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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2010

Marina Butovskaya, Valentina Burkova and Audax Mabulla

This study was conducted on children and adolescents from the three tribal cultures from Northern Tanzania: the Hadza, the Datoga and the Iraqw. The comparative data on…

Abstract

This study was conducted on children and adolescents from the three tribal cultures from Northern Tanzania: the Hadza, the Datoga and the Iraqw. The comparative data on aggression and conflict management skills were measured at Endomaga Boarding School, Lake Eyasi, Mangola in Northern Tanzania, in 2005‐2006. The final sample included 219 children, ranging from 7 to 20 years of age. No sex differences were found in self‐ratings or frequency of occurrence of physical, verbal and indirect aggression in Iraqw children and adolescents, or in self‐ratings in Hadza. Hadza boys reported a higher occurrence of physical and indirect aggression during the previous week compared to girls. No differences between the sexes were found in constructive conflict resolution and third‐party interventions practiced by Iraqw and Datoga children and self‐ratings in Hadza. Hadza boys reported a higher frequency of constructive conflict resolution and third‐party interventions compared to girls. Significant sexual dimorphism on the 2D:4D ratio was found for our African sample. A significant negative correlation between the right hand 2D:4D ratio and ratings on physical aggression was found for the girls. The girls with the lowest finger index estimated themselves as more verbally aggressive, compared to girls with a medium 2D:4D ratio.

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2010

Alyson Blanchard and Minna Lyons

This study investigates whether a higher level of pre‐natal testosterone, as indicated by the 2D: 4D digit ratio, is a correlate of psychopathy and cognitive empathy. The…

Abstract

This study investigates whether a higher level of pre‐natal testosterone, as indicated by the 2D: 4D digit ratio, is a correlate of psychopathy and cognitive empathy. The main research hypothesis predicts that 2D: 4D digit ratios will correlate negatively with psychopathy scores and positively with cognitive empathy scores. The study facilitates a within‐subjects correlational design, using a quasi‐experimental method consisting of questionnaires and digit measurements. Fifty‐four participants volunteered and were gathered via purposive and convenience sampling. Each participant completed a self‐report psychopathy scale, a cognitive empathy test, a verbal IQ test and a scan of both hands. The scans were later measured and computed for digit ratios. T‐tests, multiple partial correlations and multiple regression found that, contrary to the research hypothesis, a higher level of pre‐natal oestrogen, as indicated by a larger 2D: 4D digit ratio, is a positive correlate of psychopathy in females, and a positive correlate of callous affect (psychopathy sub‐scale) in males, at less than 0.01 probability levels. Gender is also a correlate of psychopathy, as males scored significantly higher than females at 0.01 probability levels. This result sheds an interesting new light on the physiological correlates of psychopathy and the role that pre‐natal oestrogen plays in organisational effects on the brain during pre‐ and post‐natal development.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2021

Muhammad Farrukh, Ali Raza, Muhammad Sajid, Muhammad Rafiq, Rizwana Hameed and Tanzila Ali

This paper aims to investigate the role of nature and nurture in students’ entrepreneurial intention (EIs). In doing so, the study examines the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the role of nature and nurture in students’ entrepreneurial intention (EIs). In doing so, the study examines the relationship between prenatal testosterone exposure (2D:4D), risk-taking propensity, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EIs. Moreover, the moderating role of entrepreneurial education between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EI is also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

In line with previous studies on EI, the authors tested hypotheses based on quantitative data obtained from university students.

Findings

Data were analyzed with the help of the structural equation modeling technique, and the results revealed that all the hypothesized relationships were supported.

Originality/value

The field of entrepreneurship has become an attractive area of research for practitioners and academics. One tinted area of research in entrepreneurship is the investigation of EI because it is a good predictor of entrepreneurial behavior. Several antecedents of EIs have been recognized in the literature ranging from personality traits to environmental factors. However, less is known about the role of biology in entrepreneurship. Incorporating biological factors in the field of entrepreneurship appears to be theoretically viable and sound. Thus, this study investigates the effect of biological factors in the presence of psychological factors on EIs, which is a unique contribution to the literature on entrepreneurship.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 63 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2022

Jiafeng Gu

The study aims to investigate the relationship between chief executive officers' (CEOs') prenatal testosterone exposure, absorptive capacity and e-commerce adoption by…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the relationship between chief executive officers' (CEOs') prenatal testosterone exposure, absorptive capacity and e-commerce adoption by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a study of 1,519 SMEs led by a male CEO in China, the impact of entrepreneur's digital ratio on e-commerce adoption is empirically analyzed through a multivariate logistic model.

