Employee perceptions of hotel CSR initiatives and job satisfaction: exploring organizational identification, psychological contract fulfillment and attachment styles

Toan Thi Phuoc Dang (Department of Business Administration, University of Economics and Law, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) (Faculty of Tourism, Nha Trang University, Nha Trang, Vietnam)
Vinh Thi Thanh Do (Faculty of Tourism, Nha Trang University, Nha Trang, Vietnam) (Faculty of Tourism, Thai Binh Duong University, Nha Trang, Vietnam)

International Hospitality Review

ISSN: 2516-8142

Article publication date: 8 April 2024




This study offers an empirical framework for how hotel employees CSR perceptions affect their job satisfaction by incorporating the parallel mediating roles of organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment. In addition, it examines the moderator effects of employees' CSR-induced attributions on the constructed mediated model, providing a powerful lens through which to evaluate when and how employees' CSR perceptions influence organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment.


The study use PLS-SEM techniques to analyze a sample of 520 employees from 49 luxury hotels with 4–5 stars in Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.


The results show that CSR positively influences job satisfaction through the mediating role of psychological contract fulfillment and organizational identification. Besides, attachment styles also play moderator role in the relationship between CSR and psychological contract fulfillment/organizational identification.

Practical implications

The discoveries elucidated within this research endeavor proffer actionable discernments to be earnestly contemplated by professionals entrenched in the hotel industry, earnestly aspiring to ameliorate the contentment of their workforce and, concomitantly, augment the overarching efficacy of their organizational operations.


This study provides human resource departments with insights and suggestions for maximizing the efficacy of CSR implementation in the hotel industry.



Dang, T.T.P. and Do, V.T.T. (2024), "Employee perceptions of hotel CSR initiatives and job satisfaction: exploring organizational identification, psychological contract fulfillment and attachment styles", International Hospitality Review, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/IHR-09-2023-0049



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2024, Toan Thi Phuoc Dang and Vinh Thi Thanh Do


Published in International Hospitality Review. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial and non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen at http://creativecommons.org/licences/by/4.0/legalcode


Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has gained significant attention in recent hospitality literature (Guzzo, Abbott, & Madera, 2020; Iyer & Jarvis, 2019; Rhou & Singal, 2020; Serra-Cantallops, Peña-Miranda, Ramón-Cardona, & Martorell-Cunill, 2018). While initial CSR research primarily examined its role in organizational outcomes such as financial and organizational performance (Rhou & Singal, 2020), recent studies have adopted a micro-level approach, exploring how CSR affects stakeholders (De Roeck & Farooq, 2018; Guzzo et al., 2020). Researchers suggest that CSR can serve as a management approach to foster positive attitudes and work-related attributes (Nedelko & Brzozowski, 2017; Voegtlin & Greenwood, 2016). However, in the luxury hotel industry, studies have predominantly assessed CSR from the perspectives of customers and external stakeholders, with less attention given to employees despite their pivotal role (Gürlek & Tuna, 2019).

Frontline employees in luxury hotels play a crucial role in embodying the luxury experience (Lo & Yeung, 2020), as their interactions significantly impact customer satisfaction (Padma & Ahn, 2020). Considering the relevance of employee attitudes for the hotel sector (Karatepe, 2013), understanding these attitudes becomes paramount for delivering high-quality service (Nickson, Warhurst, & Dutton, 2005). Yet, perceptions of CSR among hospitality employees have been comparatively understudied (Ko, Chan, & Wong, 2019; Rhou & Singal, 2020), and recent research has emphasized the need to explore employee responses to CSR initiatives (Glavas, 2016; Park & Levy, 2014; Rhou & Singal, 2020). This study aims to address these gaps by investigating how CSR practices impact employees in the hotel sector.

Job satisfaction (JS) significantly motivates proactive behavior and attentive service delivery among frontline employees, contributing to customer satisfaction and organizational effectiveness (Lam, Cheung, & Lugosi, 2022). Satisfied employees experience lower job burnout and exhibit a reduced intention to leave their positions (Haar & Roche, 2010). Moreover, CSR-based job satisfaction is believed to enhance work engagement, driving improved performance (Kim & Kim, 2020). Given its relevance as a CSR outcome, focusing on job satisfaction among frontline hotel employees becomes crucial for boosting customer satisfaction (Haar & Roche, 2010; Lee, Lee, & Li, 2012). However, previous empirical research on CSR perceptions often evaluates just one dimension of CSR activities or employs CSR scales from diverse perspectives, rather than adhering to stakeholder theory (El Akremi, Gond, Swaen, De Roeck, & Igalens, 2018). Therefore, this study aims to explore the impact of employees' CSR perceptions in the hotel sector from a stakeholder theory perspective.

Furthermore, the literature lacks an examination of the mediating and moderating mechanisms between CSR and employee outcomes (Gond, El Akremi, Swaen, & Babu, 2017; Guzzo et al., 2020; Nazir & Islam, 2020; Rhou & Singal, 2020). Scholars suggest that investigating both mediators and moderators could lead to more comprehensive CSR models (Boğan & Dedeoğlu, 2022). This research addresses these gaps by investigating when and how employees' perceptions of CSR activities affect job satisfaction. Drawing on social identification theory (SIT) and social exchange theory (SET), the study proposes organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment as mediating variables.

Additionally, attachment styles, considered a facet of personality, are proposed to moderate the relationship between CSR and organizational identification/psychological contract fulfillment. This study extends existing literature by analyzing how employees' CSR perceptions impact organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment. It acknowledges individual differences and the potential for personality traits to mediate the CSR perception-outcome relationship (Randy Evans & Davis, 2011). Attachment styles, encompassing anxiety and avoidance, are suggested as moderating variables. The primary objective of this study is to elucidate the specific moderating influences exerted by attachment anxiety and avoidance on the interplay between CSR and the relationships between organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment. Specifically, the objectives of this paper are:

  1. To address how corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in the hospitality industry influence employee job satisfaction.

