Disaster Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies, Institutions and Processes

ISBN: 978-1-80262-818-0, eISBN: 978-1-80262-817-3

Publication date: 21 April 2022


(2022), "Prelims", Balgah, R.A. and Kimengsi, J.N. (Ed.) Disaster Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies, Institutions and Processes, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xx.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022 Roland Azibo Balgah and Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi

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Disaster Management in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Disaster Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Policies, Institutions and Processes



The University of Bamenda, Cameroon



Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

The University of Bamenda, Cameroon

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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First edition 2022

Editorial Matter and Selection © 2022 Roland Azibo Balgah and Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi.

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List of Tables and Figures vii
About the Authors ix
Preface xv
Acknowledgement xix
Part I: A Review of Disaster Management Concepts and Policy Processes
Chapter 1: Disaster Risk Reduction and Management: A Conceptual Overview
Harrison Esam Awuh, Bishawjit Mallick and Harry Wirngo Mairomi 3
Chapter 2: International Disaster Risk Management Policies and Instruments: A Review
Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi and Richard Achia Mbih 35
Chapter 3: A Critical Assessment of the African Union’s Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy
Roland Azibo Balgah 57
Chapter 4: Policy and Institutional Frameworks for Disaster Risk Management in Cameroon: Challenges and Prospects
Henry Ngenyam Bang 97
Chapter 5: Institutional Diagnosis of Disaster Risk Management in Nigeria: Towards the Design of a New Framework
Jeremiah Ogaga Ejemeyovwi, Evans Stephen Osabuohien, Oseghale Baryl Ihayere, Olanrewaju Olaniyi Omosehin and Angie Osarieme Igbinoba 123
Part II: Disaster Management Institutions, Policy and Processes: Empirical Evidence
Chapter 6: Natural Disaster Risk Management in Kenya: Prospects for Successful Implementation
Theobald Mue Nji, Ayienda Kemunto Carolynne and Emmanuel Yenshu Vubo 147
Chapter 7: Disaster Management Policies, Institutions and Practices in South Africa
Emmanuel Innocents Edoun and Genevieve Fotso Bakam 167
Chapter 8: Disaster Governance in Ghana: Legislations, Policies and Missing Links
Lydia Kwoyiga and Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere 195
Chapter 9: Conclusions on Policy and Institutional Processes for Disaster Management in Sub-Saharan Africa
Roland Azibo Balgah and Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi 219
Glossary of Disaster Risk Management–Related Terms 225
Index 267

List of Tables and Figures

Table 2.1. Policy Considerations for Improving Disaster Risk Management in SSA. 50
Table 3.1. Historical Timeline of Milestone Events Leading Up to the AU-DRR Strategy. 78
Table 3.2. A Comparison of the African DRR Strategy Goals with Those of the HFA. 81
Table 4.1. Different Hazard Group/Types in Cameroon with Some Examples from 1980 to 2019. 102
Table 4.2. Evolution of the Legislative Framework for DRR in Cameroon. 104
Table 4.3. Key DRM Platforms/Agreements and Policy Documents in Cameroon. 106
Table 5.1. Notable Disaster Occurrences in Nigeria. 131
Table 6.1. Level of Influence of Institutions in DRM Priorities. 160
Table 6.2. Level of Participation in Formulating DM Policies in Institutions. 161
Table 6.3. Determinants of Participation in Disaster Policy Formulation. 162
Table 7.1. National Disaster in SA Since 2014. 171
Table 7.2. Validity Test – IFPF Inter-item Correlation Matrix. 184
Table 7.3. Validity Test – DRIP Inter-item Correlation Matrix. 185
Table 7.4. Validity Test for KCM Inter-item Correlation Matrix. 185
Table 7.5. Validity Test for DG Inter-item Correlation Matrix. 186
Table 7.6. Validity Test for DRMSA Variables Inter-item Correlation. 187
Table 7.7. Model Summary. 187
Table7.8. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Statistics. 188
Table 7.9. Summary Results from Hypotheses Testing. 188
Table 7.10. Regression Model Coefficients. 189
Table 8.1. A Snapshot of Disaster Events in Ghana. 200
Table 8.2. Legislations and Executive Instruments on Disaster Management in Ghana. 203
Table 8.3. Institutional Responsibilities Towards Disaster Governance in Ghana. 205
Fig. 1.1. A Choked Stream in Yaounde (Cameroon) as an Example of an Urban Hazard. 5
Fig. 1.2. Warnings on the Susceptibility of Volcanic Eruption in Buea (Cameroon). 7
Fig. 1.3. Photos of the Douala (Cameroon) Floods of August/September 2020 Shared Through WhatsApp. 12
Fig. 2.1. Evolution of Deaths Emanating From Natural Disasters (1978–2018). 38
Fig. 2.2. The Links between Disaster Risk Management and Sustainable Development. 40
Fig. 2.3. Historical Developments Indicating a Shift from Disaster Risk Reduction to Disaster Risk Management. 45
Fig. 3.1. Adapted IAD Framework for Policy Analysis. 76
Fig. 3.2. Distribution of Key DRR Policy-related Events by Year of Study. 80
Fig. 4.1. Cameroon Map Showing Locations of the Main Hazards in the Country. 100
Fig. 4.2. Cameroon’s Institutional Framework for DRM. 109
Fig. 4.3. Maps of Cameroon Showing the Administrative Regions and Capital Cities. 113
Fig. 4.4. Organisational Structure for the Management of the 1999 MCE. 117
Fig. 5.1. DRR Progress Score Across SSA Countries. 135
Fig. 5.2. Trend of Institutional Framework: Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality and Voice and Accountability in Nigeria. 136
Fig. 5.3. Chart Showing Proposed Institutional Drive for DRM in Nigeria. 138
Fig. 6.1. Conceptual Framework for DRM. 152
Fig. 6.2. Flowchart of Article Selection Process. 152
Fig. 6.3. Organisational Chart of Kenya’s National Disaster Management. 155
Fig. 7.1. Africa’s Share of Impact by Natural Disasters by Type: 2008–2018. 169
Fig. 7.2. Information Management and Communication System for DRM Model. 175
Fig. 7.3. SA’s DG Structure. 176
Fig. 7.4. Integrated Interface Between SA’s DG Institutions. 178
Fig. 7.5. South African Map with Disaster Study Areas. 182
Fig. 8.1. Map Showing the Location of Ghana and Two Regions Vulnerable to Flooding Events. 199
Fig. 8.2: Framework for Disaster Management in Ghana. 204

