending STEM e-courses by employing e-learning platforms in public libraries. These trials could be a positive sign that public libraries are promising key players in developing and supporting e-learning education in different fields not only in LIS. There is an increased need to augment STEM education via e-learning in a technology-driven society and generate initiatives that develop STEM literacy and increase individuals' awareness toward STEM, health, environmental issues and related professions. E-learning is considered one of the most rapid and emergent industries. It is obvious that e-learning has left a significant footprint on educational systems worldwide. Nowadays, public libraries with their immense capacities open a new gateway toward e-learning. Public libraries have an important and critical role to disseminate knowledge, education and literacy to the community. They should ensure the quality of the provided educational material and services. Public libraries should work on delivering their services equally to all types of public users. To achieve their goal in the e-learning industry, public libraries should build strong collaborations and partnerships with different educational institutions. Specialized librarians are uniquely qualified to become active members of the e-learning team and assist both their libraries and the educational institutions to effectively integrate STEM subjects into e-courses. Public libraries should focus on basic and elementary STEM concepts, as well as create and enhance awareness of STEM fields and possible occupations. In conclusion, spreading the concepts of e-learning, STEM and lifelong education could have great impact on developing labor competence, enhancing socio-cultural and environmental public awareness.

Figures

STEM E-courses provided by different educational organizations

Figure 1

STEM E-courses provided by different educational organizations

The percent of the covered STEM e-courses

Figure 2

The percent of the covered STEM e-courses

The percent of the covered STEM e-courses

Figure 3

The percent of the covered STEM e-courses

The STEM topics covered by the USA

Figure 4

The STEM topics covered by the USA

The STEM topics covered by UK

Figure 5

The STEM topics covered by UK

Pros and cons of e-learning and traditional learning systems (Purdue University Global, 2018; De, 2018; Heap, 2017; Versteijlen et al., 2017)

ParametersE-learning systemTraditional system
AccessibilityLearners should have smart device (computers, laptops, tabs and mobiles) and Internet connectionLearners should be enrolled on schools and/or campuses
Learners could access any educational materials, data banks, up-to-date relevant and reliable scientific e-resourcesLearners depend on the teachers' explanations, study program, settled curriculum and fixed educational materials
E-learning is like a virtual classroom. Learners could interact with instructors and each other through different tools, such as (messaging, forums, chat, e-mails, etc.)Learners interact directly with the class teacher and classmates
Instructor and learners relationTeacher plays the role of instructor, mentor, moderator and coachTeacher and lecturer plays the role of the knowledge source and transmitter
Synchronous e-learning enables learners and instructors to directly interact and communicate at definite time. In addition, online materials could be updated and learners could view changes immediatelyIn this system, teachers reach out to students, directly, through speeches and oral communication, hence, students could receive answers for their queries right away
Learners are free to enroll in any e-course regardless of their disciplineIt might be an obligation for students to take courses relevant to their specialty
Pedagogical curriculumIt suits wide, specific and general topics, modules and lessonsIt suits applied, detailed and collaborative subjects
Learners could study at their own pace, independent of the group speedBoth teachers and students are strictly adhered to fixed curriculum
E-learning depends on interactivity and help learners to construct their own knowledgeTraditional system depends on repetition and students are recipients
E-learning allows students to access and attend online educational content unlimited times 24/7Traditional sessions have limited time, and each semester follows a set timetable
Degrees availableLearners could earn diplomas, master's degree and/or PhDs any time anywhere while working in their jobs or in their own spaceStudents attend classes in person and pass through different assignments, exams and evaluations to earn an academic degree
Assessments and evaluationLearners could acquire any course and/or training about any subject and/or field of their interest with simple assessment or placement test or noneStudents are evaluated according to different progress criteria that represent students' level of achievement or performance
Most of the online courses evaluate participants through multiple choice or short answer assignmentsStudent performance is evaluated orally and via written tests/exams
The lack of clear objective of learner could be the reason for them to drop out e-courses. In addition, students attending e-courses could be inactive and fail more than students attending the same courses face-to-face in a regular classroomStudent potentials could not be easily measured if the number of classroom students is large (>30)
Suitability of learning systemThis system would be considered a convenient system for independent and self-study learnersClassroom learning suits different types of learners
Learners are not limited by age, gender, job, origin, background, place or timeSometimes there is an age barriers to pursue definite degrees
It could be hard to illustrate courses, which require certain tools and kitsIt could be preferable for subjects, fields and programs that require hands-on-approach
Learners skillsE-learning system could enhance self-motivation, creative thinking and time management skillsTraditional system is efficient, and it could enhance self-motivation and discipline
Learner is completely his/her own boss; learner is responsible for completing all the online courses requirements such as viewing lectures, interact with peers and instructor, submitting and required assignments before the deadline (self-direction)This system could build strong relations between students and teachers. Meanwhile, it helps young students improve their personalities, increases their self-esteem and assists them in avoiding exam panic
Learning system time-consumingE-learning is a fast way of presenting lessons. Learners could retrieve and save the online sessions and electronic resources to revise them anytime anywhereThe time required for the teaching process is 20–60 percent higher than the e-learning method
ExpensesLearners could save travel expenses, course materials and accommodation fees by applying for e-learning coursesTraditional learning cost is higher than e-learning (investments, educational buildings, academic staff, teachers and employees' salaries, etc.)
Environmental impactE-learning education has less impact on the environment. It is a paperless educational system; hence, it saves about 90 percent power and generates 85 percent less amount of CO2Carbon footprint increases due to students and academic staff traveling and transportation
Technical barriersCommunication and technology barriers could limit the e-learning process. In addition, computer illiteracy endangers the spreading of the e-learning method Transforming teaching material into interactive e-course is time-consuming and requires good knowledge of tools and technology available. Although by the end of the e-learning experience learner would enhance his/her digital skillsIf teacher or lecturer does not integrate technology within curriculum content, this would decrease the digital and technological skills of students