  2. To examine the mechanisms through which employees' perceived CSR impacts their job satisfaction, including direct and indirect pathways mediated.

  3. Underscores the importance of CSR initiatives in shaping employee satisfaction and offers guidance on standardizing or enhancing CSR efforts to foster employee contentment.

Literature review

Corporate social responsibility

Despite its growing prominence, the establishment of a universally accepted definition of corporate social responsibility (CSR) remains a challenge (Turker, 2009). Researchers have proposed diverse definitions for CSR, utilizing various methodologies (Aguinis & Glavas, 2012). Carroll's four-dimensional model from 1991 has been used a lot in management literature and empirical studies (Lee et al., 2012). However, Glavas and Godwin (2013) say that this definition might not cover situations where a company does these four things but still does not connect with some internal and external stakeholders. Quazi and O'brien (2000) highlighted stakeholder theory as a tool that enables companies to fulfill their societal responsibilities holistically, referring to the stakeholder perspective on CSR as a contemporary approach. This research adopts the stakeholder theory lens and builds upon Turker's (2009, p. 413) definition of CSR as “organizational behavior aimed at positively influencing stakeholders beyond financial gains”.

Stakeholder theory provides a fitting framework, categorizing stakeholders into social and non-social clusters. Bendtsen, Clausen, and Hansen (2021) contend that this paradigm steers organizations to harmonize their strategic management with the requisites and concerns of all stakeholders. In the hotel industry, CSR activities like green building, waste reduction, and staff training are common. This study aligns stakeholders as social (customers, employees, community) and non-social (environment) (Wheeler, Sillanpaa, & Sillanpää, 1997). Addressing concerns about CSR dimensions, this paper adopts a higher-order construct approach, reflecting the complexity of organizational phenomena (Johnson, Rosen, Djurdjevic, & Taing, 2012).

Within the hotel industry, several CSR activities have become commonplace, such as green building, waste reduction, staff training, and community assistance (Holcomb, Upchurch, & Okumus, 2007). Businesses tailor their CSR efforts to their respective sectors, engaging in activities like cultural and environmental heritage preservation, local support, recycling systems, renewable energy utilization, charitable donations, safeguarding employee rights, promoting career opportunities, and ensuring equitable remuneration (Gürlek, Düzgün, & Uygur, 2017; Iyer & Jarvis, 2019; Moyeen, Kamal, & Yousuf, 2019; Rhou & Singal, 2020). Content analysis studies of CSR in hotel operations often reveal four dimensions: community, environment, employees, and consumers (Moyeen et al., 2019; Park & Levy, 2014; Rhou & Singal, 2020).

In the context of CSR within hotels, Farmaki (2019) adopts stakeholder theory to illuminate the link between CSR and organizational performance. Employees, as key stakeholders (Kim, Woo, Uysal, & Kwon, 2018), play a pivotal role, as their perception of the organization's CSR initiatives can influence their affinity with the firm. Therefore, stakeholder groups serve as heuristic tools for employees to assess the company's engagement with various internal and external parties. Nevertheless, research focused on employees remains nascent (Gürlek & Tuna, 2019). El Akremi et al. (2018), bridging micro-level CSR theory with stakeholder theory, emphasize the necessity of appraising stakeholder-oriented CSR via employees' interpretations. This is because the subjective comprehension of CSR bears more weight than the actual actions, affording a more precise anticipation of their role in value generation.

Regarding hotel employee studies, Park and Levy (2014) examined four stakeholder groups: community, environment, employees, and customers. In contrast, Ko et al. (2019) found that the stakeholder perspective toward CSR was underexplored in hospitality literature, leading them to propose a five-dimensional scale: customers, natural environment, employees, and investors. In alignment with Turker's definition, hotel organizations view CSR as a strategy to mitigate adverse impacts and enhance positive outcomes for the community, environment, employees, and consumers. Furthermore, this study will measure the nature and structure of CSR perceptions as a higher-order construct. Such constructs facilitate theory development by capturing the diversity of organizational phenomena while offering concise overarching constructs (Johnson et al., 2012). They also assist in discerning complex work attitudes and behaviors by reflecting the abstraction level associated with these factors (El Akremi et al., 2018).

Effects of CSR on job satisfaction

Within organizational literature, job satisfaction stands out as a frequently examined employee attitude, signifying the extent to which individuals experience contentment within their occupational roles. The idea of a satisfying or advantageous mental state that results from the evaluation of one's job or work-related experiences (Locke, 1976) emphasizes this conceptualization. Encompassing multifaceted dimensions of employment, job satisfaction traverses an array of aspects, including progression opportunities, compensation, benefits, and task responsibilities. It inherently ranges across a spectrum spanning from favorable to unfavorable, contingent upon the accommodation of individuals' requisites. As an indispensable organizational outcome, the salience of job satisfaction has been augmented within the ambit of CSR-focused inquiries (e.g. Barakat, Isabella, Boaventura, & Mazzon, 2016).

