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Entrepreneurial intentions: the relevance of nature and nurture

Muhammad Farrukh (School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China) (Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, ILMA University, Karachi, Pakistan)
Ali Raza (Knowledge Unit of Business, Economics, Accountancy and Commerce (KUBEAC), University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Sialkot Campus, Sialkot, Pakistan)
Muhammad Sajid (Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan)
Muhammad Rafiq (Department of Economics and Business Administration, University of Education, Lahore, Vehari Campus, Vehari, Pakistan)
Rizwana Hameed (Institute of Business & Management (IB&M), University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan)
Tanzila Ali (Department of Management Sciences, University of Engineering and Technology, Narowal, Pakistan)

Education + Training

ISSN: 0040-0912

Article publication date: 20 September 2021

Issue publication date: 1 November 2021




This paper aims to investigate the role of nature and nurture in students’ entrepreneurial intention (EIs). In doing so, the study examines the relationship between prenatal testosterone exposure (2D:4D), risk-taking propensity, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EIs. Moreover, the moderating role of entrepreneurial education between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EI is also investigated.


In line with previous studies on EI, the authors tested hypotheses based on quantitative data obtained from university students.


Data were analyzed with the help of the structural equation modeling technique, and the results revealed that all the hypothesized relationships were supported.


The field of entrepreneurship has become an attractive area of research for practitioners and academics. One tinted area of research in entrepreneurship is the investigation of EI because it is a good predictor of entrepreneurial behavior. Several antecedents of EIs have been recognized in the literature ranging from personality traits to environmental factors. However, less is known about the role of biology in entrepreneurship. Incorporating biological factors in the field of entrepreneurship appears to be theoretically viable and sound. Thus, this study investigates the effect of biological factors in the presence of psychological factors on EIs, which is a unique contribution to the literature on entrepreneurship.



Muhammad Farrukh acknowledges the financial support from Ilma University.


Farrukh, M., Raza, A., Sajid, M., Rafiq, M., Hameed, R. and Ali, T. (2021), "Entrepreneurial intentions: the relevance of nature and nurture", Education + Training, Vol. 63 No. 7/8, pp. 1195-1212.



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