E-courses, sessions, and trainings offered by the BA E-learning Services

Courses/Trainings sessionSubjectTopicOrganizationDurationCertifiedLanguage
Orientation sessionsGeneral KnowledgeIntroductory Session: History of Suez CanalBibliotheca Alexandrina (BA)Self-pacedN/AArabic
Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA) OrientationArabic and English
Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB) OrientationArabic
Bibliotheca Alexandrina Information for Africa (BAIFA)English and French
How to Use MoodleEnglish
Training courses for beginnersSharing Large Files over the internetArabic
Effective PresentationsEnglish
Information for AllArabic, English and French
Advanced training coursesLibrary ScienceCitationArabic and English
BA Online CatalogArabic and English
InternetArabic and English
ReferencesArabic and English
Electronic ResourcesArabic and English
Web 2.0 Innovation et BibliothèquesFrench
Marketing for LibraryEnglish
Researchers' ProgramSpecialized Courses for Postgraduates and ResearchersAcademic WritingArabic and English
References Management Systems
Data Analysis
Poster Preparation
Le Diplôme Universitaire en Sciences de l'Information et des Bibliothèques (DUSIB Programme)Information and Library SciencesIntroduction Générale aux Bibliothèquesl'Université Senghor d'Alexandr, i.e. l'Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Sciences de l'Information et des Bibliothèques (Enssib), la Bibliotheca Alexandrina (BA), et la Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BnF), avec l'Appui de l'Association des Amis de la Bibliotheca Alexandrina9 monthsCertified DiplomaFrench
Gestion du Patrimoine Audiovisuel
Droit de la Propriété Intellectuelle
Médiation et Ingénierie Culturelle
IFLA International Advocacy ProgramBibliotheca Alexandrina (BA)Self-pacedN/AEnglish
Webinar Cell Press Authoring and Researcher Engagement