Numerous investigations delve into the interplay between CSR and work satisfaction, striving to untangle causative mechanisms. Such studies contemplate the construct either as a mediating agent or as an outcome of both intrinsic and extrinsic CSR endeavors. Rupp, Ganapathi, Aguilera, and Williams (2006), for instance, postulated that employees' perceptions of their organization's CSR endeavors would impinge upon their affective states, attitudes, and behaviors, encompassing job satisfaction, attraction, commitment, and citizenship conduct. Furthermore, within the service sector, employees exhibiting elevated job satisfaction tend to furnish superior customer service, thereby fostering customer contentment and allegiance, a facet that augments the organization's financial performance (Boğan, Türkay, & Dedeoğlu, 2018). Plentiful empirical inquiries corroborate a positive nexus between employee perceptions of CSR activities and job satisfaction, particularly evident within the milieu of luxury hotels. Trivellas, Rafailidis, Polychroniou, and Dekoulou (2019) illustrate that CSR interventions can serve as a conduit for heightening job satisfaction and engendering trust among organizational personnel. Kim et al. (2018), in their analysis, underscore that benevolent and economic CSR initiatives conduce to an improved quality of working life for employees, consequently engendering heightened job satisfaction. Indeed, CSR initiatives within the realm of hotels hold the potential to elevate the quality of working life for employees by addressing their physiological and psychological requisites (Kim, Milliman, & Lucas, 2020) and fostering their overall well-being (Kim & Kim, 2020). The empirical scholarship advanced by Hur, Moon, and Choi (2019) accentuates that employee involvement in CSR undertakings engenders enhanced subjective well-being, thereby exuding favorable ramifications upon both personal and professional spheres, thereby bolstering job satisfaction. Job satisfaction, a crucial organizational outcome, is explored in relation to CSR. Positive correlations between CSR and job satisfaction are well-documented (Rupp et al., 2006; Trivellas et al., 2019; Kim et al., 2018). This study extends the understanding, emphasizing the potential of CSR initiatives in hotels to elevate the quality of working life for employees (Kim et al., 2020). The proposed hypothesis aligns with these antecedents:


CSR perception will have a positive impact on employee job satisfaction.

Organizational identification

SIT posits that individuals self-categorize into social groups based on affiliations such as the workplace, influencing self-concept (Mael & Ashforth, 1992). In this framework, individuals seek distinctiveness within social contexts, gravitating towards groups with divergent values. When employees perceive organizational activities as aligned with their personal values, they perceive the organization as an extension of their self-concept (Mael & Ashforth, 1992).

Within CSR evaluations, employees desire a sense of organizational belonging, fostering personal investment in the firm's outcomes and incentivizing behaviors that advance organizational objectives. Consequently, social identity theory contends that employees' assessments of perceived CSR practices may impact pivotal job outcomes, like job satisfaction, due to the firm's CSR endeavors. The interplay between CSR perception and organizational identification is explored further below.

OI denotes perceiving the organization's triumphs and losses as one's own (Mael & Ashforth, 1992), reflecting a shared identity between the organization and its members. Rooted in social identity principles (Tajfel & Turner, 2004), OI encompasses the conviction that employees with robust organizational identification embody organizational values and beliefs (Van Knippenberg & Hogg, 2017).

CSR can enhance recognition by positively elevating organizational status, offering firms and, indirectly, their employees a favorable identity. This renders an increase in organizational identification plausible (De Roeck & Farooq, 2018). Scholars emphasize that ethical conduct towards the community, environment, and consumers cultivates pride, belonging, and deeper organizational affiliation among employees (Aguinis & Glavas, 2013). CSR thus bolsters corporate identification by bolstering employees' confidence in their organizational allegiance (El Akremi et al., 2018). Consequently, CSR initiatives granting firms elevated standing may enhance OI. Stemming from Social Identity Theory (SIT), OI reflects employees perceiving the organization's successes and losses as their own. CSR enhances recognition, positively impacting OI (De Roeck & Farooq, 2018). This study builds on this relationship:


CSR perception has a positive effect on organizational identification

Impact of organizational identification on job satisfaction

Organizational identification holds the potential to yield favorable outcomes within the work context. This construct nurtures enduring and robust affiliations between employees and their organization, rooted in a sense of belonging and unity with the entity (Mael & Ashforth, 1992). Consequently, organizational triumphs and setbacks are perceived as personal successes and failures by the employees. In light of the fact that job satisfaction arises from individuals' interpretations of their employment circumstances, employees exhibiting robust organizational identification tend to positively evaluate their job attributes. Moreover, such employees are inclined to engage in behaviors that advance the well-being of the identified organization, thereby concurrently enhancing their own self-concept (Shin, Hur, & Kang, 2016). Notably, heightened identification engenders propensities towards positive orientations and deters detrimental behaviors (Syna Desivilya & Eizen, 2005). Within this framework, it is plausible that employees who harbor pronounced organizational identification are more inclined to manifest favorable attitudes concerning their roles, consequently amplifying their job satisfaction and augmenting their enthusiasm towards executing in-role duties (Karanika-Murray, Duncan, Pontes, & Griffiths, 2015). OI, fostering enduring affiliations, influences job satisfaction positively (Shin et al., 2016). The proposed hypothesis suggests the following relationship:


Organizational identification has a positive effect on job satisfaction

Mediating mechanism of organizational identification

This study synthesizes as mentioned analysis of organizational identification (OI) and posits which perceiving CSR can engender heightened organizational identification and an elevated level of job satisfaction. Drawing from SIT, employees aligning themselves with their organization perceive their personal success as intertwined with the organization's accomplishments (Mael & Ashforth, 1992). Robust identification with the organization impels intrinsic motivation to contribute to the achievement of the organization's strategic objectives, amplifying positive reflections on the entity and self (Dutton, Dukerich, & Harquail, 1994). Substantiated by empirical investigations, heightened organizational identification correlates with positive sentiments and cognitions towards the organization, fostering increased dedication and discretionary endeavors (Lee, Choi, Moon, & Babin, 2014), which are likely to manifest as affirmative responses towards overall job circumstances for the individual (e.g. Van Dick, Hirst, Grojean, & Wieseke, 2007). This study posits OI as a mediator between CSR perception and job satisfaction, aligning with Social Identity Theory. OI enhances intrinsic motivation, contributing to positive reflections on the organization and self (Lee et al., 2014).


Organizational identification mediates the relationship between perceived CSR perception and job satisfaction.

