Proposes that features unique to Japanese industrial management practice such as excessive emphasis on training, a mainly intuitive, pragmatic approach to problems of productivity and quality (as against exclusive dependence on scientific methods), the ethos of hard work, the quest for continuous performance improvement, and stress on self‐reliance in technology derive from the component of Japanese culture known as Zen Buddhism. Zen has always been associated with practical, economic pursuits; examination of its philosophy and techniques gives insight into the values underlying modern management in Japan.
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