E-courses, sessions and trainings offered by international libraries

TopicOrganizationDurationCostCountryLanguage
Inquiry Learning: The Role of Resources to Inspire and InformNational Library of New Zealand5 weeksPaid courseNew ZealandEnglish
Building a Responsive Collection for Your School Library5 weeks
Developing Digital Literacy in Your School5 weeks
Raising Readers: School and Home Connections5 weeks
Sail into Summer Reading: Keeping Students Reading Over Summer5 weeks
Developing Your School Library Services6 weeks
Organization and Personnel ManagementAmerican Library Association (ALA)2 weeksUSA
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Programs Made Easy4 weeks
Fundamentals of Cataloging6 weeks
Fundamentals of Metadata6 weeks
Mindfulness in Libraries4 weeks
Budget and Finance5 weeks
Making Games and Online Interactive Content3 weeks
Fundamentals of Acquisitions6 weeks
Fundamentals of Electronic Resources Acquisitions4 weeks
Fundamentals of Collection Development and Management4 weeks
Fundamentals of Collection Assessment6 weeks
Fundamentals of Preservation4 weeks
Whole Person Librarianship: Social Work Concepts for Holistic Patron Services5 weeks
Project Management in Libraries4 weeks
E-Resources Licensing: Best Practices3 weeks
Building An Accessible and Inclusive Library Community6 weeks
Contemporary Issues in Action: Ethics for Librarians4 weeks
Storytelling with Puppets5 weeks
Fundraising and Grantmanship5 weeks
Who Manages, Who Leads?4 weeks
Negotiating License Agreements and Pricing with Confidence3 weeks
Planning and Management of Library Buildings6 weeks
Marketing the 21st Century Library4 weeks
Management of Technology6 weeks
STEM in LibrariesAustralian Library and Information Association4 weeksPaid CourseAustraliaEnglish