Psychological contract fulfillment

SET offers a prominent framework for elucidating the dynamics between employers and employees (Blau, 1968). SET posits that an actor, often an organization or supervisor, initiates actions that involve treating employees positively or negatively (Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005). In response, individuals exhibit corresponding positive or negative attitudes and behaviors, reflecting the reciprocity principle fundamental to SET. This theoretical perspective has been applied in CSR research to expound on the interactive exchanges resulting from CSR policies (Ajina, Japutra, Nguyen, Alwi, & Al-Hajla, 2019; Rhou & Singal, 2020).

The psychological contract encompasses an employee's comprehension of reciprocal obligations between employers and employees (Rousseau, 1989). It serves as a vital gauge of the quality of the employee-organization relationship (Wang & Hsieh, 2014), acting as a communication conduit between the two parties. Fulfillment of the psychological contract signifies an employee's perception of the organization's adherence to its contractual commitments (Henderson, Wayne, Shore, Bommer, & Tetrick, 2008). When employees conceive the company's fulfillment of social responsibilities through avenues like promotions, competitive compensation, performance incentives, and professional growth, their dedication, loyalty, and involvement in organizational citizenship behaviors amplify. Similarly, just treatment of external stakeholders through products or monetary contributions spurs employees to adopt eco-friendly behaviors. Similarly, prioritizing employee interests and offering ample advancement prospects or comprehensive benefits fosters a perception of heightened CSR, fueling employee engagement (Evans & Davis, 2014).

Social Exchange Theory (SET) frames CSR's impact on the psychological contract. CSR positively influences PCF through reciprocal obligations (Henderson et al., 2008). According to SET, employers fulfill a substantial share of their commitments by honoring their social responsibilities to stakeholders (Sonnenberg & van Zijderveld, 2014). Employees are inclined to develop a psychological contract when they perceive an elevated level of corporate social responsibility directed toward stakeholders. Consequently, this study posits the ensuing hypothesis:


Corporate social responsibility perception positively impact on psychological contract fulfillment

Impact of psychological contract fulfillment on job satisfaction

The majority of research on psychological contract fulfillment (PCF) is extensively associated with the attitudes and behaviors of employees (Conway & Coyle‐Shapiro, 2012; Katou & Budhwar, 2012; Opoku Mensah & Koomson, 2021; Sturges, Conway, Guest, & Liefooghe, 2005). When employees interpret that their employers have exceeded initial promises, such as by offering improved benefits and additional opportunities for career growth, they tend to amplify their social exchange relationship by elevating their contributions to the organization (Al-miman, 2017; Liu, He, Jiang, Ji, & Zhai, 2020). Mensah (2019) demonstrated a positive correlation between job satisfaction and PCF. Conversely, recent investigations point out that when hospitality employees perceive a breach in their psychological contract, they may reduce their contributions to the company, resulting in adverse job outcomes (Chen & Wu, 2017; Hui, 2021; Li, Wong, & Kim, 2016; Opoku Mensah & Koomson, 2021). PCF correlates positively with job satisfaction (Mensah, 2019). The proposed hypothesis suggests this positive connection:


Psychological contract fulfillment will have a positive impact on employee job satisfaction.

Mediating mechanism of psychological contract fulfillment

This study establishes a connection between sections PCF analysis and advances proposition that perceived CSR can elevate the level of psychological contract fulfillment (PCF) and consequently augment job satisfaction. To clarify, the influence of CSR perception on individual job satisfaction operates through its impact on PCF. PCF serves as a mediator between CSR perception and job satisfaction, elucidating the causal mechanism (Fang, Fan, Nepal, & Chang, 2021). As such, we hypothesize that psychological contract fulfillment serves as an intermediary variable that elucidates the underlying causal mechanism linking CSR perception and job satisfaction. Building upon the aforementioned rationale, the following hypothesis is formulated:


Psychological contract fulfillment mediates the relationship between CSR perception and job satisfaction.

Moderating effect of attachment styles

While we anticipate that CSR will indirectly influence JS through OI and PCF, it's crucial to acknowledge the varying effects on employees due to distinct personality traits (Dumont, Shen, & Deng, 2017). Specifically, we hypothesize that the influence of relationship distress on attachment styles (Luu, 2017b) will differ among employees possessing different attachment styles, resulting in varied levels of OI and PCF.

Attachment styles delineate individuals' relationship preferences, reflecting the propensity to form close bonds within their immediate environment (Luu, 2017b). Extensive prior research (Albert, Kreutzer, & Lechner, 2015; Wu, Parker, & De Jong, 2014) has underscored the role of attachment types in elucidating workplace performance and its impact on employees' attitudes, well-being, and behavior. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance represent two well-recognized attachment categories (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2005). Attachment anxiety pertains to a negative self-concept and heightened sensitivity to emotional and social cues (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2005). These individuals seek secure and prestigious relationships to assure support and protection, but their dependency may also lead to fear of rejection (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2005). Conversely, attachment avoidance entails a focus on negative aspects of others (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2005), leading to an inclination for self-reliance and emotional distance (Luu, 2017b), and an aversion to close connections (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2005).

SIT posits that employees embrace organizational identification when their individual identity converges into a collective one (Hogg & Turner, 1985). The extent of such identification varies among employees (Tajfel & Turner, 2004). When concerned employees perceive alignment between their own values and the organization's CSR, they tend to adopt a shared identity. Therefore, we explore attachment style as a potential moderator in the CSR-OI/PCF link, especially considering the prevalence of anxiety symptoms among employees (Marvaldi, Mallet, Dubertret, Moro, & Guessoum, 2021).

Additionally, looking at employees' attachment styles is necessary as a starting point to fully understand the benefits of CSR, since cognitive differences between individuals can show how CSR affects OI/PCF in different ways (Luu, 2017a; Schmidt, 2016). Because the effects of perceived CSR on OI/PCF may be different for different people, our study uses variables to show how employees' perceived attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance affect these differences.

