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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Gregory R Maio, Frank D Fincham, Camillo Regalia and F.Giorgia Paleari

Parents and children can drive each other mad. At one moment, a parent may be encouraging and affectionate toward the child; in the next, the parent may be sending the…

Abstract

Parents and children can drive each other mad. At one moment, a parent may be encouraging and affectionate toward the child; in the next, the parent may be sending the child to his or her bedroom. Similarly, a child who seems helpful and cooperative can suddenly turn belligerent. Parents and children may partly resolve the mixture of negative and positive feelings they experience in such situations by remembering their basic love for each other. Nevertheless, the conflicting sentiments will be stored in the memory of both parties, contributing to a long-lasting melange of conflicting beliefs, feelings, and behaviors. What are the psychological consequences of this state of affairs in relationships?

Details

Intergenerational Ambivalences: New Perspectives on Parent-Child Relations in Later Life
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-801-9

Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Eun Young Nae and Byoung Kwon Choi

On the basis of an attachment style perspective, the authors explored a moderated mediation model in which career satisfaction reduces employees' turnover intention by…

Abstract

Purpose

On the basis of an attachment style perspective, the authors explored a moderated mediation model in which career satisfaction reduces employees' turnover intention by enhancing subjective well-being; this mediated relationship would be moderated by three dimensions of attachment style as follows: secure, counterdependent and overdependent.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 192 employees in South Korea and hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis and the PROCESS macro for SPSS.

Findings

Subjective well-being mediated the relationship between career satisfaction and turnover intention. The indirect relationship between career satisfaction and turnover intention through subjective well-being was significant only when employees had high-secure attachment and low-counterdependent and -overdependent attachment styles.

Practical implications

On the basis of the authors' findings that not all employees' subjective well-being translates into a lower level of turnover intention despite being satisfied with their career, the study suggests that organizations should pay more attention to how the subjective well-being of employees can be enhanced in relation to their career by considering their attachment styles.

Originality/value

The study contributes to deepening the understanding of the mechanism of when and how career satisfaction reduces turnover intention by integrating subjective well-being and attachment styles that have been neglected in prior research.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 July 2020

Meredith E. David, Kealy Carter and Claudio Alvarez

Attachment theory is emerging as an important theoretical foundation in marketing because of the relational nature of consumption, but little guidance exists as to which…

Abstract

Purpose

Attachment theory is emerging as an important theoretical foundation in marketing because of the relational nature of consumption, but little guidance exists as to which of many attachment style measures is most suitable for use by researchers. As a result, many measures are being used with little justification, and frequently, these scales are being adapted due to poor measurement fit, length or wording unrelated to the focal attachment figure. This paper aims to evaluate seven existing attachment style measures and provides recommendations regarding which measure is the most suitable for assessing the impact of chronic attachment styles on marketing outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review identified seven measures of attachment style for analysis. Two studies examine the psychometric properties, susceptibility to response bias and predictive validity of the seven measures (Study 1n = 325 and Study 2n = 205).

Findings

Among the seven scales evaluated, the Johnson et al. (2012) [Johnson, Whelan, and Thomson (JWT)] measure exhibited the best psychometric properties and predictive validity for general (i.e. not relationship-specific) attachment styles. In addition, two relationship-specific measures, also with strong psychometric properties, were better able to capture their respective relationships or relationship types than general attachment styles, as expected.

Research limitations/implications

This research provides guidance to researchers on which measure to use when examining the impact of attachment style in marketing.

Practical implications

This research provides marketing researchers guidance on which measure to use when examining the impact of general attachment styles. Because the JWT scale is brief, psychometrically sound and demonstrates strong predictive validity, it can be used for academic and managerial purposes. The authors also confirm previous research suggesting that relationship-specific measures of attachment style may act differently than general interpersonal attachment style measures and vary in their ability to predict marketing outcomes.

Originality/value

This research is the first to provide guidance regarding which measure of attachment style to use in marketing and consumer research. This research can serve as a reference point for future researchers in selecting measures of attachment style and may allow for convergence on a narrow set of measures to advance research in marketing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 January 2018

Rom Eldad and Joy Benatov

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of both attachment and parental styles in shaping leadership behavioral patterns. Research predictions were that childhood…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of both attachment and parental styles in shaping leadership behavioral patterns. Research predictions were that childhood perceived parental experiences will be associated with attachment style, and that both perceived parental and attachment styles will fulfill a significant role in shaping the individual’s leadership orientation in adulthood.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the research hypotheses with a field survey data from 90 supervisors belonging to diverse industrial and service organizations. During their attendance in a leadership seminar, the managers’ attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory. They were also asked to report on their childhood experiences using the Parenting Style Index, and to answer questions regarding their leadership behavior, using a short version of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire.