STEM e-courses collected data

#Scientific subjectTopicProviderPlatformDurationCertifiedCostCountryLanguage
1Biology and Life SciencesQuantitative Biology WorkshopMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
2Engineering, Business and Management, Math, Data Analysis and StatisticsPrinciples of Manufacturing (8 courses)Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
3AstronomyThe Science of Solar SystemCalifornia Institute of Technology (Caltech)Coursera10 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish (subtitles: English, French)
4AstronomyAstrobiology and the Search for Extra-terrestrial LifeUniversity of EdinburghCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish (Subtitles: English, Russian, Romanian, German)
5AstronomyIntroduction to AstronomyDuke UniversityCoursera10 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
6AstronomyAtmospheric Chemistry: Planets and Life Beyond EarthUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
7AstronomyOur Solar System and Beyond: Teaching Primary ScienceRoyal Observatory GreenwichFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
8BiologyDino 101: Dinosaur PaleobiologyUniversity of AlbertaCoursera12 weeksPaid certificateFreeCanadaEnglish (Subtitles: English, French, Italian, German, Spanish)
9BiologyUnderstanding the Brain: the Neurobiology of Everyday LifeThe University of ChicagoCoursera11 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
10BiologyIntroduction to Genetics and EvolutionDuke UniversityCoursera11 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish (Subtitles: English, Romanian)
11BiologyIntroductory Human PhysiologyDuke UniversityCoursera10 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
12BiologyMedical NeuroscienceDuke UniversityCoursera13 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
13BiologyVisual Perception and BrainDuke UniversityCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
14BiologyMusic as Biology: What We Like to Hear and WhyDuke UniversityCoursera6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
15BiologyBioelectricity: A Quantitative ApproachDuke UniversityCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
16BiologyBioelectricity: the Mechanism of Origin of Extracellular PotentialsDuke UniversityCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
17BiologyFoundational Neuroscience for Perception and ActionDuke UniversityCoursera9 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
18BiologyNeuroscience: Perception, Action and the Brain CapstoneDuke UniversityCoursera6 weeksCertificate availablePaid courseUSAEnglish
19BiologyAnatomy: Know Your AbdomenUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
20BiologyHow Does the Body Use DNA as a Blueprint?University of AberdeenFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
21BiologyExtinctions: Past and PresentUniversity of Cape TownFutureLearn5 weeksPaid certificateFreeSouth AfricaEnglish
22Biology and Life SciencesIntroduction to Biology: the secret of lifeMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish (Transcripts Simplified Chinese)
23Biology and Life SciencesMolecular Biology – Part 1: DNA Replication and RepairMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
24Biology and Life SciencesMolecular Biology – Part 2: Transcription and TranspositionMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
25Biology and Life SciencesIntroduction to Biology – The Secret of LifeMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
26Biology and Life SciencesBiochemistry: Biomolecules, Methods and MechanismsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
27Biology and Life SciencesMaking Biologic Medicines for Patients: The Principles of Biopharmaceutical ManufacturingMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
28Biology and Life SciencesMaking Biologic Medicines for Patients: The Principles of Biopharmaceutical ManufacturingMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
29Biology and Life SciencesLight, Spike and Sight: The Neuroscience of VisionMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
30BioinformaticsAlgorithms for DNA SequencingJohns Hopkins UniversityCoursera4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
31BioinformaticsFinding Hidden Messages in DNA (Bioinformatics I)University of California, San DiegoCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
32ChemistryThe Brain and SpaceDuke UniversityCoursera6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
33ChemistryIntroduction to Chemistry: Structures and SolutionsDuke UniversityCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
34ChemistryIntroduction to Chemistry: Reactions and RatiosDuke UniversityCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
35ChemistryIntroduction to ChemistryDuke UniversityCoursera9 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
36ChemistryDiscovering Science: Medicinal ChemistryUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
37ChemistryDiscovering Science: Global challengesUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
38ChemistryDiscovering Science: Chemical ProductsUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
39ChemistryDiscovering Science: Atmospheric ChemistryUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
40ChemistryTeaching Practical Science: ChemistryNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
41ChemistryIntroduction to Solid State ChemistryMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx15 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
42Computer ScienceRoboticsColumbia University (ColumbiaX)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
43Computer ScienceArtificial Intelligence (AI)Columbia University (ColumbiaX)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
44Computer ScienceMachine LearningColumbia University (ColumbiaX)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
45Computer ScienceIntroduction to Computer Science and Programming Using PythonMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
46Computer ScienceGlobal Health Informatics to Improve Quality of CareMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx10 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
47Computer ScienceComputational Thinking for Modeling and SimulationMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
48Computer SciencePrinciples of Synthetic BiologyMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx15 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
49Computer ScienceIntroduction to Computational Thinking and Data ScienceMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
50Computer ScienceQuantum Information Science I, Part 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
