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Measuring property flood resilience (PFR) in UK homes

Taiwo Adedeji (Department of Design, Manufacturing and Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK)
David G. Proverbs (Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK)
Hong Xiao (Birmingham School of the Built Environment, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK)
Victor Oluwasina Oladokun (Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria)

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation

ISSN: 2398-4708

Article publication date: 1 November 2022




Despite the present focus on improving the resilience of homes to flooding in UK flood risk management policy and strategy, a general measurement framework for determining levels of flood resilience in UK homes does not exist. In light of this, the aim of this study was to develop a means to evaluate the levels of resilience in flood-prone homes from the perspective of homeowners'.


A quantitative research methodology was employed, with empirical data obtained through a postal survey of homeowners who had experienced flooding. The responses received were then analysed using a combination of statistical techniques including agreement/reliability tests and multiple regression to develop a model of flood resilience.


A predictive model was developed that allows the resilience of a property to be quantified and measured as perceived by homeowners. The findings indicate that the main factors found to influence the level of flood resilience were: property type (PT), presence of cellar/basement (C/B), property wall type (PWT), property ground floor type (PGFT), kitchen unit type (KU), flood experience (FE), flood source (FS) and flood risk level (FRL).

Practical implications

The resulting model provides unique insights into resilience levels to the benefit of a range of stakeholders including policy makers (such as Defra/Environment Agency), Local Authority flood teams, property professionals, housing associations and homeowners. As a result, homeowners will be in a better position to determine which interventions should be prioritised to ensure better flood protection.


This is the first study of its kind to have rigorously quantified the level of flood resilience for individual homes. This study has quantified the effectiveness of individual resilience measures to derive the first reliable means to measure the overall levels of resilience at the individual property level. This is regarded as a significant contribution to the study of flood risk management through the quantification of resilience within individual UK homes, enabling the prioritisation of interventions and the overall monitoring of resilience.



Adedeji, T., Proverbs, D.G., Xiao, H. and Oladokun, V.O. (2022), "Measuring property flood resilience (PFR) in UK homes", International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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