Index

Global Perspectives on Recruiting International Students: Challenges and Opportunities

ISBN: 978-1-83982-519-4, eISBN: 978-1-83982-518-7

Publication date: 1 June 2021

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

(2021), "Index", Shneikat, B., Cobanoglu, C. and Tanova, C. (Ed.) Global Perspectives on Recruiting International Students: Challenges and Opportunities, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 257-263. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-83982-518-720211017

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021 Belal Shneikat, Cihan Cobanoglu, Cem Tanova


INDEX

Academic factors
, 157

Academic institutional websites
, 68

Academic situations
, 157–158

Acculturation
, 232

Acculturative stress
, 179

Activity theory
, 102

Admissions
, 140

application process
, 140–141

challenges in culture surrounding application process
, 149–151

challenges in structure of application process
, 147–149

findings
, 144–147

gathering and analysing information from stakeholders in sponsored admissions
, 141–144

identifying and correcting handling errors
, 148

insider unpublicised practices
, 148–149

nineteen steps of sample application
, 145–147

structural barriers to APPLICATION
, 147–148

systems challenges
, 147

Affiliation with schools abroad
, 31

American Indonesian Exchange Foundation (AMINEF)
, 142

Amplification rate
, 74

Applause rate
, 74

Applicants
, 143

Application process
, 140–141

challenges in culture surrounding
, 149–151

challenges in structure of
, 147–149

Assignments
, 190

Attribution theory
, 53–54

Augmented level services
, 157

Australian university system
, 131

Autoethnography
, 144

Average variance extracted results (AVE results)
, 58

Beijing Olympic Games
, 46

Bias preparation courses
, 218

Bounce rate
, 71

Boxer indemnity
, 40–41

grantees
, 41–43

Brand awareness
, 54–55

Brand equity approach
, 52, 54

Brand familiarity
, 56

Brand preference
, 55

Brand recognisability
, 52–53, 55–56

Brand recognition
, 56

Brand reputation
, 56

Brand signature
, 53, 56–57, 59

Brexit
, 128–129

Business and Economics Schools in Spain
, 176–178

Canadian Bureau of International Education (CBIE)
, 130

Case study

design
, 232–233

method
, 102

Case university
, 143–144

Challenges of Chinese students
, 178–180

Chinese international students
, 232

current international students’ support services at University of South
, 235–236

