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The impact of cultural variability on brand stereotype, emotion and purchase intention

Alexander Jakubanecs (Department of Business Administration, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Bergen, Norway and Centre for Applied Research, Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway)
Magne Supphellen (Department of Strategy and Management, Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway)
James G. Helgeson (School of Business Administration, Gonzaga University, Spokane, Washington, USA)
Hege Mathea Haugen (Telenor Research, Telenor Group, Fornebu, Norway)
Njål Sivertstøl (Department of International Business, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway)

Journal of Consumer Marketing

ISSN: 0736-3761

Article publication date: 15 December 2022

Issue publication date: 16 January 2023




This study aims to focus on an interplay of brand stereotypes (Brands as Intentional Agents Framework [BIAF]) with an aspect of culture and its impact on behavioral intentions in an individualist culture (Norway) and a collectivist culture (Thailand).


This study incorporates a survey conducted in two cultures (Norway: N = 177 and Thailand: N = 288).


In both cultures, competence had a stronger effect on purchase intentions toward a brand than warmth. There was a stronger effect on brand purchase intentions of competence found for an individualist versus a collectivist culture, and we found a stronger effect of warmth on purchase intentions in a collectivist versus an individualist culture. The direct joint effect of warmth and competence on purchase intentions was brand-specific in Norway. Admiration mediated this joint effect in the collectivist but not in the individualist culture.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s results point to cross-cultural variability of some of the effects of brand perceptions on behavioral intentions.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that international brand managers should consider both the cultural universality and the cultural variability of BIAF.


Despite extensive research on BIAF, studies on brand perceptions from the cross-cultural perspective are few. This investigation sheds some light on the differential effects of the framework across a collectivist and an individualist culture.



The authors are grateful to Telenor Research for funding.

Conflict of interest statement: On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


Jakubanecs, A., Supphellen, M., Helgeson, J.G., Haugen, H.M. and Sivertstøl, N. (2023), "The impact of cultural variability on brand stereotype, emotion and purchase intention", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 40 No. 1, pp. 112-123.



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