This study aims to examine the impact of information communication technology-enabled work during non-working hours (ICT-enabled WNWHs), as a source of stress, on employee behavioral outcomes –in-role job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) that benefit organizations and OCBs that benefit individuals, through emotional responses – work exhaustion, nonwork exhaustion and organization-based self-esteem. As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdowns demonstrated that employees frequently engage in ICT-enabled WNWHs, studying stress induced by ICT-enabled WNWHs is essential for understanding employee adaptation to the work-from-home trend that emerged from COVID-19 lockdowns.
A quantitative survey comprising 1,178 employees in China was conducted, and the data reliability and validity were confirmed. Partial least squares structural equation modeling analysis was employed to test the hypotheses.
The study results empirically proved that, although ICT-enabled WNWHs had significant effects on employee behavioral outcomes, the related emotional responses were the mediators of the stress transmission mechanism that directly affected employee behavioral outcomes. Notably, work exhaustion and organization-based self-esteem partially mediate the stress transmission mechanism, while nonwork exhaustion exerts a full mediating effect.
This study proposes the stress transmission mechanism of ICT-enabled WNWHs and delineates emotional responses regarding the work environment attributes of ICT-enabled WNWHs, an approach rarely seen in prior IS studies. To our best knowledge, this study is the first to identify and empirically demonstrate organization-based self-esteem as one among the emotional responses to ICT-enabled WNWHs. Furthermore, it expands understanding of the holistic impacts of ICT-enabled WNWHs, which is lacking in information systems (IS) literature.
The authors express heartfelt gratitude for the critical comments and patience of the Editors and the Reviewers. The authors also thank Professor Ozer for his invaluable advice and continuous support. This research was supported by the Ministry of Education of Humanities and Social Science Youth Project in China [22YJC630206], Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. LQ23G020008, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities in China  and Fundamental Scientific Research Project of Zhejiang University of Technology for Humanities and Social Sciences [GB202103005].
Wong, G.Y.-L., Kwok, R.C.-W., Zhang, S., Lai, G.C.-H., Li, Y. and Cheung, J.C.-F. (2023), "Exploring the consequence of information communication technology-enabled work during non-working hours: a stress perspective", Information Technology & People, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/ITP-01-2022-0046
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