Findings

The results show that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D), a reverse measurement of prenatal testosterone exposure, is negatively correlated with the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs. This evidence suggests that CEOs with high prenatal testosterone exposure have a higher probability of adopting e-commerce. In addition, this research indicates a positive correlation between absorptive capacity, which is defined by market innovation, process innovation and marketing innovation, and the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs.

Originality/value

This research can contribute to the discussion by providing new insights into the antecedents of the adoption of e-commerce in SMEs.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2010

Carol Ireland and Shelly Morris‐King

Abstract

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Ruth Butler

In this chapter, I consider how and why gender continues to impact motivation, task engagement, self-regulation, and educational aspirations, choices, and outcomes among…

Abstract

In this chapter, I consider how and why gender continues to impact motivation, task engagement, self-regulation, and educational aspirations, choices, and outcomes among both boys and girls. How can motivation theory and research contribute to understanding gender differences in achievement at school, where girls now tend to do better than boys, especially in less advantaged social groups, and at work, where women still tend to achieve and earn less than similarly qualified men? In the first section of this chapter, I review evidence of gender-related motivational orientations whereby boys tend more to “prove and protect” and girls tend more to “doubt and try to improve” their abilities. I analyze the benefits and costs of these orientations, focusing on how they contribute to the superior school performance of girls, to spurring high-achieving boys to succeed more in later life than similarly able girls, and to placing lower-achieving boys, who often belong to minority groups, at particular risk for academic disengagement. I then consider how boys and girls construct and maintain motivating and motivated beliefs and strategies in interactions with parents, teachers, and peers within the social and educational contexts of their daily lives. In the final section, I first present some educational recommendations that follow from my analysis. I then engage directly with the overarching theme of this volume by considering some broad societal trends that present continuing challenges to educators concerned to promote optimal motivation for learning among both boys and girls in the twenty-first century.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

Corinna Laube and Wouter van den Bos

Teenagers are typically described as impulsive and risk taking. Yet recent research shows that this observation does not hold in all contexts. Rather, adolescents show…

Abstract

Teenagers are typically described as impulsive and risk taking. Yet recent research shows that this observation does not hold in all contexts. Rather, adolescents show higher impulsivity and risk taking than children or adults in affective contexts. Motivational and affective processes are therefore of particular interest when trying to understand typical adolescent behavior. Additionally, pubertal hormones are hypothesized to play a special role in adolescents’ motivated decision making. However, evidence for the mechanisms underlying this relationship is sparse. In this chapter, we aim to integrate findings from human and animal studies in order to elucidate the specific impact of pubertal hormones on motivational processes in adolescence. Against this background, we critically discuss and reinterpret recent findings in psychology and neuroscience, speculate about underlying mechanisms, and suggest new approaches for future studies of adolescent behavior.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1931

Airscrews GENERAL 624. Emission of sound by airscrews. (With diagrams.) March 1919. (4d.).

Abstract

Airscrews GENERAL 624. Emission of sound by airscrews. (With diagrams.) March 1919. (4d.).

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 3 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 9 December 2019

Aneetha Vilventhan and R. Rajadurai

The rapid development of the construction industry requires effective ways to monitor and control the project, and the use of 4D BIM is found to be very efficient. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The rapid development of the construction industry requires effective ways to monitor and control the project, and the use of 4D BIM is found to be very efficient. The purpose of this paper is to consider development, application and evaluation of 4D Bridge Information Modelling (BrIM) models for an ongoing bridge project.

Design/methodology/approach

An ethnographic action-based case study research methodology is adopted in this study. An ongoing bridge construction project in India is chosen and the 4D BrIM application is evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively using planned percentage complete (PPC) measurements and semi-structured interviews, respectively.

Findings

The evaluation of the case study shows an increase in PPC values from 26.5 to 56.4 per cent after implementation of 4D BrIM in the project. The application of 4D BrIM in the construction phase benefits the project team in material delivery planning, project monitoring and control, construction schedule improvement, documentation and coordination.

Practical implications

The developed models are practically applied to the ongoing project and the positive benefits are observed. It is shown that 4D BrIM has the potential to improve the construction of bridge projects.

Originality/value

Studies have contributed towards the development and implementation of 3D BrIM models for bridge projects. Limited efforts have been taken to analyse how 4D BrIM models help in the overall management of bridge projects. This study adds value to the existing literature through development, implementation and systematic qualitative and quantitative evaluation of 4D BrIM models.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1931

Accidents 592. Accidents to certain aeroplanes, with special reference to “Spinning” (communicated by the Accidents Investigation Committee). (With diagrams.) Dec. 1918. (6d.).

Abstract

Accidents 592. Accidents to certain aeroplanes, with special reference to “Spinning” (communicated by the Accidents Investigation Committee). (With diagrams.) Dec. 1918. (6d.).

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 3 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

1 – 10 of 232