Hazan and Shaver (1990) demonstrated that individuals with an anxious attachment style displayed more favorable dispositions toward their work and colleagues, implying that a secure attachment style might correlate with more positive organizational affiliations. Consequently, those with an anxious attachment style are inclined to establish a strong connection with the organization and its CSR ethos, reflecting their favorable attitudes toward work and coworkers. This underscores the potential link between an anxious attachment style and constructive organizational sentiments. Conversely, employees characterized by an avoidant attachment style exhibited a degree of reticence towards community-oriented endeavors, concurrently harboring a pessimistic view of others and a favorable perception of themselves (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). Consequently, individuals with avoidant attachment styles manifest reduced receptivity to CSR initiatives that promote transcendence beyond self-identity. This leads to diminished engagement in pro-community activities and consequently, less favorable work attitudes and organizational involvement.

The study hypothesizes that the previously established bidirectional link between CSR and attachment anxiety would be evident among employees with low attachment avoidance tendencies, but not among those with high attachment avoidance traits. Employees with low attachment avoidance and high attachment anxiety tend to exhibit a stronger inclination to align with the organization and its CSR principles, leading to heightened engagement in organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment (OI/PCF). Conversely, employees characterized by low levels of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance exhibit a diminished responsiveness to CSR ideals and consequently display lower engagement in OI/PCF.

In contrast, the interaction effect between CSR and the attachment avoidance trait is likely to manifest differently for employees possessing pronounced attachment avoidance characteristics. High attachment anxiety diminishes employee disengagement from the organization and its CSR principles, as a heightened avoidant attachment style might hinder an employee's willingness to stay committed to the organization. Conversely, individuals with elevated attachment avoidance tendencies may demonstrate reduced susceptibility to adverse reactions towards CSR ideals. It follows that employees with high attachment anxiety generally exhibit more negative responses to elevated CSR values compared to those with lower attachment anxiety.

Attachment styles, reflecting individuals' relationship preferences, are proposed as moderators in the CSR-OI/PCF link, as outlined in the ensuing hypotheses:


Attachment anxiety variable is a positive moderator, strengthening the indirect link between CSR perception and both (a) organizational identification and (b) psychological contract fulfillment. This enhancement is more pronounced among individuals with high attachment anxiety.


Attachment avoidance operates as a negative moderator, diminishing the indirect association between CSR perception and both (a) organizational identification and (b) psychological contract fulfillment. This attenuation is more evident among individuals with higher attachment avoidance compared to those with lower attachment avoidance levels.

Based on above hypotheses, the proposed research model is as Figure 1.



In assessing the studied constructs, established measures from prior research were employed. The 18-item Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) scale from Gürlek and Tuna (2019) covered facets concerning employees, customers, society, and the environment. Mael and Ashforth (1992) created a six-item scale to measure organizational identification. The assessment of psychological contract fulfillment utilized the scale introduced by Sobaih, Ibrahim, and Gabry (2019). Job satisfaction was evaluated via the scale constructed by Hayat and Afshari (2022). Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were appraised using corresponding five-item indices adapted from Luu (2017). Responses were rated on a five-point continuum ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Demographic variables, including age, gender, relevant educational qualifications, and tenure within the hotel, were collected to control for their potential influences.

Data collection

According to the UNWTO's 2019 Tourism Highlights Report, Vietnam has witnessed substantial growth in its tourism sector over the past decade, establishing itself as a prominent destination in Southeast Asia (Le Quyen, 2022). Notably, coastal cities and islands like Nha Trang, Da Nang, and Phu Quoc have emerged as prominent destinations, boasted well-developed tourism infrastructure and attracting renowned international luxury hotel brands (Hien, 2023).

In specific, Nha Trang, situated in Khanh Hoa on Vietnam's Southern Central Coast, is renowned for its pristine beaches, scuba diving sites, and rich historical and cultural landmarks. Iconic attractions encompass the Oceanography Museum, the Po Nagar Tower, the Buddhist Long Son Temple, and Nha Trang Bay (Nguyen, 2020). According to the Vietnam National Administration of Tourism (VNAT, 2019), Khanh Hoa ranks as the country's top tourist destination and accounts for a sizable portion of Vietnam's inbound tourism. A report from the Khanh Hoa Department of Tourism (KHDT, 2022) identifies 53 opulent hotels with four to five stars in Khanh Hoa, which supports this assertion. Following the guidelines outlined in the Vietnam Standard TCVN 4391:2009 on Hotels determines the classification of hotels into three categories – three star, four star, and five star.


Data were collected in Nha Trang, Vietnam, a city experiencing substantial growth in its tourism sector. The focus was on four- and five-star hotels in Nha Trang, with frontline employees from front-office and food and beverage service departments constituting the sample. A questionnaire was used, translated into Vietnamese after development in English, ensuring accuracy through the back-translation technique. Pretesting involving 30 frontline employees confirmed the questionnaire's comprehensibility. The questionnaire was administered to frontline staff through purposive sampling, considering their role in customer-facing service positions within luxury hotels in Khanh Hoa.

A purposive, criterion-based sampling approach was employed to select frontline service employees (Lam et al., 2022), with the primary criterion being their role in customer-facing service positions within luxury hotels in Khanh Hoa. The perception that larger establishments exhibit greater social responsibility and CSR knowledge led to the selection of these hotels (Bavik, 2019). Consequently, the questionnaire was exclusively administered to frontline staff (front office, housekeeping, F&B). Data collection utilized purposive sampling, aiming to examine the perceptions of frontline employees in customer-oriented roles within the hospitality industry. The data collection team secured permission from 49 HR managers of participating hotels and distributed paper-based questionnaires to frontline service employees. Responses were collected confidentially and then handed over to the researcher.

