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Article

Brendan Phillips, Thomas Tsu Wee Tan and Craig Julian

The research objective of this paper is to study the broad context of emotional labor and dissonance and its importance to service marketing. This knowledge would provide…

Abstract

Purpose

The research objective of this paper is to study the broad context of emotional labor and dissonance and its importance to service marketing. This knowledge would provide a better understanding of the factors that contribute to job performance and job satisfaction amongst high contact service workers.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review is used to define and set out the main conceptual framework and propositions for further research.

Findings

Three key hypotheses divided into six sub parts are set out to test the relationships between emotional dissonance and customer orientation, job satisfaction and performance.

Research limitations/implications

The study should be extended beyond the conceptual stage by the conduct of empirical research across high contact service workers in different businesses and industries and also to explore the role of geographical and cultural settings on emotional dissonance.

Practical implications

The managerial implications would extend to improving the recruitment of customer service employees and evaluating the effectiveness of staff training programs. It would also develop among human resources personnel a good understanding of the role of emotional dissonance and its contribution to employees' job satisfaction and performance.

Originality/value

This paper fills a gap in knowledge on the role of emotional dissonance among high contact service workers. It provides a sound multi disciplinary framework for the study of emotional dissonance in service marketing.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article

Bindu Chhabra

The purpose of the present study was to explore the direct effects of work role stressors and subjective fit perceptions on the employee outcomes of job satisfaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study was to explore the direct effects of work role stressors and subjective fit perceptions on the employee outcomes of job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and turnover intentions. The study further aimed to investigate the moderating role of person-organization (P-O) fit, demands-abilities (D-A) fit and needs supplies (N-S) fit in the relationship between work role stressors and the aforementioned employee outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted using structured questionnaires for measuring the aforementioned variables. The sample of the study was 317 professionals from five sectors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the data.

Findings

Hierarchical multiple regression showed that the work role stressors were negatively related to job satisfaction and OCB and positively related to turnover intentions. Subjective fit was seen to be positively related to job satisfaction and OCB and negatively related to turnover intentions. The analysis also found some support for the stress buffering effect of high subjective fit in the prediction of job satisfaction, OCB and turnover intentions.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the organizational behavior literature by focusing on the fact that the negative effects of work role stressors on employee outcomes can be mitigated by identifying the variables which act as a buffer to weaken this effect. The results of the study highlight the importance of the concept of subjective fit for the managers and the employees to help them in coping up with the demands of the job. They provide support for the fact that matching employees to their organization and job can help in the mitigation of employees’ stress, resulting in positive employee outcomes, hence benefiting the organization in the long run.

Originality/value

The study is the first of its kind to investigate the moderating role of P-O fit, D-A fit and N-S perceptions in the relationship between work role stressors and employee outcomes, especially in the Indian context.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Content available
Book part

Yongmei Liu

Integrating relationship marketing and management research, the author explores internal selling (i.e., a salesperson’s internally focused efforts intended to identify…

Abstract

Integrating relationship marketing and management research, the author explores internal selling (i.e., a salesperson’s internally focused efforts intended to identify, solicit, and use internal sales resources to support external selling activities) as a unique source of salespeople role stress and examine its contingent outcomes. The conceptual model suggests that internal selling as a job demand and stressor leads to increased salespeople role stress. However, a number of situational (i.e., selling organization market orientation, service climate, and seller–buyer relationship) and individual factors (i.e., networking ability and psychological capital of the salespeople) serve as job and personal resources to moderate the internal selling–outcome relationships, such that when such resources are adequate, internal selling will reduce role stress and increase sales performance. The author also examines situational (i.e., customer solutions offering and formalization of the selling organization) and individual (i.e., salespeople power and social status) antecedents of internal selling. The model provides useful insights and practical guidance for selling organizations to recognize mechanisms associated with internal selling in their organizations, and to intentionally design within organization support systems to enhance salespeople well being and enable them to participate effectively in the relational process of selling. The chapter stresses the need to develop context-specific stress models for different occupations and job roles.

