The purpose of this paper is to highlight the influence of organizational norms and job roles defined by organizations in the performance of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). To do so, the research proposes a model of OCB with the following dimensions: normative OCB and rule-bounded OCB on the basis of social exchange theory and role theory, respectively. Norms, roles and responsibilities of the organization vary from organization to organization. This paper reports the operational and empirical indicators of proposed dimensions of OCB, termed as discretionary OCB, normative OCB and rule-bounded OCB.
To test the proposed dimensions, the study uses concept analysis, delphi technique, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis on multi-source data. It indicates criteria for Cronbach’s alpha reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity and nomological validity for proposed dimensions.
The findings reveal two new dimensions of OCB. Besides an individual predisposition/voluntariness, employees exhibit OCB due to normative pressure in the organization and the overlapping of the contents of OCB with role and responsibilities. Self-driven, norms-driven and job-role-driven OCB will have different implications. The findings support the validity of the proposed OCB model and scale.
The research fills a theoretical gap and will have implications for the measurement of OCB. The model facilitates the identification of the factors of OCB. An organization can use the research model in culture building and promoting functional OCB in the organization as per the organization’s need. The limitations of the study are discussed.
There is no research to date exploring the normative and rule-bounded aspects of OCB. This is the only research to empirically examine the overlap between the contents of OCB and role description of employees. This paper is also original in its contribution in measuring the display of OCB among employees due to pressure from the norms prevalent in the organizations.
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