Data collection was conducted in September and November of 2022, resulting in 520 valid responses from 49 luxury hotels (four- and five-star) for subsequent statistical analysis. To determine the required sample size, this study adhered to the guidance of Hair, Hult, Ringle, and Sarstedt (2021) and employed the inverse square root method, yielding a target of 155 respondents for path coefficients between 0.11 and 0.2 at a significance level of 5%. As such, the study aimed to surpass this requirement by targeting 520 respondents.

Data analysis and results

Demographic findings

This study comprised 29.6% male and 72.4% female participants, with educational backgrounds indicating that 27.3% had attained diploma level, 74.1% held bachelor’s degrees, and 0.6% had completed postgraduate studies. The majority of participants were within the age range between 18 and 30 (81.4%), followed by those between the ages of 31 and 40 (17.8%), and 2.7% over 40. In terms of departmental distribution, 24.7% of them worked in front office departments, 39% worked in F&B, 38.2% worked in the rooms department.

Measurement validation

The study employed Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) to evaluate the reliability and validity of the measurement model and estimate the structural model. Given the presence of high-order constructs within the measurement model, the disjointed two-stage approach was adopted for model estimation (Sarstedt & Cheah, 2019). This entailed verifying constructs reliability through Cronbach's alpha and composite validity (CR), evaluating convergent validity via factor loadings and average variance extracted (AVE), and assessing discriminant validity using heterotrait-monotrait (HTMT) correlation values.

In the initial stage, the reliability and validity of the first-order constructs were examined. Subsequently, the measurements of second-order constructs were assessed in the subsequent step. Specifically, the latent variables derived from the first-order constructs, established in Step 1, were employed as indicators for the corresponding second-order constructs. Cronbach's alpha, rho_a, and CR values exceeded the threshold of 0.7, factor loadings exceeded 0.7, and all AVE values were above 0.7, confirming reliability and convergence validity. The HTMT correlation matrix demonstrated values below 0.85, validating the discriminant validity of the constructs (see Tables 1 and 2). Thus, the study confirmed the acceptability of reliability and convergence validity.

Furthermore, the HTMT correlation matrix demonstrated that all values were below 0.85, corroborating the discriminant validity of the investigated constructs. This comprehensive assessment establishes the robustness and validity of the measurement model, providing a solid foundation for subsequent analyses and conclusions (Sarstedt & Cheah, 2019; Hair et al., 2021).

Checking for common method biases

To mitigate potential common method biases, we employed the common latent factor (CLF) approach, as endorsed for the context of PLS-SEM (Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling) by Liang, Saraf, Hu, and Xue (2007) and justified by Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, and Podsakoff (2003). This involved elevating all first-order constructs to second-order constructs and integrating a CLF into the measurement model, utilizing all measurement items as its indicators. To determine factor loadings and ascertain the average variance explained, bootstrap resampling was employed (5,000 subsamples). The results underscored the insignificance of most CLF factor loadings, and the variance accounted for by the measurement model and CLF stood at 0.72 and 0.0047, respectively, reflecting a ratio of 153:1. Hence, the likelihood of common method bias significantly influencing this research was minimized.

Hypothesis testing results

Following the guidelines of Hair et al. (2021) for assessing research model quality, two criteria were employed: coefficient of determination (R2) and predictive relevance (Q2 index). Specifically, R2 values for endogenous variables ranged between 0.41 and 0.47, surpassing the recommended moderate threshold of 0.33, underscoring the satisfactory explanatory prowess of the examined constructs. Q2 values exceeding 0 (ranging from 0.21 to 0.27) indicated the structural model's predictive accuracy. The results of testing the hypotheses are presented in Table 3, to be more specific:

Hypothesis 1: CSR Perception and Job Satisfaction: The outcomes of hypothesis testing confirmed the positive influence of CSR perception on job satisfaction (H1:β = 0.17; p < 0.01).

Hypotheses 2, 3, and 5 (H2, H3, H5): CSR Perception and Job Satisfaction: The outcomes of hypothesis testing confirmed the positive influence of CSR perception on job satisfaction (H1: β = 0.17; p < 0.01).

Hypotheses 6 (H6): Psychological Contract Fulfillment and Job Satisfaction: Both organizational identification (H3: β = 0.34; p < 0.001) and psychological contract fulfillment (H6: β = 0.58; p < 0.001) directly fostered job satisfaction.

CSR perception yielded favorable direct effects on both organizational identification (H2β = 0.69; p < 0.001) and psychological contract fulfillment (H5: β = 0.19; p < 0.001). In alignment with H3 (β = 0.34; p < 0.001) and H6 (β = 0.58; p < 0.001), both organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment directly fostered job satisfaction.

Hypotheses 4 and 7 (H4, H7): Mediation Effects: Mediation effects were evident through organizational identification (H4: β = 0.24; p < 0.001) and psychological contract fulfillment (H7: β = 0.13; p < 0.001), confirming the mediating hypotheses.

Mediation effects were evident through organizational identification (H4: β = 0.24; p < 0.001) and psychological contract fulfillment (H7: β = 0.13; p < 0.001), thus confirming the mediating hypotheses. In delineating the nature of these mediating effects, the pertinent, significant, and positive direct effects from CSR perception to job satisfaction were taken into account. Consequently, as posited by Zhao, Lynch, and Chen (2010), organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment were identified as partial mediators, specifically classified as complementary mediators.

Hypotheses 8 and 9 (H8, H9): Moderator Effects: Attachment anxiety positively moderated the relationship between CSR and both organizational identification (H8a: β = 0.11; t = 2.77; p < 0.01) and psychological contract fulfillment (H8b: β = 0.11; t = 3.09; p < 0.01). Attachment avoidance negatively moderated the relationship between CSR and both organizational identification (H9a: β = −0.13; t = 3.23; p < 0.01) and psychological contract fulfillment (H9bβ = −0.13; t = 3.23; p < 0.01).