Details

Examining the Role of Well-being in the Marketing Discipline
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-946-6

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Book part

Ambrose Jones, Cynthia P. Guthrie and Venkataraman M. Iyer

Using data collected from professionals in a large U.S. national public accounting firm, we explored gender differences in perceived levels of role stress and job outcomes…

Abstract

Using data collected from professionals in a large U.S. national public accounting firm, we explored gender differences in perceived levels of role stress and job outcomes as well as the effects of a healthy lifestyle as a coping mechanism for role stress, burnout, and related job outcomes. Our large sample size (1,681) and equal participation by women (49.7 percent) and men (50.3 percent) allowed us to analyze the causal relationships of these variables using a previously tested multi-disciplinary research model (Jones, Norman, & Wier, 2010). We found that women and men perceive similar levels of role stress as defined by role ambiguity and role overload, and that women perceive less role conflict. Men and women perceive similar levels of job satisfaction and job performance. Contrary to earlier studies, women do not report higher levels of turnover intentions. Results show that efforts of the public accounting firms over the past decade may be somewhat successful in reducing the levels of role stress and turnover intentions among women. Another plausible explanation could be that an expansionist theory of gender, work, and family (Barnett & Hyde, 2001) may now be responsible for improved well-being of females to the point where the genders have converged in their experience of role stress and job outcomes in public accounting.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-758-1

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Article

Darwish A. Yousef

This paper investigates the potential mediating role of job satisfaction between role stressors, namely role conflict and role ambiguity as sources of stress, on the one…

Abstract

This paper investigates the potential mediating role of job satisfaction between role stressors, namely role conflict and role ambiguity as sources of stress, on the one hand, and various facets of organizational commitment, namely affective, continuance and normative, on the other. A sample of 361 employees in a number of organizations in the United Arab Emirates was used. Path analysis revealed that role ambiguity directly and negatively influences both affective and normative commitments. Results also revealed that job satisfaction directly and positively influences affective and normative commitments and negatively influences continuance commitment‐low perceived alternatives. Results further suggest that both role conflict and role ambiguity directly and negatively influence job satisfaction. It was also found that job satisfaction mediates the influences of role conflict and role ambiguity on various facets of organizational commitment, except continuance commitment‐high personal sacrifice. Implications, future lines of research and limitations are discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

Dae‐seok Kang, Jeff Gold and Daewon Kim

This paper aims to focus on a career perspective to investigate the association between employee experience of job insecurity and work‐related behaviors, specifically…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on a career perspective to investigate the association between employee experience of job insecurity and work‐related behaviors, specifically discretionary extra‐role and impression management behaviors. A second purpose is to analyze the interaction effect of perceived employability and job insecurity on extra‐role and impression management behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 207 supervisor‐subordinate dyads in Korean banking and financial institutions, the relationships between job insecurity and extra‐role or impression management as two career behaviors are tested. The interaction effects of employability and job insecurity on behavioral options are also tested.

Findings

The results showed that the perception of job insecurity led to both reduced extra‐role and impression management behavior and the intensity of withdrawal increased as employability increased.

Research limitations/implications

The findings provide a fundamental new insight into how a careerist orientation functions in the age of job insecurity.

Practical implications

Extra‐role and impression management behaviors may be an individual's method of career management, especially in the context of job insecurity, allowing managers to capture a more dynamic picture of an individual's career choice in a new employment relationship.

Originality/value

The paper adopts a career perspective in investigating employee extra‐role and impression management behaviors under conditions of declining job security. It adds further value by showing the moderating effect of employability on such behaviors.

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Article

Dorothea Alewell

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the influence of individual gender role specifications on objective career success (measured by gross yearly income) in the context…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to analyse the influence of individual gender role specifications on objective career success (measured by gross yearly income) in the context of different gender job contexts whilst controlling for human capital and working time variables. Typical economic, sociological and psychological variables are combined to improve explanations of the gender wage gap.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from Eagly and Karau's role incongruity theory, the paper derives hypotheses on the influence of gender role specification, gender job context and biological sex on gross yearly income. These hypotheses are analysed by logistic regressions with a data set from Germany. The paper presents results of a quantitative empirical survey of employees on wages, gender role-related self-descriptions and human capital variables.

Findings

The paper results show that even in this highly qualified sample, male biological sex, masculine gender roles and non-female job context have a positive effect on individual income. The results hold true when the paper controls for human capital, working time, professional experience and jobs in the public sector.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the limited size of the data set and some problems with selectivity, the research results lack generalizability. Researchers are thus encouraged to test the propositions with other data sets.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for wage design and for reaching wage equality in firms. An important implication for policy and practice is that under a gender and equal opportunity perspective, ensuring non-discriminating behaviour with regard to women may be only one (albeit an important) element of equal opportunity activities. Equal wage policies should further consider the gender characteristics of the job context, which may influence job-related roles and thus role incongruities. Additionally, individual interpretations of gender roles might have effects on wages. Human resource (HR) managers could support such policies by shaping job descriptions carefully with regard to gender role aspects, by influencing the gender composition of job contexts and by paying attention to the individual development of gender role interpretations in HR development programmes.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils an identified research need to study simultaneously the influence of human capital variables and gender roles on wages. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study, which studies the influence of gender roles as defined by Born (1992) on income in a German context of highly qualified individuals while controlling for human capital, working time and professional experience. The existing lack in the literature with regard to empirical analyses on the combined influence of economic, sociological and psychological variables is mitigated.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Article