Findings

Results indicated associations between parental style, attachment style, and leadership. Specifically, parental autonomy granting was negatively associated with both attachment anxiety and avoidance. Both transformational and transactional leadership styles were positively associated with parental autonomy, but only transformational leadership was also positively associated with parental involvement. In addition, transactional leadership was positively associated with attachment avoidance in close relationships.

Research limitations/implications

Testing the contributions of perceived parental style in childhood and attachment style in adulthood to the manager’s manifested leadership style helps to advance our theoretical understanding of important leadership antecedents. The findings may also help practitioners in developing leadership skills and assisting managers in finding ways to moderate their natural tendencies and better depend on, delegate, and empower subordinates.

Originality/value

This empirical study provides evidence of the important role of perceived parental style in the development of adult attachment and leadership styles. The effects found in the study also extend the existing findings by showing that not only the attachment style but also parental style play a significant role in shaping the individual’s leadership behaviors.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2017

Sheng Wang, David B. Greenberger, Raymond A. Noe and Jinyan Fan

This chapter discusses how attachment theory, a theory that provides insight into the processes through which psychological and emotional bonds are developed in…

Abstract

This chapter discusses how attachment theory, a theory that provides insight into the processes through which psychological and emotional bonds are developed in relationships, can be useful for understanding mentoring relationships. We develop a conceptual model emphasizing how attachment-related constructs and their relationships with mentors’ and protégés’ behaviors and emotions influence each phase of a mentoring relationship. Recognizing reciprocity in the mentoring process, the model also explains how the interpersonal dynamics of the mentor–protégé relationship influence the benefits gained by both partners. Propositions for future research on mentoring relationships are provided. We contend that examining mentoring through the lens of attachment theory can increase our understanding of the underlying factors or mechanisms that determine individuals’ involvement in mentoring relationships and differentiate successful from unsuccessful mentoring relationships. The research and practical implications are discussed.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-709-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Brendan James Dunlop and Mark Andrew McFetridge

There is evidence that attachment style and clinical outcomes are related within Therapeutic Communities (TCs). This paper aims to examine any possible relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

There is evidence that attachment style and clinical outcomes are related within Therapeutic Communities (TCs). This paper aims to examine any possible relationships between self-reported adult attachment style, therapy programme engagement and measures of psychological distress and dissociation on admission and discharge within a residential TC.

Design/methodology/approach

Ex-clients of the TC were contacted by post and invited to take part in this service evaluation. Additional data were sourced from a database of routinely collected outcome measures. Of 281 ex-clients, the final sample in this study was N = 32.

Findings

When attachment style is conceptualised dimensionally, participants identified most strongly with a fearful attachment style, and least with a preoccupied or secure style. A range of attachment styles were reported. A significant association was apparent between self-reported secure attachment and reduced levels of psychological distress upon discharge from the TC. The potential for changes in client attachment patterns following TC membership is discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size and correlational nature of this study means that results should be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results are of clinical relevance for inpatient or residential therapy programmes (including TCs). Such programmes should routinely assess client attachment style to ensure appropriate interventions and adaptions are implemented.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, to date, this is the first known study to report on the relationship between self-reported adult attachment style and psychological outcomes specifically for women with self-defeating behaviours within a TC.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 February 2019

Melika Kordrostami and Elika Kordrostami

This study aims to examine the impact of consumers’ individual differences on their reactions to brand failure.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of consumers’ individual differences on their reactions to brand failure.

Design/methodology/approach

Three studies (one qualitative, one survey and one experiment) were conducted. Study 1 aimed to understand consumers’ thoughts at the time of brand failure. Studies 2 and 3 investigated the impact of regulatory focus and its interaction with consumers’ attachment style on their reactions to brand failure.

Findings

This research establishes that consumers demonstrate different types of behaviors at the time of brand failure. Specifically, those with a promotion focus display less negative (revenge and brand avoidance) and more positive (trust and loyalty) behavior than those with a prevention focus. Furthermore, this research shows an interaction between consumers’ attachment style and regulatory focus. The impact of regulatory focus holds only for secure consumers; for fearful consumers, regulatory focus does not change their behavior.

Research limitations/implications

The study reveals the impact of regulatory focus and attachment styles on consumer behavior at the time of brand failure. Future research might examine the impact of these factors over time, rather than only at the time of the incident.