The data support the hypotheses regarding the moderator effects hypothesis. Specifically, attachment anxiety has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between CSR and organizational identification (H8a: β = 0.11; t = 2.77; p < 0.01) as well as CSR and psychological contract fulfillment (H8b: β = 0.11; t = 3.09; p < 0.01). Meanwhile, the variable of attachment avoidance style has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between CSR and organizational identity (H9a: β = −0.13; t = 3.23; p < 0.01) as well as CSR and psychological contract fulfillment (H9b: β = −0.13; t = 3.23; p < 0.01).

Discussion and conclusions

This study contributes to the CSR literature by delving into the micro-foundations of CSR investigation and examining employees' responses to CSR initiatives within the hospitality sector (Glavas, 2016; Rupp, Shao, Thornton, & Skarlicki, 2013; Wang, Fu, Qiu, Moore, & Wang, 2017). In line with the hypothesis, a comprehensive theoretical framework is established to examine the mechanisms through which employees' perceived CSR impacts their job satisfaction. Employing SIT and SET, a model is formulated to empirically assess the influence of perceived CSR on employee job satisfaction within the hospitality context. This analysis considers both direct and indirect pathways mediated by organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment. To help us understand these dynamics better, this study uses Social Identity Theory (SIT) to look at how attachment styles, such as attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance, affect the proposed mediating effects. Overall, our outcomes affirm the hypothesized connections.

The study's findings affirm that CSR perception, both directly and indirectly through organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment, significantly influences employees’ job satisfaction. In the hospitality sector, CSR functions as an informal Human Resource Management (HRM) strategy, showcasing organizational dedication to employees, customers, communities, and the environment. This holistic approach enhances the significance attributed to employment and individual value perception. Encouraging employee participation in CSR initiatives can elevate awareness and appreciation, solidifying organizational commitment.

Moreover, the study highlights the impact of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance on organizational identification (OI) and psychological contract fulfillment (PCF) in response to CSR initiatives. Tailoring CSR efforts to accommodate employees' attachment styles is recommended for optimizing outcomes. For those with attachment anxiety, fostering an environment of trust and commitment aligns with their proclivity for prosocial behaviors. Conversely, addressing the concerns of employees with attachment avoidance through supportive measures can attenuate insecurities and enhance engagement.

In conclusion, this study underscores the necessity for hotel managers to understand the diverse traits and characteristics of their workforce for effective CSR integration. A customized strategy that takes into account both theoretical ideas like attachment theory and the practical realities of employee engagement can help the hotel industry implement CSR successfully and possibly expand to other organizational contexts.

Theoretical implications

The findings of this study present actionable insights for practitioners in the hotel industry seeking to enhance employee satisfaction and overall organizational performance. One key takeaway is the recognition that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives can exert both direct and indirect influences on employee job satisfaction. This indirect influence operates through organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment, underscoring the importance of fostering a strong sense of organizational belonging and consistently delivering on promises made to employees. To put this into practice, hotel managers can emphasize and communicate the organization's values and mission to create a stronger sense of identity among employees and implement feedback mechanisms to enhance psychological contract fulfillment.

Furthermore, the study highlights the role of attachment styles, specifically attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance, in mediating the relationship between CSR perception and employee satisfaction. Practitioners can tailor their communication and engagement strategies to accommodate these attachment styles, emphasizing trust and commitment for those with attachment anxiety and focusing on practical benefits for employees with attachment avoidance tendencies.

Strategically, the study underscores the significance of CSR as a tool for enhancing employee well-being and meeting the expectations of various stakeholders. To prioritize CSR, organizations should ensure leadership commitment, potentially standardize or enhance CSR efforts, particularly in community involvement, and establish metrics for measuring the impact of CSR initiatives.

Lastly, recognizing that CSR activities extend beyond employee satisfaction to address the demands of multiple stakeholders is crucial. Practitioners should engage with stakeholders to understand their expectations and concerns, maintain transparency in CSR activities and reporting, and align CSR efforts with the multifaceted expectations of the broader stakeholder community. In summary, these practical actions can help hotel industry practitioners effectively leverage CSR initiatives to enhance employee satisfaction, strengthen organizational identification and psychological contract fulfillment, and align with the demands of various stakeholders, ultimately improving overall organizational performance and reputation.

Limitations and implications for future research

The current study bears intriguing implications, yet its scope is not devoid of limitations that warrant further exploration through additional research endeavors. Primarily, this study delves into the impact of CSR activities on front-line hotel employees and their subsequent outcomes within the context of Vietnamese luxury hotels. Nonetheless, the utilization of a cross-sectional design impedes the establishment of causal relationships between CSR and individual outcomes. Subsequent longitudinal inquiries are imperative to unravel the causal interplay between CSR initiatives and employee attitudes and behaviors. Secondly, the data was exclusively sourced from front-line personnel in the hospitality sector, thereby introducing the potential for shared variance. While efforts were exerted to mitigate common variance bias by randomizing questionnaire items and assessing its admissibility in this study (Guest & Conway, 2001), future investigations should adopt a multi-source approach encompassing both managerial and employee perspectives. The current study also looked at attachment style as a moderating factor. This showed how personality traits play a key role in either strengthening or weakening the ability to turn positive CSR perceptions into positive actions. In light of this revelation, we advocate for the exploration of diverse personal attributes and personality traits as potential moderators in future research undertakings.