international students’ general cultural adjustment difficulties
, 234–235

issues in international students’ support services
, 236–241

limitations and implications
, 241–242

methodology
, 232–234

Chinese Student Protection Act (1992)
, 45

Chinese students
, 37, 46, 174

at Business and Economics Schools in Spain
, 174–176

challenges and satisfaction
, 178–180

at FECEM
, 180

and professionals
, 47

questionnaire to
, 181–183

as spies
, 46

stages of tourism development
, 40

students in US
, 39

in US under COVID
, 40

Chinese Study Abroad Program
, 39

Chung yu
, 45

Club sports
, 192–193

Collaboration with other HEI abroad
, 28

College of Education degree program
, 140

Collegiate sports
, 192–193

Common method bias (CMB)
, 58

Communications
, 26–27, 150–151

Complexity
, 8

Confusion
, 222–223

Conversation rate
, 73

Conversion rate
, 72

Cooperative typology
, 104–105

Core level service
, 157

Cost
, 17, 23

of program
, 11

Council of Higher Education (YÖK)
, 156

COVID-19
, 247

Cultural adaptation
, 179, 232

Cultural adjustment
, 215–216, 232

institutional supports for international students
, 217–218

for international students
, 217

literature review
, 216

method
, 218–219

recommendations
, 225–227

Cultural environment
, 11–12, 25–26

Cultural experience
, 231

Cultural/culture shock
, 179, 232

Culture
, 220–221

Danish policy context
, 202–203

Deductive analysis
, 159

Dimensioning
, 203

Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi (DIKTI)
, 142

Discrimination
, 221–222

Disorientation
, 222–223

Distance learning
, 6

Diversification
, 132–134

Domestic tourism
, 5

Earned media
, 73

Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU)
, 14

accreditations awareness
, 30

facilities and standard of education
, 31

Edu-tourism
, 12–13

Education (see also Higher education)
, 176

agents
, 248

Educational destination image
, 11

Educational experiences
, 189–190

Educational tourism
, 2–5, 38, 52

case study in Northern Cyprus
, 14–31

determinants
, 14

literature review
, 4–14

tourism and
, 38

Educational tourists
, 15

decision
, 7–8

factors influencing educational tourists’ decision-making process
, 8–12

key elements
, 13

Embedded cultural issues of case university
, 149–150

Engeström’s approach
, 103

Environmental factors
, 99

Esbjerg
, 198

policy context
, 202–203

European Credits Transfer System (ECTS)
, 177

Exchange programs
, 29–30

Expectations
, 157

Experiences
, 156

Extracurricular factors
, 157

Facilities
, 223

Factors influencing satisfaction
, 156

Facultad de Economía y Empresa (FECEM)
, 176–177

Chinese students at
, 180

Faculty culture
, 150

Family Reunion Act (1965)
, 45

Federation of Indian Students in Australia (FISA)
, 128

Federation Square in Melbourne Australia
, 128

Feedback
, 30

First 52 Chinese students in 1978
, 44–47

Fondo di Finanziamento Ordinario (FFO)
, 86

Foreign and second language education (FSLED)
, 147

Foreign sponsors
, 141–142

Free-flying young people in transition
, 206–207

Frustration
, 222–223

Fulbright funding
, 142

Game-changing potential of internships and jobs
, 207–209

Geopolitics
, 126

global events and COVID-19 pandemic
, 130–132

global mobility and institutional dependence
, 126–128

ISEM
, 132–135

and uncertainty
, 128–130

Germany

higher education sector in
, 53

sales of e-trade in
, 54

Global mobility
, 126–128

Globalisation (see also Internationalisation)
, 245–246

of educational tourism
, 7

processes
, 82

Governments
, 30

in Indonesia
, 142–143

policy
, 99

Graduate admissions
, 140

Graduate assistants (GAs)
, 221

Graduate Records Exam (GRE)
, 140

Heterotrait–monotrait ratio of correlations (HTMT)
, 58

High-school institutions
, 30

Higher education
, 52, 66, 103, 155–156

internationalisation of higher education in Iran
, 112–113

sector in Germany
, 53

Higher Education Council of Turkey (YOK)
, 119

Higher education industry (HE industry)
, 2, 6–7

Higher education institution (HEI)
, 2–3, 66, 112, 246

capabilities
, 101

countries and
, 98

financial tenacity
, 4

and municipality
, 203–205

researchers in marketing
, 12–13

Host universities
, 189

Housing
, 189, 203

Imam Sadiq University
, 117

Indonesia
, 140

governments in
, 142–143

Indonesian International Education Foundation (IIEF)
, 142

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
, 245, 248

Information gathered and analysed
, 144

Institute of International Education (IIE)
, 246

Institute of International Education in New York (IIE)
, 143

Institutional capability
, 104

Institutional culture
, 98

compliant typology
, 105–107

cooperative typology
, 104–105

isolating typology
, 107

literature review
, 99–101

methodology
, 101–102

research design
, 102–103

results
, 103–107

Institutional dependence
, 126–128

Institutional factors
, 157

Institutional policy
, 99

Institutional supports for international students
, 217–218, 223–224

Intensification of global competitiveness
, 82

International comparisons