51Computer ScienceQuantum Information Science I, Part 3Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
52Computer ScienceUnderstanding RoboticsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx11 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
53Computer ScienceFunctional Programming Principles in ScalaÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de LausanneCoursera6 weeksPaid certificateFreeSwitzerlandEnglish
54Computer ScienceCS188.1x: Artificial IntelligenceUniversity of Californiaedx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
55Computer ScienceCS50's Introduction to Computer ScienceHarvard Universityedx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
56Computer ScienceLearning from Data (Introductory Machine Learning)California Institute of Technology (Caltech)edx10 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
57Computer ScienceIntro to Computer ScienceUniversity of VirginiaUdacity12 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
58Computer ScienceCryptography IStanford UniversityCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
59Computer ScienceBitcoin and Cryptocurrency TechnologiesPrinceton UniversityCoursera11 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
60Computer ScienceIntroduction to Cyber SecurityThe Open UniversityFutureLearn8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
61Data ScienceStatistical Thinking for Data Science and AnalyticsColumbia University (ColumbiaX)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
62Data ScienceMachine Learning for Data Science and AnalyticsColumbia University (ColumbiaX)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
63Data ScienceEnabling Technologies for Data Science and Analytics: the internet of ThingsColumbia University (ColumbiaX)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
64Data ScienceData Science for Executives (3 Courses)Columbia University (ColumbiaX)edx15 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
65Data ScienceCapstone Exam in Statistics and Data ScienceMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
66Data ScienceStatistics and Data Science (5 courses)Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
67Data ScienceIntroduction to Probability – The Science of UncertaintyMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx16 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
68Data ScienceThe Analytics EdgeMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx13 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
69Data ScienceData Mining with WekaUniversity of WaikatoIndependent5 weeks FreeNew ZealandEnglish
70Data ScienceBig Data Analysis with Apache SparkUniversity of California, Berkeleyedx4 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
71Data ScienceData Science: R BasicsHarvard Universityedx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
72Data ScienceAnalyzing and Visualizing Data with ExcelMicrosoftedx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
73Data ScienceIntroduction to Data Analysis Using ExcelMicrosoftedx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
74Data SciencePython for Data ScienceUniversity of California, San Diegoedx10 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
75Disease and DisordersTropical Parasitology: Protozoans, Worms, Vectors and Human DiseasesDuke UniversityCoursera8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
76Disease and DisordersCauses of Human Disease: Understanding Causes of DiseaseUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
77Disease and DisordersExploring Cancer MedicinesUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
78Disease and DisordersCauses of Human Disease: Transmitting and Fighting InfectionUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
79Disease and DisordersCauses of Human Disease: Exploring Cancer and Genetic DiseaseUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
80Disease and DisordersCauses of Human Disease: Understanding Cardiovascular DiseaseUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
81Disease and DisordersCauses of Human Disease: Nutrition and EnvironmentUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
82Disease and DisordersUnderstanding DementiaUniversity of TasmaniaIndependent7 weeksCertificate availableFreeAustraliaEnglish
83Earth ScienceIntroduction to Solar CellsTechnical University of DenmarkCoursera5 weeksPaid certificatePaid courseDenmarkEnglish
84EngineeringMajor Engineering Project PerformanceUniversity of LeedsCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
85EngineeringCircuits and Electronics 1: Basic Circuit AnalysisMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
86EngineeringCircuits and Electronics 2: Amplification, Speed, and DelayMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
87EngineeringCircuits and Electronics 3: ApplicationsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
88EngineeringStructure of Materials, Part 1: Fundamentals of Materials StructureMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
89EngineeringManufacturing Systems IIMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
90EngineeringSupply Chains for Manufacturing IIMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
91EngineeringMechanics of Deformable Structures: Part 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
92EngineeringStructure of Materials, Part 2: The Crystalline StateMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
93EngineeringManagement in Engineering IIMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
94EngineeringManufacturing Process Control IMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
95EngineeringMechanical Behavior of Materials, Part 1: Linear Elastic BehaviorMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
96EngineeringMechanical Behavior of Materials, Part 2: Stress Transformations, Beams, Columns and Cellular SolidsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
97EngineeringMechanical Behavior of Materials, Part 3: Time Dependent Behavior and FailureMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
98EngineeringEngineering the Space ShuttleMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
99EngineeringIntroduction to Aerospace Engineering: Astronautics and Human SpaceflightMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
100EngineeringIntroduction to AerodynamicsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx15 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
101EngineeringAnalysis of Transport Phenomena I: Mathematical MethodsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