Conceptual framework

Figure 1

Conceptual framework

Reliability and validity of the studied construct

Research constructsNo. of scale itemsItem loadingCronbach's alphaCRAVE
CSR perception 0.86/0.78/0.80/0.750.810.870.63

Note(s): CSR-CO: CSR to community; CSR-CUS: CSR to customer; CSR-ENV: CSR to environment; CSR-EMP: to employees; PCF: Psychological contract fulfillment; OI: Organizational identification; JS: job satisfaction; AAN: Attachment anxiety; AAV: Attachment avoidance

Source(s): Authors

HTMT matrix

1. CSR - CO
2. CSR-CUS0.58
3. CSR-ENV0.620.64
4. CSR-EMP0.610.470.59
5. PCF0.680.410.380.53
6. OI0.750.620.570.490.54
7. JS0.550.520.430.410.550.64
8. AAN0.
9. AAV0.
10. CSRn.an.an.an.a0.660.800.620.170.16

Note(s): CSR-CO: CSR to community; CSR-CUS: CSR to customer; CSR-ENV: CSR to environment; CSR-EMP: to employees; PCF: Psychological contract fulfillment; OI: Organizational identification; JS: job satisfaction; AAN: Attachment anxiety; AAV: Attachment avoidance; n.a: not applicable

Source(s): Authors

Hypothesis testing results

PathHypothesesVIFStd. βt-valuesBootstrapConclusions
Direct effects
CSR → JSH12.230.173.07**[0.07; 0.29]Support
CSR →OIH21.000.6923.49***[0.63; 0.74]Support
OI → JSH31.940.346.03***[0.23; 0.46]Support
CSR → PCFH51.000.5825.34***[0.53; 0.62]Support
PCF → JSH61.530.235.19***[0.15; 0.32]Support
Mediating effects
CSR → OI → JSH4 0.245.50***[0.16; 0.32]Support
CSR → PCF → JSH7 0.135.10***[0.008; 0.10]Support
Moderating effects
AAN*CSR → OIH8a1.130.112.77**[0.03; 0.18]Support
AAN*CSR → PCFH8b1.130.133.09**[0.05; 0.21]Support
AAV*CSR → OIH9a1.41−0.133.23**[−0.21; −0.05]Support
AAV*CSR → PCFH9b1.41−0.102.69**[−0.16; −0.02]Support
Effect size (f2)f2CSR→JS = 0.02; f2CSR→OI = 0.90; f2OI→JS = 0.10; f2CSR→PCF = 0.5; f2PCF→JS = 0.06; f2 AAN*CSR→OI = 0.02; f2 AAN*CSR→PCF = 0.02; f2 AAV*CSR→OI = 0.03; f2 AAV*CSR→PCF = 0.01

Note(s): ***p < 0,001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05

Source(s): Authors


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Further reading

Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34(4), 3948. doi: 10.1016/0007-6813(91)90005-G.

Chugh, D., Kern, M. C., Zhu, Z., & Lee, S. (2014). Withstanding moral disengagement: Attachment security as an ethical intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51, 8893. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2013.11.005.

Farmaki, A., Pappas, N., Kvasova, O., & Stergiou, D. P. (2022). Hotel CSR and job satisfaction: A chaordic perspective. Tourism Management, 91, 104526. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2022.104526.

Farooq, M., Farooq, O., & Jasimuddin, S. (2014). Employees response to corporate social responsibility: Exploring the role of employees' collectivist orientation. European Management Journal, 32(6), 916927. doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2014.03.002.

Frynas, J. G., & Yamahaki, C. (2016). Corporate social responsibility: Review and roadmap of theoretical perspectives. Business Ethics: A European Review, 25(3), 258285. doi: 10.1111/beer.12115.

Islam, T., Ali, G., Niazi, A. A. K., Ramzan, M., & Yousaf, U. (2018). Employees' response to CSR: Role of organizational identification and organizational trust. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 12(1), 153166.

Kim, S., O'Neill, J. W., & Cho, H. -M. (2010). When does an employee not help coworkers? The effect of leader–member exchange on employee envy and organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), 530537. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.08.003.

Kunda, M. M., Ataman, G., & Behram, N. K. (2019). Corporate social responsibility and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of job satisfaction. Journal of Global Responsibility, 10(1), 4768. doi: 10.1108/JGR-06-2018-0018.

Little, L. M., Nelson, D. L., Wallace, J. C., & Johnson, P. D. (2011). Integrating attachment style, vigor at work, and extra‐role performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(3), 464484. doi: 10.1002/job.709.

Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and marketing: An integrative framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32(1), 319. doi: 10.1177/0092070303258971.

Murshed, F., Cao, Z., Savitskie, K., & Sen, S. (2022). Ethical CSR, organizational identification, and job satisfaction: Mediated moderated role of interactional justice. Social Justice Research, 36, 128. doi: 10.1007/s11211-022-00403-5.

Rayton, B. A., Brammer, S. J., & Millington, A. I. (2015). Corporate social performance and the psychological contract. Group and Organization Management, 40(3), 353377. doi: 10.1177/1059601114561476.

Schusterschitz, C., Danay, E., & Geser, W. (2018). Emotional reactions to daily workload: The moderating role of attachment orientations. Work and Stress, 32(3), 262280. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2018.1437094.

Shaver, P. R., & Mikulincer, M. (2009). An overview of adult attachment theory. In Attachment theory and research in clinical work with adults (pp. 1745).

Su, L., & Swanson, S. R. (2019). Perceived corporate social responsibility's impact on the well-being and supportive green behaviors of hotel employees: The mediating role of the employee-corporate relationship. Tourism Management, 72, 437450. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2019.01.009.

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An intergrative theory of intergroup conflict. In The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 3347). CA: Brooks/Cole.

Theodoulidis, B., Diaz, D., Crotto, F., & Rancati, E. (2017). Exploring corporate social responsibility and financial performance through stakeholder theory in the tourism industries. Tourism Management, 62, 173188. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2017.03.018.

Trivellas, P., Dekoulou, P., Polychroniou, P., & Tokakis, V. (2021). Which leadership roles modify employee perceptions of CSR activities? Job satisfaction implications in the case of the tourism industry. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 13(4), 618636. doi: 10.1108/IJQSS-04-2020-0054.

Corresponding author

Toan Thi Phuoc Dang can be contacted at: toandtp@ntu.edu.vn

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