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Structuration of lean-agile integrated factors for construction projects

Vijayeta Malla (School of Construction Management, National Institute of Construction Management and Research, Hyderabad, India)

Construction Innovation

ISSN: 1471-4175

Article publication date: 6 January 2023




This study aims to analyze and understand mutual relationships between lean and agile enabling factors in the context of the construction domain and put forth the most driving and dependent enablers for a hybrid lean–agile system (HLAS).


A threefold research flow is adopted. First, the content analysis of literature stemmed from the identification of preliminary enablers (n = 26). Second, a questionnaire survey (n = 101) is administered to downsize enablers to ten using the relative importance index. Further, in the third phase, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and the cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification analysis were performed amid the ten key enablers through pairwise interactions from subject matter experts (n = 19). Hierarchical representation of enablers has been presented, which facilitates a conceptual model for application in the construction industry.


The ISM model demonstrates a three leveled classification structure that showcases direct and transitive relationships among various enablers. “Use of project management tools” is the driving enabler, followed by “collaborative and common data platform working” and “institution of team training” are critical enablers to HLAS adoption.


A structured way of identification of interdependent among lean–agile is a vital unique contribution to this study. The results serve as a knowledge base for practical adoption of HLAS and may prove to be influential in developing a framework for easier adoption in developing countries.



Malla, V. (2023), "Structuration of lean-agile integrated factors for construction projects", Construction Innovation, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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