102EngineeringComputer-Aided Engineering (CADE)American University in Cairo (AUC)moodle3 monthsPaid certificatePaid courseEgyptEnglish and Arabic
103EngineeringEngineering Management Professional Certification (PCEM)American University in Cairo (AUC)moodle3 monthsPaid certificatePaid courseEgyptEnglish and Arabic
104EngineeringRisk Assessment (RASH)American University in Cairo (AUC)moodle3 monthsPaid certificatePaid courseEgyptEnglish and Arabic
105EngineeringWelding Engineering (WLEN)American University in Cairo (AUC)moodle3 monthsPaid certificatePaid courseEgyptEnglish and Arabic
106EngineeringCement IndustryAmerican University in Cairo (AUC)moodle3 monthsPaid certificatePaid courseEgyptEnglish and Arabic
107EngineeringThe 3D Printing RevolutionUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–ChampaignCoursera2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
108EngineeringIntroduction to Engineering MechanicsGeorgia Institute of TechnologyCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
109Environmental EngineeringEnvironmental Engineering (EVEN)American University in Cairo (AUC)moodle3 monthsPaid certificatePaid courseEgyptEnglish and Arabic
110Environmental ScienceMarine Megafauna: an Introduction to Marine Science and ConservationDuke UniversityCoursera8 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
111Environmental ScienceEnvironmental Challenges: Justice in Natural Resource ManagementUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
112Environmental ScienceEnvironmental Challenges: Rights and Values in Ecosystem ServicesUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
113Environmental ScienceEnvironmental Challenges: Hierarchy in Property RightsUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
114Environmental ScienceEnvironmental Challenges: Human Impact in the Natural EnvironmentUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
115Environmental ScienceFairness and Nature: when worlds collideUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
116Environmental ScienceEnvironmental Management: Social-Ecological SystemsUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
117Environmental ScienceGlobal Biosecurity for One HealthMurdoch UniversityFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeAustraliaEnglish
118Environmental ScienceSustainable Development in Humanitarian ActionInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesFutureLearn4 weeksPaid certificateFreeSwitzerlandEnglish
119Health careImproving Healthcare Through Clinical ResearchUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
120Health careWhole Genome Sequencing: Decoding the Language of Life and HealthNHS Health Education EnglandFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeEnglandEnglish
121Health careDysphagia: Swallowing Difficulties and MedicinesUniversity of East AngliaFutureLearn6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
122Health careCreating Moments of Joy for People with Alzheimer'sPurdue UniversityFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
123Health careFirst aid for adultsInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeSwitzerlandEnglish
124Health careFirst aid for babies and childrenInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeSwitzerlandEnglish
125Health careBe Ready: Staying Safe During DisastersInternational Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeSwitzerlandEnglish
126Health careMedicine and the Arts: Humanizing HealthcareUniversity of Cape TownFutureLearn6 weeksPaid certificateFreeSouth AfricaEnglish
127Health careMindfulness for Wellbeing and Peak PerformanceMonash UniversityFutureLearn6weeksPaid certificateFreeAustraliaEnglish
128Health careUnderstanding Clinical Research: Behind the StatisticsUniversity of Cape TownCoursera6 weeksPaid certificateFreeSouth AfricaEnglish
129Health care, Environmental SciencesOccupational Health, Safety and Environmental Control (HSE) (OSHA)American University in Cairo (AUC)moodle12 weeksPaid certificatePaid courseEgyptEnglish and Arabic
130Machine LearningMachine LearningStanford UniversityCoursera11 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
131MathematicsDifferential Equations: Linear Algebra and NxN Systems of Differential EquationsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
132MathematicsCalculus OneOhio State UniversityCoursera16 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
133MathematicsCalculus 1A: DifferentiationMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
134MathematicsCalculus 1B: IntegrationMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx15 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
135MathematicsCalculus 1C: Coordinate Systems and Infinite SeriesMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
136MathematicsDifferential Equations: Fourier Series and Partial Differential EquationsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
137MathematicsFractals and ScalingSanta Fe InstituteComplexity Explorer7 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
138MathematicsIntroduction to Mathematical ThinkingStanford UniversityCoursera9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
139MathematicsAlgorithms: Design and Analysis, Part 1Stanford UniversityCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
140MathematicsAlgorithms, Part IPrinceton UniversityCoursera6 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
141MathematicsIntroduction to Dynamical Systems and ChaosSanta Fe InstituteComplexity Explorer10 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
142MedicinePediatric HIV NursingColumbia University (ColumbiaX)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
143MedicineFighting HIV with Antiretroviral Therapy: Implementing the Treat-All ApproachColumbia University (ColumbiaX)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
144PhysicsHow Things Work: an Introduction to PhysicsUniversity of VirginiaCoursera8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish (Subtitles: English, Arabic, French, Portuguese (European), Chinese (Simplified), Greek, Italian, Korean, German, Urdu, Russian, Hebrew, Spanish, Hindi, Japanese)
145PhysicsMechanics: Rotational DynamicsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
146PhysicsApplications of Quantum MechanicsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx19 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
147PhysicsElectricity and Magnetism: ElectrostaticsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
148PhysicsElectricity and Magnetism: Maxwell's EquationsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
149PhysicsElectricity and Magnetism: Magnetic Fields and ForcesMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
