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Home-based telework: usefulness and facilitators

Andrea Ollo-López (Gestión de Empresas, INARBE. Public University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain)
Salomé Goñi-Legaz (Gestión de Empresas, INARBE. Public University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain)
Amaya Erro-Garcés (Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain)

International Journal of Manpower

ISSN: 0143-7720

Article publication date: 3 September 2020

Issue publication date: 22 June 2021




This article aims to analyze individual-, organizational- and country-level factors that determine the use of home-based telework across Europe according to the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the technology–organization–environment model.


To examine the impact of individual-, organizational- and country-level factors on telework, multilevel models are estimated to prevent problems derived from biased standard errors when micro- and macro-level data are combined.


The main findings show that, according to the usefulness side of the TAM, employees with family responsibilities, those that live away from their work and highly qualified workers use more home-based telework. Additionally, and according to the ease of use side of the TAM, empowerment in firms facilitates home-based telework. At the country level, lower power distance, individualism and femininity, better telework regulations and technology developments are also facilitators of home-based telework.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited by the cross-sectional nature of the data. This prevents the estimation of causal effects. Additional research would benefit from the use of panel data and from a more detailed analysis of the effects of country dimensions.

Practical implications

From an applied perspective, politics related to cultural dimensions are suggested to stimulate home-based telework.


The research contributes to previous literature by: (1) considering a large sample to conduct an empirical analysis of the use of home-based telework across Europe, (2) including micro and macro factors, (3) providing a theoretical framework to explain home-based telework, (4) applying a rigorous definition of home-based telework and (5) focusing on employees who are able to adopt home-based telework.



The authors wish to thank Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) for financing provided (ECO2017-86305-C4-4-R) and (ECO2017-86054-C3-2-R).


Ollo-López, A., Goñi-Legaz, S. and Erro-Garcés, A. (2021), "Home-based telework: usefulness and facilitators", International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 644-660.



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