, 99

International education
, 173

International educational experiences
, 188–189

International English Language Testing System (IELTS)
, 121, 148

International environment
, 21

International mobility
, 126

International recruitment
, 125–126

International sanctions
, 113, 115

challenges and opportunities of student recruitment in Iran
, 115–119

internationalisation of higher education in Iran
, 114–115

North Cyprus and Iranian students
, 119–121

student recruitment
, 113–114

International strategic enrolment management (ISEM)
, 132–135

International student integration
, 199

cultural mixing and need for responsive study environment
, 199–201

Danish and Esbjerg policy context
, 202–203

financial, internship-related and work-related obstacles
, 201–202

methods
, 203

obstacles observed in international literature
, 199

results
, 203–209

International student mobility
, 112, 125–126

International student recruitment
, 99, 107, 218, 246

findings
, 249–252

literature review
, 247–248

methodology
, 248–249

International students
, 7, 66, 81–82, 112, 187

and academic institutional websites
, 68

cultural adjustment for
, 217

factors associated with international student success
, 219–223

general cultural adjustment difficulties
, 234–235

information searched online by
, 68–70

institutional supports for
, 217–218, 223–224

issues in international students’ support services
, 236–241

places of origin
, 66

research implications
, 75–76

research method
, 67

social listening of
, 73–75

studying abroad
, 188–194

support services
, 235–236

web analytics for understanding online behaviour of
, 68–73

worries of
, 163–164

International tourism
, 5

Internationalisation
, 99, 246

case study
, 86–92

of educational tourism
, 7

of higher education in Iran
, 114–115

at home
, 83

processes
, 82

strategies
, 82–85

of students
, 84

of teaching and learning
, 82

Internet
, 54

Internet-Based TOEFL (iBT)
, 148

Iran
, 113

challenges and opportunities of student recruitment in
, 115–119

internationalisation of higher education in
, 114–115

Iranian students
, 119–121

Isolating typology
, 107

Italian higher education system
, 86–87

Italian public universities, evidence of strategic planning for internationalisation of students from
, 87–91

Ivory Tower of American academies
, 39

Key performance indicators
, 67, 71

Korean War
, 39

Lancaster University
, 102

Landing page
, 71

Language
, 179, 219–220

barriers
, 191

skills
, 163–164

Learning, internationalisation of
, 82

Lembaga Pengelola Dana Pendidikan (LPDP)
, 142, 147–148

Location
, 19–20, 24

Marketers
, 2

Marketing
, 99

Medium of instruction
, 20–21, 25

Ministry for Education, Universities and Research (MIUR)
, 86

Motivation
, 9

Motivators in selecting educational tourism destination
, 18

Muhaceret
, 119

Multicollinearity
, 58

New York University
, 127

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
, 141

Non-native English speakers (NNES)
, 67

North Cyprus Higher Education Association (YODAK)
, 119

North(ern) Cyprus
, 3–4

case study in
, 14–31

international students in
, 7

and Iranian students
, 119–121

Offline communication
, 22

Online communication
, 12, 21–22

Online marketing
, 12–13, 29

Online media platform
, 54

Online platforms
, 54

Online purchasing
, 54

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
, 66

Owned media
, 73

Paid media
, 73

Pandemic
, 126–127

Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM)
, 58

Pedagogical interaction
, 178–179

Performance of Program X+1 students
, 180–181

Performance-based funding mechanisms in Italian Universities
, 91–92

Post war cohort
, 43

Pre-departure orientation
, 218

Private HEIs
, 113

Professors
, 189–190

Programming
, 99

Public HEIs
, 113

Public universities
, 82, 86

Pull factors
, 6, 8–10

Push factors
, 6, 8–10

Qualitative study

experiences international students
, 160–163

literature review
, 156–158

methodology
, 158–160

student suggestions
, 165–168

students’ comparison between marketing process and experiences after arrival
, 164–165

worries of international students
, 163–164

Quality of communication
, 21–22, 29

Quality of education
, 20, 24–25

Racism
, 221–222

Recruiters
, 103, 106

Safety
, 20

Satisfaction
, 156–158, 178–180

Scenery
, 19

Scholarships
, 30

Segmentation of sentiments
, 75

Self-supported study
, 44

Senior leaders
, 103

Sentiment analysis
, 75

Services
, 223

Sign-gestalt paradigm
, 9

Smart-PLS software
, 57

Social activities
, 191–192

Social development
, 246

Social listening
, 73–74

of international students
, 73–75

Social media
, 13, 51–52, 218

marketing
, 55

monitoring
, 73

platforms
, 73

Social media marketing activities (SMMAs)
, 52

effects
, 53

literature review and research hypotheses
, 53–57

method and results
, 57–59

Social network
, 19, 24

influences from
, 10

Society
, 188

Stakeholders
, 141

gathering and analysing information from stakeholders in sponsored admissions
, 141–144

