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Assessing the effectiveness of vocational training programs in Pakistan: an experimental study

Sumaira Chamadia (Department of Management Sciences, Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan)
Muhammad Shujaat Mubarik (College of Business Management, Institute of Business Management, Karachi, Pakistan)

Education + Training

ISSN: 0040-0912

Article publication date: 23 March 2021

Issue publication date: 1 June 2021




The major objective of this study is to examine the efficacy of the technical and vocational training courses imparted to generate employment or enhance the productivity of participants.


The study was conducted in the province of Sindh, Pakistan by adopting a quasi-experimental approach. The experiment was conducted on 105 individuals—with the age group of 20–25—distributed between the treatment group and the control group. The data collected through the experiment were analyzed by applying a paired-sample t-test, independent sample t-test and one-way between-group analysis of variance (ANOVA).


The findings of this study show statistically significant higher monthly earnings of Rs14, 223 after the training intervention program. Findings also exhibit a significant difference in monthly earnings between the control and the treatment groups.

Practical implications

The findings of the study can provide useful input to policymakers while devising the policies regarding technical education and vocational training (TVET) and to the international donors in assessing the impact of the training initiatives.


This study presents experimental-driven evidence on the role of technical education and vocational training in improving the labor market outcomes.



The authors acknowledge the support of Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan, extended under NRPU Project number P#11226. The authors acknowledge the support of Lt Col. (R) Rizwan Ahmed, TI(M), Deputy General Manager Business development and Career Services, Amantech.


Chamadia, S. and Mubarik, M.S. (2021), "Assessing the effectiveness of vocational training programs in Pakistan: an experimental study", Education + Training, Vol. 63 No. 5, pp. 665-678.



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