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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Thang Ngoc Bach, Hung Ly Dai, Viet Hung Nguyen and Thanh Le

This paper examines the effects of sub-national union coverage on the youth's labor market outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the effects of sub-national union coverage on the youth's labor market outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

In the context of the private business sector in Vietnam, this study link individual labor market data with union coverage at provincial level in the period 2013–2016 to investigate the effects of sub-national union coverage on the youth's labor market outcomes. Contingent on the outcome variable, we use the OLS and probit model that control for diverse individual characteristics, year- and industry-fixed effects, and particularly control for selection bias in the labor market.

Findings

The empirical results show that the union coverage is positively associated with a wide range of the youth's labor market outcomes, including employment status, wage rate, work hour, and job formality. Also, the coverage is complementary to individual labor contract in determining the youth's wage rate.

Practical implication

Our empirical results indicate positive associations between union coverage and the youth's multi-dimensional labor market outcomes, which contribute to this young age cohort's smooth school-to-work transition, provided that the role of trade union is challenged both in developing and developed countries.

Originality/value

This study provides an in-depth study on the interplay between trade union and the youth's labor market outcomes that contributes to the literature of labor market institutions and youth employment policies in a dynamic transitional economy of Vietnam.

Details

Journal of Economics and Development, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1859-0020

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2020

Mark Heil

This paper reviews economic studies on the effects of various aspects of finance on labour market outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper reviews economic studies on the effects of various aspects of finance on labour market outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a systematic literature review that reviews the weight of the evidence on the relationships between specific elements of finance and labour outcomes. The review is divided into three major sections: (1) job quantity and job quality; (2) distributional effects; and (3) resilience and adaptability.

Findings

Finance interacts with labour market institutions to jointly determine labour outcomes. Firm financial structures influence their labour practices – highly leveraged firms show greater employment volatility during cyclical fluctuations, and leverage strengthens firm bargaining power in labour negotiations. Bank deregulation has mixed impacts on labour depending upon the state of prior bank regulations and labour markets. Leveraged buyouts tend to dampen acquired-firm job growth as they pursue labour productivity gains. The shareholder value movement may contribute to short-termism among corporate managers, which can divert funds away from firm capital accumulation toward financial markets, and crowd out productive investment. Declining wage shares of national income in most OECD countries since 1990 may be driven in part by financial globalisation. The financial sector contributes to rising income concentration near the top of the distribution in developed countries. The availability of finance is associated with increased reallocation of labour, which may either enhance or impede productivity growth. Finally, rising interest rate environments and homeowners with mortgage balances that exceed their home's value may reduce labour mobility rates.

Originality/value

This review contributes to the understanding of the effects of finance on labour by reviewing and synthesising a large volume of literature.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2017

David Pettinicchio and Michelle Maroto

This chapter assesses how gender and disability status intersect to shape employment and earnings outcomes for working-age adults in the United States.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter assesses how gender and disability status intersect to shape employment and earnings outcomes for working-age adults in the United States.

Methodology/approach

The research pools five years of data from the 2010–2015 Current Population Survey to compare employment and earnings outcomes for men and women with different types of physical and cognitive disabilities to those who specifically report work-limiting disabilities.

Findings

The findings show that people with different types of limitations, including those not specific to work, experienced large disparities in employment and earnings and these outcomes also varied for men and women. The multiplicative effects of gender and disability on labor market outcomes led to a hierarchy of disadvantage where women with cognitive or multiple disabilities experienced the lowest employment rates and earnings levels. However, within groups, disability presented the strongest negative effects for men, which created a smaller gender wage gap among people with disabilities.

Originality/value

This chapter provides quantitative evidence for the multiplicative effects of gender and disability status on employment and earnings. It further extends an intersectional framework by highlighting the gendered aspects of the ways in which different disabilities shape labor market inequalities. Considering multiple intersecting statuses demonstrates how the interaction between disability type and gender produce distinct labor market outcomes.

Details

Factors in Studying Employment for Persons with Disability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-606-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Alison Davis-Blake

The 1980s and 1990s at Stanford University were a uniquely productive era for research on organizations and labor markets. I describe three important, interconnected…

Abstract

The 1980s and 1990s at Stanford University were a uniquely productive era for research on organizations and labor markets. I describe three important, interconnected themes that characterize the research on organizations and labor markets that emerged from Stanford during this era: the central role of the firm in a multi-level system that determines labor market outcomes, the role of institutions in both creating and constraining labor market outcomes, and the dynamic, often unexpected, consequences of labor market outcomes. I describe the genesis and development of each theme and conclude by discussing what lessons can be learned from this era about creating an innovative and productive research culture.

Details

Stanford's Organization Theory Renaissance, 1970–2000
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-930-5

Article
Publication date: 26 January 2022

Shireen Alazzawi and Vladimir Hlasny

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and drivers of employment vulnerability among youth in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia, and their propensity to…

201

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the prevalence and drivers of employment vulnerability among youth in Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia, and their propensity to transition to better jobs over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on longitudinal data from Labor Market Panel Surveys spanning 6–20 years. The authors use transition matrices to examine the prevalence of transitions between labor market statuses for the same individuals over time, distinguishing between youth and non-youth, and men and women, as well as multinomial logistic regressions that control for individual and family background, including previous labor market status, family wealth and parental education.

Findings

The paper finds that youth in all three countries were disadvantaged in terms of labor market outcomes with most young men in particular ending up in vulnerable jobs while women of all ages were most likely to exit the labor market all together, unless they had formal jobs. Moreover, youth who started out in the labor market in a vulnerable job were unlikely to move to a better-quality job over time. Family wealth, parental education and father's occupation were found to be important determinants of labor market outcomes and vulnerability, even after a long period of work experience.