Standardised root mean square residual (SRMR)
, 59

State funding
, 86

Stay-home culture
, 209

Stone–Geisser’s Q2
, 58–59

Strategic enrolment management
, 132

Strategic performance objectives
, 85

Strategic planning
, 85

evidence of strategic planning for internationalisation of students
, 87–91

Strategic plans
, 82, 106

Student dissatisfaction
, 158

Student internationalisation
, 92–94

Student jobs and internships
, 207–209

Student recruitment
, 113–114, 132–134, 215–216

challenges and opportunities of student recruitment in Iran
, 115–119

Student retention
, 225

Student satisfaction
, 157

with experiences
, 193–194

Student success
, 216

Student support, development and career outcomes
, 134–135

Student’s needs and wants
, 28–29

Student’s plea
, 31

Students’ comparison between marketing process and experiences after arrival
, 164–165

Studying aboard
, 158, 188–194

Teaching, internationalisation of
, 82

Teaching assistants (TAs)
, 221

Tertiary education sector
, 112

Test of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL)
, 121, 143

Thematic analysis
, 16

Times Higher Education (THE)
, 14

Top-down process
, 101

Tourism
, 4–5, 51

actors
, 3

Boxer indemnity
, 40–41

in Chinese Study Abroad Program
, 39

and educational tourism
, 38

first 52 Chinese students in 1978
, 44–47

of foreign students
, 37

of international students
, 37–38

literature review
, 39–40

Mao’s death
, 43–44

methodology
, 38–39

post war cohort
, 43

theoretical framework
, 38

Traditional education marketing
, 52

Transactions process
, 145

Transformation
, 6

Travelling
, 9

Tuition fees
, 28, 247

Turkish higher education
, 155

Tutors
, 191

Uncertainty
, 128–130

UNIA
, 101, 103

University Grants Committee (UGC)
, 106

University international education
, 83, 85

University internationalisation
, 83, 85

University leadership
, 84

University of Illinois
, 38

University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (UIUC)
, 127

University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI)
, 101–103

University of Toronto
, 127

University services
, 156

University websites
, 68

US Agency for International Development (USAID)
, 142

US agents and partners
, 143

US Embassy

in Indonesia
, 142–143

in Jakarta
, 143

US–China educational exchange
, 40

Volume
, 74–75

Volunteer participation
, 191–192

Wadden Sea National Park
, 198

Water Taxi tour of New York Harbor
, 46

Web analytics for understanding online behaviour of international students
, 68–73

Web-2.0
, 54

World Trade Organisation (WTO)
, 245–246

Zaragoza university
, 176–178

Prelims
Chapter 1: Key Factors in the Selection of an Educational Tourism Destination
Chapter 2: Study Hard but Do Tour to See the World: Tourism of Chinese Students who Studied in the United States
Chapter 3: The Role of Social Media Marketing Activities on International Students’ Brand Preference: A Study on English-Speaking Universities of Germany
Chapter 4: Use of Web Analytics and Social Listening to Attract International Students
Chapter 5: Promoting the Internationalisation of Students in University Strategic Goals: A Case Study
Chapter 6: Exploring Institutional Culture and Its Impact on International Student Recruitment Capabilities
Chapter 7: Recruiting Educational Tourists from Countries Under International Sanctions: The Case of Iranian Education Market
Chapter 8: Geopolitics and Global Events: International Student Recruitment in a Time of Disruption
Chapter 9: Challenges to Admission for Indonesian Sponsored Applicants to a US Graduate Program in Education
Chapter 10: The Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing to International Students’ Satisfaction: The Case of a Private University in Turkey
Chapter 11: Are Chinese Students Studying at European Universities Satisfied? Performance and Challenges
Chapter 12: How to Integrate International Students into the Local Society and How That Will Affect Their Satisfaction Level
Chapter 13: Living Closely Together but in Parallel - Multi-dimensional Challenges to the Integration of International Students in a Danish ‘Muscle’ Town.
Chapter 14: The Impact of Cultural Adjustment on International Student Recruitment and First-Year Success
Chapter 15: International Chinese Students’ Cultural Experience and Cultural Support in the UK
Chapter 16: The Future of International Student Recruitment
Index