Predicting World Heritage site visitation intentions of North American park visitors
Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology
Article publication date: 5 September 2018
Issue publication date: 6 December 2018
World Heritage sites (WHS) can play an important role in promoting visitation to emerging and remote destinations. Guided by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this study aims to investigate factors that predict intentions to visit WHS.
Survey questionnaires were used to collect data from visitors (n = 519) to four Western North American WHS. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to identify three reflective models (attitude toward visiting World Heritage, perceived behavioural control and intention to visit WHS in the future), three formative models (attitude toward World Heritage designation, social influence (subjective norms) to visit World Heritage and World Heritage tourism brand equity) and a structural model.
World Heritage tourism brand equity and social influence were strong positive predictors of intentions to visit WHS in the future. Attitudes towards World Heritage designation, followed by World Heritage travel attitudes and perceived behavioural control, were progressively weaker, yet positive predictors. However, the latter two concepts’ impact was negligible.
This study addresses four deficiencies in tourism studies: TPB studies have failed to find consistent predictors of intentions to visit destinations; very few studies have attempted to verify the factors that predict visitation to WHS, despite the opportunities and costs that can arise from WHS-related tourism; few studies of tourists’ perceptions of World Heritage and related WHS travel intentions have been conducted in North America; and PLS-SEM was used to perform statistical methods not commonly used in tourism studies including formative models, importance-performance mapping and confirmatory tetrad analysis.
本论文采用问卷采样形式，519名游览四个美国西北部WHS公园的游客为问卷样本。本论文采用偏最小二乘回归（PLS-SEM）分析数据，(a) 确立三个反应性测量模型（WHS游览态度、感知行为控制、未来WHS游览意向），(b) 确立三个形成性测量模型（WHS游览态度、WHS游览的社会影响力（主观规范）、以及WHS旅游品牌资产），以及(c) 验证一个结构模型。
本论文弥补了旅游研究中的四大不足：(a) TPB研究未能找出旅游目的地游览意向的一致的决定因素; (b) 几乎没有文献试图验证WHS游览意向决定因素，尽管这将对WHS相关旅游业的机遇和成本控制有着重大意义; (c) 有关世界遗产和相关WHS旅游意向的研究还尚未在北美地区开枝散叶; (d) 本论文借用PLS-SEM方法来分析数据，包括验证形成性测量模型、重要性-绩效画图分析法、以及四分子分析法等，这在旅游文献中不常见。
Halpenny, E., Kono, S. and Moghimehfar, F. (2018), "Predicting World Heritage site visitation intentions of North American park visitors", Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 417-437. https://doi.org/10.1108/JHTT-10-2017-0109
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