Practical implications

Marketers should be aware of the impact of attachment style and regulatory focus after a brand failure. This knowledge will enable them to customize their communication tools to trigger their desired condition. This research also emphasizes the role of customer service at the time of crisis.

Originality/value

This research is the first to investigate the impact of regulatory focus and attachment style on consumers’ reactions to brand failure.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Adele Madden and Carol A. Ireland

Young offenders are known to have more chaotic experiences in childhood than non-offenders, and this impacts on their attachments, coping styles and early maladaptive…

Abstract

Purpose

Young offenders are known to have more chaotic experiences in childhood than non-offenders, and this impacts on their attachments, coping styles and early maladaptive schemas (EMS). The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between these factors and drug use.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used self-report questionnaires on a sample of 105 incarcerated young offenders.

Findings

Attachment styles did not differentiate drug users from non-drug users. Drug users were found to be no more likely than non-drug users to use avoidant coping styles. However, they were more likely to have emotional coping styles. Drug users had more EMS, and overall, those with insecure attachments had more EMS. Individuals with emotional coping styles scored higher than those with rational coping styles on several EMS. Those with emotional coping styles scored lower on the emotional inhibition EMS than those with rational coping styles.

Practical implications

The evidence presented has implications for the understanding of drug use in young offenders by: providing support to the model proposed by Young et al. (2003) regarding how insecure attachments can contribute to EMS; providing support for Crittenden’s (2008) model of attachment whereby problematic behaviours such as drug use can be a strategy the individual uses to protect themselves at times of threat or discomfort; highlighting the need for an integrated model of substance use in offenders which incorporates early experiences, attachments and EMS; and highlighting why substance use may become a coping strategy in young offenders and how to engage them to meet their needs in pro-social ways.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the understanding of attachment, coping and drug use in a young offender population. It sets foundations in the authors’ understanding of patterns of EMS in young drug users and highlights the need for an integrated model of substance use which incorporates early experiences, attachments and EMS.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

John M. Maslyn, Birgit Schyns and Steven M. Farmer

The purpose of this paper is to examine psychological attachment styles (secure, anxious, and avoidant) as antecedents to leader-member exchange (LMX) quality both…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine psychological attachment styles (secure, anxious, and avoidant) as antecedents to leader-member exchange (LMX) quality both directly and through their impact on employees’ efforts to build high quality LMX relationships. Employees with secure attachment styles are proposed to be successful at building high quality LMX relationships while employees with anxious and avoidant styles are proposed to display the opposite effect.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a survey of 213 employees nested in 37 work groups. Hypotheses were tested using multilevel modeling within MPlus.

Findings

Results indicated that secure and anxious attachment styles were associated with LMX only by impacting the exertion of effort specifically aimed at relationship development with the manager. Alternatively, the avoidant style was directly and negatively linked to LMX but not associated with effort undertaken to build a high quality relationship.

Practical implications

The effects of attachment style on effort to develop high quality LMX relationships reveal that subordinate attachment style may impact those subordinates’ ability and interest in developing positive LMX relationships. Therefore, managers may need to purposively deviate from typical LMX development processes in order to create a more conducive environment for developing high quality relationships with subordinates of differing attachment styles.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the mediating impact of effort to build high quality LMX relationships given personal propensities (attachment style) to form relationships in the workplace.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Fabrizio Scrima, Liliane Rioux and Giovanni Di Stefano

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether different patterns of workplace attachment exist and to explore the relations between adult attachment styles and the…

1141

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether different patterns of workplace attachment exist and to explore the relations between adult attachment styles and the level of workplace attachment.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 351 Italian employees who completed a questionnaire composed of the Workplace Attachment Scale and the Relationship Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using correspondence analysis.

Findings

The results showed that high scores on workplace attachment correlated significantly with secure attachment style, while low scores correlated with insecure attachment styles. These results shed light on different workplace attachment styles.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation in this study mostly concern the use of self-reporting instruments to measure the participants’ attachment style, since they may be susceptible to distortions. However, the distribution of attachment styles in this sample is similar to the worldwide distribution, which supports the authors’ choice.

Practical implications

To the extent that it is possible to identify a specific workplace attachment style, it should also be possible to change some of the human resource management practices inducing employees to develop a workplace secure attachment style.

Originality/value

Researchers tended to ignore the extension of the adult attachment behavioral system to examine core environmental relationships. The present study, applying attachment theory to workplace attachment, provides theoretical support that the bonds that an individual forms with workplace can be classified as attachment bonds.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 8000