150PhysicsMastering Quantum Mechanics Part 1: Wave MechanicsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
151PhysicsMastering Quantum Mechanics Part 2: Quantum DynamicsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
152PhysicsMastering Quantum Mechanics Part 3: Entanglement and Angular MomentumMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
153PhysicsQuantum Mechanics: 1D Scattering and Central PotentialsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
154PhysicsMechanics: Momentum and EnergyMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
155PhysicsQuantum Mechanics: Quantum physics in 1D PotentialsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
156PhysicsMechanics: Simple Harmonic MotionMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
157PhysicsMechanics: Kinematics and DynamicsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
158PhysicsQuantum Mechanics: Wave functions, Operators and Expectation ValuesMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
159PhysicsQuantum Information Science II: Efficient Quantum Computing – fault tolerance and complexityMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
160PhysicsQuantum Information Science I, Part 2Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
161PhysicsQuantum Information Science IIMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
162PhysicsAtomic and Optical Physics I – Part 1: ResonanceMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
163PhysicsAtomic and Optical Physics: Optical Bloch Equations and Open System DynamicsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
164PhysicsGlobal Warming ScienceMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx12 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
165PhysicsEffective Field TheoryMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx18 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
166PhysiologyWhat is body?University of AberdeenFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
167PhysiologyWhat Drives the Body?University of AberdeenFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
168ProgrammingAn Introduction to Interactive Programming in Python (Part 1)Rice UniversityCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
169ProgrammingIntroduction to Programming with MATLABVanderbilt UniversityCoursera9 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
170ProgrammingProgramming for Everybody (Getting Started with Python)University of MichiganCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
171ProgrammingLearn to Program: The FundamentalsUniversity of TorontoCoursera7 weeksPaid certificateFreeCanadaEnglish
172ProgrammingLearn to Program in JavaMicrosoftedx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
173ProgrammingJava Programming Basics Udacity6 weeks Free English
174ProgrammingIntroduction to Python: Absolute BeginnerMicrosoftedx5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
175ProgrammingAndroid Basics: User InterfaceGoogleUdacity2 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
176ProgrammingProgramming Foundations with Python Udacity6 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
177ProgrammingDeveloping Android Apps UdacitySelf-paced FreeUSAEnglish
178Public HealthThe Challenges of Global HealthDuke UniversityCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
179Public HealthDiscover DentistryThe University of SheffieldFutureLearn6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
180Quantum MechanicsQuantum Mechanics for everyoneGeorgetown University (GeorgetownX)edx4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
181RoboticsArtificial Intelligence for RoboticsStanford UniversityUdacity8 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
182ScienceNuclear Energy: Science, Systems and SocietyMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
183ScienceIntroduction to ComplexitySanta Fe InstituteComplexity Explorer10 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
184ScienceThe Science of Everyday ThinkingUniversity of Queenslandedx12 weeks FreeUSAEnglish
185StatisticsFundamentals of StatisticsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MITx)edx14 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
186Statistics and ProbabilityBayesian StatisticsDuke UniversityCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
187Statistics and ProbabilityLinear Regression and ModelingDuke UniversityCoursera4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
188Statistics and ProbabilityIntroduction to Probability and DataDuke UniversityCoursera5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUSAEnglish
189Statistics and ProbabilityStatistics with R CapstoneDuke UniversityCoursera8 weeksPaid certificatePaid courseUSAEnglish
190Statistics and ProbabilityTeaching Statistical Thinking: Part 1 Descriptive StatisticsDuke UniversityCoursera5 weeksCertificate availableFreeUSAEnglish
191STEMAssessment for Learning in STEM TeachingUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn6 weeksCertificate availableFreeUKEnglish
192STEMInspiring Young People In STEM (Program)National STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn8 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
193STEMAssessment for Learning in STEM TeachingNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn6 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
194STEMTeaching STEM Subjects: Planning for LearningNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
195STEMTeaching Primary Science: Getting StartedNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
196STEMTeaching STEM Subjects: Differentiation for LearningNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
197STEMLinking STEM Curriculum Learning to CareersNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
198STEMMaths Subject Knowledge: Proportional ReasoningNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn4 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
199STEMTeaching Practical Science: PhysicsNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
200STEMTeaching Practical Science: BiologyNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn3 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
201STEMPlanning for Learning in STEM Teaching: Formative Assessment for Tailored LearningNational STEM Learning CenterFutureLearn5 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish
202STEMCoding in your Classroom, Now!University of UrbinoEMMA13 weeks FreeItalyItalian
203Urban PlanningTransport Systems: Global Issues and Future InnovationsUniversity of LeedsFutureLearn2 weeksPaid certificateFreeUKEnglish