Yilmaz Akgunduz

The main purpose of this study is to explore the influence of self-esteem and role stress on job performance in the hotel businesses. Moreover, the research aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to explore the influence of self-esteem and role stress on job performance in the hotel businesses. Moreover, the research aims to discover which role stress factors, i.e. role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload, have the most detrimental effect on an employee’s role stress in the hotel businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the above aim, four sets of hypotheses were proposed: the first looked into the effect of role stress, which consists of role ambiguity, role conflict and role overload on job performance, and the second focused on the effect of employees’ self-esteem on job performance. A questionnaire was used and participants were drawn from 227 hotel employees in Kusadasi, Turkey. To empirically test these hypotheses, structural equation modeling was implemented.

Findings

The outcome of the study indicated three patterns: role ambiguity and role conflict are negatively associated with job performance; role overload and self-esteem are positively associated with job performance; and role ambiguity creates more role stress than role conflict or overload.

Practical implications

The research findings suggest that some practical methodology should be introduced to improve employees’ job performance and diminish role stress. For instance, hotel managers should decrease role ambiguity and conflict, employ personnel with high self-esteem and prioritize reducing role overload rather than reducing role ambiguity or role conflict.

Originality/value

The research findings suggest that both role stress and self-esteem are important factors influencing job performance in hotel management. This paper aims to identify some important steps to increase job performance. Thus, our study should prove to be of great value to those in hotel management.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article

Jerry D. Rogers, Kenneth E. Clow and Toby J. Kash

As customer satisfaction is gaining the highest priority among theinterest of corporate America′s constituent groups and the economybecomes service‐oriented, more jobs

Abstract

As customer satisfaction is gaining the highest priority among the interest of corporate America′s constituent groups and the economy becomes service‐oriented, more jobs than ever before require customer contacts. Investigates the relationship between employee satisfaction, job tension, role clarity, role conflict and empathetic concern among customer service personnel. Finds that the traditional variables, i.e. role conflict, role clarity, and job tension, do influence job satisfaction as hypothesized. Additionally, identifies empathy, a previously overlooked dimension of employee‐job interactions, as a significant determinant of job tension. Discusses the managerial implications resulting from these relationships.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article

Vivien Supangco and Wolfgang Mayrhofer

The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: what factors affect work role transition outcomes of Filipino employees in Singapore? What is the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the following questions: what factors affect work role transition outcomes of Filipino employees in Singapore? What is the influence of type of expatriation on work role transition outcomes? Two outcomes of interest are work adjustment and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

An e-mail containing the link to a web-based structured questionnaire was sent to Filipinos working in local and multinational organizations in Singapore, who were also encouraged to forward the link to other Filipinos working in Singapore. The number of respondents totals 106. We used regression analysis to address the research question.

Findings

Work adjustment and job satisfaction do not share common factors, indicating differences in their dynamics. Work adjustment is singly explained by the individual factor: the self-efficacy beliefs of the global employees. It is not influenced by the content and context of work but by the disposition of the individual alone. On the other hand, job satisfaction is explained by job factors (role discretion and role conflict) and organizational or job context factors (supervisory support and perceived organizational support). It is not explained by self-efficacy belief. Both work role adjustment and job satisfaction are not influenced by whether or not the global employee is company assigned or self-initiated.

Research limitations/implications

Given the nonprobabilistic sampling employed, results of the study, in a strict sense, apply only to the individuals who participated in the survey. In addition, cross-sectional nature of the study also limits inference on causality.

Practical implications

The null results of gender, marital status, and age imply that these are not good indicators of success and are not a good basis for selection. However, one important dimension to consider in recruitment is self-efficacy belief. Managers also need to nurture self-efficacy of existing employees by enabling them to experience success and for the managers to consciously develop and maintain high self-efficacy belief themselves to serve as role model of employees. Moreover, organizations can enhance and manage job satisfaction by providing support from both the supervisor and the organization, and designing jobs that provide role discretion and less role conflict. In addition, the null result of type of expatriation suggests that pre-departure support erodes through time such that companies that send employees to foreign subsidiaries must continue to provide support beyond the pre-departure phase and highlight the role of host country operations in providing job content and context conducive to job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study furthers the understanding of work role transition outcomes of people from Asia and the developing world who work in countries other than their own. It also broadens our perspective of work role transition by looking at two outcomes: work adjustment and job satisfaction. Moreover, this study provides an important contribution to the literature by examining the differences in outcomes of company assigned and self-initiated global employees.

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