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Customer-to-customer interactions in the sport fan context: typology, framework (C2CIF) and directions for future research

Sebastian Uhrich (German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany)
Reinhard Grohs (Seeburg Castle University, Seekirchen am Wallersee, Austria)
Joerg Koenigstorfer (Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany)

Journal of Service Management

ISSN: 1757-5818

Article publication date: 15 May 2023

Issue publication date: 11 January 2024




Social factors, such as fellow spectators in a stadium or other fans sharing their experiences on online platforms, play a dominant role in spectator sport consumption. This conceptual article sets out to achieve three objectives: classify customer-to-customer (C2C) interactions in the sport fan context, develop a framework that links the classification of interactions to relevant outcomes and identify areas for related future research.


The authors integrate conceptual and empirical contributions on C2C interactions in the service, marketing and sport management literature.


The article proposes classifying C2C interactions into synchronous multi- and uni-directional interactions as well as asynchronous multi- and uni-directional interactions. The C2C interaction framework (C2CIF) proposes that such C2C interactions have hedonic, social, symbolic and utilitarian value outcomes. It further suggests that physiological, psychological and social processes underlie the co-creation or co-destruction of value and identifies contingencies at both the fan and the brand level.


Based on the C2CIF, we identify relevant topics for future research, in particular relating to technology-supported and virtual interactions among fans, fan-to-fan interactions across different countries and cultural backgrounds and fan-to-fan interactions as a way to reduce societal concerns.



This paper forms part of a special section “The Sport x Service Experience: an opportunity for sport service management research”, guest edited by Dr. Thilo Kunkel and Dr. Daniel Funk.

The authors thank Chris Horbel for her valuable feedback on an earlier version of the article.


Uhrich, S., Grohs, R. and Koenigstorfer, J. (2024), "Customer-to-customer interactions in the sport fan context: typology, framework (C2CIF) and directions for future research", Journal of Service Management, Vol. 35 No. 1, pp. 53-70.



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