Annex 1

Table A1

References

Abbasi, F. and Zardary, S. (2012), “Digital libraries and its role on supporting E-learning AWERProcedia information technology and computer sciene”, Academic World Education and Research Center, Vol. 7, pp. 809-813.

Balapanidou, A. (2015), “The challenging role of public libraries as providers of lifelong learning opportunities for personal and social skills development”, International Journal of Teaching and Education, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 1-16, doi: 10.20472/TE.2015.3.2.001.

Bhatnagar, V. (2016), “Collaborative filtering using data mining and analysis”, IGI Global, doi: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0489-4.

Bilawar, P.B. (2013), “Special library: a gigantic information centre for specials”, American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 134-140.

Chen, B., Bastedo, K. and Howard, W. (2018), “Exploring best practices for online STEM courses: active learning, interaction and assessment design”, Online Learning, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 59-76, doi: 10.24059/olj.v22i2.1369.

Chetty, L.R. (2012), “The role of science and technology in developing world in the 21st century”, Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. Ethical Technology, available at: https://ieet.org/index.php/IEET2/more/chetty20121003 (accessed 3 December 2018).

De, B. (2018), “Traditional learning vs Online learning”, available at: https://elearningindustry.com/traditional-learning-vs-online-learning (accessed 26 December 2018).

Eagleton, C. and Manolopoulou, A. (2017), “Paper money of england and wales”, available at: https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution/the_industrial_revolution_3.aspx (accessed 3 December 2018).

Han, Y. and Yates, S. (2016), “eLearning integration in the Library: a case study”, Library Managmet, Vol. 37 Nos 8-9, pp. 441-453, doi: 10.1108/LM-04-2016-0025.

Heap, T. (2017), “5 benefits of studying online (vs Face-to-Face classroom)”, available at: http://online.illinois.edu/articles/online-learning/item/2017/06/05/5-benefits-of-studying-online-(vs.-face-to-face-classroom) (accessed 27 December 2018).

Kumbhar, R. (2009), “Use of E-learning in library and information science education”, DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, Vol. 29 No. 29, pp. 37-41, doi: 10.14429/djlit.29.228.

Lifelong Learning (2012), “Scandinavian library quarterly No. 1”, available at: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:537588/FULLTEXT01.pdf (accessed 29 November 2018).

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Position Statement (2016), “The role of E-learning in science education”, available at: https://www.nsta.org/about/positions/e-learning.aspx (accessed 3 December 2018).

Porter, D. (1959), “Some effects of year long teaching machine instruction”, in Galanter, E. (Ed.), Automatic Teaching: The State of the Art, John Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 85-90.

Proudfoot, D.E. and Kebritchi, M. (2017), “Scenario-based E-learning and STEM education: a qualitative study exploring the perspectives of educators”, International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), Vol. 5 No. 1, pp. 7-18, doi: 10.5937/ijcrsee1701007p.

Purdue University Global (2018), “Classroom vs Online education: which one is better for you?available at: https://www.purdueglobal.edu/blog/student-life/classroom-versus-online/ (accessed 26 December 2018).

Rajput, P.S. (2013), “Digital library: an emerging paradigm towards open access”, in Ashraf, T. and Gulati, P.A. (Eds), Design, Design, Development, and Management of Resources for Digital Library Services, IGI Global, Hershey, PA, pp. 110-118, doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2500-6.ch010.

Sharifabadi, S.R. (2006), “How digital libraries can support E- learning”, The Electronic Library, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp. 389-401, doi: 10.1108/02640470610671231.

Shukla, S.S., Singh, K.A.P. and Mishra, A.K. (2013), “The role of libraries in literacy and education pre-requisite for education and sustainable development at all levels of education”, IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), Vol. 14 No. 5, pp. 35-40. available at: www.Iosrjournals.Org (accessed 29 November 2018).

Suppes, P. (1964), “Modern learning theory and the elementary-school curriculum”, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 1, pp. 79-93.

The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions /the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, 1994 (2016), available at: https://www.ifla.org/publications/iflaunesco-public-library-manifesto-1994 (accessed 29 November 2018).

Tiwari, R.K. (2011), “Library services in distance education System: in Indian context”, International Journal of Librarianship and Administration, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 1-11. available at: http://www.ripublication.com/ijla.htm (accessed March 2018).

Trivedi, M. (2010), “Digital libraries: functionality, usability, and accessibility”, Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), available at: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/381 (accessed January 2019).

Uttal, W.R. (1962), “On conversational interaction”, in Coulson, J.E. (Ed.), Programmed Learning and Computer-based Instruction, John Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 171-190.

Versteijlen, M., Salgado, F.P., Groesbeek, M.J. and Counotte, A. (2017), “Pros and cons of online education as a measure to reduce carbon emissions in higher education in The Netherlands”, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Elsevier B.V., Vol. 28, pp. 80-89, doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2017.09.

Further reading

Tocatlian, J. (1991), “Bibliotheca Alexandrina – reviving a legacy of the past for a brighter common future”, International Library Review, Vol. 23 No. 3, pp. 255-269, doi: 10.1016/0020-7837(91)90034-W.

Corresponding author

El-Shaimaa Talaat Abumandour can be contacted at: elshaimaa.talaat@bibalex.org

Related articles