Social implications

The paper finds that wealth effects, parental education and occupation effects follow workers throughout their careers, implying low equality of opportunity and inter-generational and lifetime mobility.

Originality/value

The findings indicate worsening labor market outcomes over time, heavily influenced by family background. High levels of vulnerable employment persistence, regardless of skill and experience, reinforce the importance of initial labor market outcome on the quality of lifetime employment prospects.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Lauren R. Heller and E. Frank Stephenson

The purpose of this paper is to reconcile research finding that labor market outcomes are related to economic freedom for entrepreneurs and separate research finding that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reconcile research finding that labor market outcomes are related to economic freedom for entrepreneurs and separate research finding that higher homeownership rates are associated with more unemployment.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data covering the 50 states over 1981-2009, this paper analyzes the relationship between labor market conditions, economic freedom, and homeownership rates.

Findings

The results indicate that economic freedom is associated with favorable labor market conditions but that the relationship between homeownership and poor labor market outcomes is small and insignificant in most specifications once economic freedom is accounted for.

Originality/value

This paper is the first paper to examine the relationship between labor market outcomes and both homeownership and economic freedom. The results suggest that the economic environment for entrepreneurs is more important than any rigidities created by homeownership.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2015

Moris Triventi, Jan Skopek, Yuliya Kosyakova, Sandra Buchholz and Hans-Peter Blossfeld

This chapter provides an overview of the results from a cross-nationally comparative project analysing gender differences and inequalities at labour market entry. Women’s…

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the results from a cross-nationally comparative project analysing gender differences and inequalities at labour market entry. Women’s relative gains in educational attainment and the expansion of the service sector suggest that gender inequalities in occupational returns are diminishing or even reversing. In assessing gender differences at labour market entry, we look at a phase of the life course when women’s family roles are still of minor importance. Conceptually, we distinguish between horizontal segregation and inequalities in vertical outcomes. The project was based on 13 in-depth case studies contributed by a network of scholars analysing countries with different institutional, socio-economic and cultural settings. The findings demonstrate that occupational gender segregation is still relatively marked among recent cohorts, though it is slightly decreasing over time in several countries. In terms of vertical inequalities, the case studies consistently revealed that while women enter more prestigious jobs than men in most countries, there is a female disadvantage in economic returns among recent labour market entrants. In addition, we found mixed evidence on the variations of gender equality at labour market entry across countries with different institutional characteristics.

Details

Gender Segregation in Vocational Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-347-1

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 August 2019

Juan A. Correa, Pablo Gutiérrez, Miguel Lorca, Raúl Morales and Francisco Parro

This paper aims to study the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES) on academic and labor market outcomes.

2433

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES) on academic and labor market outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a rich data set of administrative records for test scores, individual background and adult earnings of a cohort of agents, covering a period spanning the agents' upper-secondary education and their early years in the labor market.

Findings

The authors find that students with the highest SES obtained a 1.5 standard deviations higher score in the college admission test than students who had the same academic outcomes in the eighth grade test but belong to the lowest SES. Similarly, among students that obtained the same scores in the college admission test, those with the highest SES earned monthly wages 0.7 standard deviations higher than those with the lowest SES.

Originality/value

The findings highlight that family socioeconomic background continues to influence outcomes during individuals’ upper secondary education and early years in the labor market.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. 27 no. 79
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-7627

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Chiara Mussida and Dario Sciulli

This paper evaluates how the first job when individuals entered the labor market affects the probability of youth being currently employed in formal or informal work in Bangladesh.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper evaluates how the first job when individuals entered the labor market affects the probability of youth being currently employed in formal or informal work in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on data from the ILO School-to-Work Transition Surveys. The authors use a full-information maximum likelihood approach to estimate a two-equation model, which accounts for selection into the labor market when estimating the impact of entry status on current work outcomes. The main equation outcome follows a multinomial distribution thus avoiding a priori assumptions about the level of individual’s utility associated with each work status.

Findings

The authors find that entering the labor market in a vulnerable employment position (i.e. contributing family work or self-employment) traps into vulnerable employment and prevents the transition to both informal and, especially, formal paid work. This finding holds when accounting for endogeneity of the entry status and it is valid both in the short and in the long run. Young women are less likely to enter the labor market, and once entered they are less likely to access formal paid wok and more likely to being inactive than young men. Low education anticipates the entry in the labor market, but it is detrimental for future employment prospects.

Originality/value

The findings indicate the presence of labor market segmentation between vulnerable and non-vulnerable employment and suggest the endpoint quality of the school-to-work transition is crucial for later employment prospects of Bangladeshi youth.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2009

Martin Kahanec and Mariapia Mendola

The labor market behavior of ethnic communities in advanced societies and the social determinants of their labor market outcomes are important empirical issues with…

Abstract

The labor market behavior of ethnic communities in advanced societies and the social determinants of their labor market outcomes are important empirical issues with significant policy consequences. We use direct information on social interactions within multiple-origin ethnic minorities in England and Wales to investigate the ways different network-based social ties influence individual employment outcomes. We find that (i) “strong ties,” measured by contacts with parents and children away, increase the probability of self-employment, while “weak social ties,” measured by engagement in voluntary organizations, are more likely to channel members of ethnic minorities into paid employment; (ii) “ethnic networks,” measured by interactions between individuals of the same ethnicity, are positively associated with the likelihood to be self-employed, while engagement in mixed or nonethnic social networks facilitates paid employment among minority individuals. These findings hint at a positive role of social integration in the host society on labor market outcomes of ethnic minority groups.

Details

Ethnicity and Labor Market Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-634-2

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