About the Authors

Harrison Esam Awuh is a Political Ecologist and Human Geographer by training. He is a Senior Researcher at Aeres University of Applied Sciences in the Netherlands, Head of Research at Flevo Campus (the Netherlands); and, Guest Researcher at the African Studies Centre (Leiden University, The Netherlands). His research interests cut across sustainable transformations, discourse and inequalities (exclusion/inclusion). His current focus is on healthy and sustainable food transformations from a consumer perspective. Prior to that, he has conducted research and published several peer-reviewed papers on sustainability in the nature conservation sector in Africa (Cameroon) and entrepreneurship in Africa (Ghana). He also worked on a collaborative research project on sustainability in the frugal innovation sector together. This was part of the Leiden University, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Delft University cooperation on frugal innovations. He has taught several courses on sustainability, urban political ecology and research methods to master’s and bachelor degree students at Leiden University, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven, Belgium) and Aeres University of Applied Sciences (The Netherlands).

Bishawjit Mallick is currently a Marie Skłodowska-Curie (MSCA) Global Fellow at the Institute of Behavioral Science (IBS) at University of Colorado Boulder, USA, and holds a Researcher position at Chair of Environmental Development and Risk Management at TU Dresden, Germany. He is interested in ‘non-migration of people at risks’ in the context of climate change adaptation (why do people at risk not migrate, and how do they survive in vulnerable environments?) and the role of short-term migration in shaping long-term non-migration. However, his current research (under the MSCA individual grant) focusses on the historical grounding of non-migration (the reasons why people voluntarily remain in place for generations; how the social, environmental and political regimes contribute to staying put). He employs both qualitative and quantitative social research methods in his ongoing researches.

Harry Wirngo Mairomi holds a PhD in Geography with specialty in Environmental and Resource Geography from the University of Yaounde I, Cameroon. Prior to this, he worked with the Geospatial Technology Group on forest inventory and management in Cameroon and the Congo between 2012 and 2015. His research interest focusses on natural resources (rangelands, forest, wetlands) and in climate change and regional planning. He holds the position of Country Coordinator for the African Planners Institute in Cameroon. Presently, he is a Lecturer in the Department of Geography at the University of Bamenda, Cameroon.

Jude Ndzifon Kimengsi is Leader of the Research Group on Forest Institutions and International Development (FIID) at the Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Technische Universität Dresden (Germany) and an Associate Professor in Resource and Environmental Geography at the University of Bamenda. Prior to this, he was Senior Lecturer/Researcher and Head of Department of Geography and Environmental Studies at CATUC. He worked as Consultant on Sustainable Development and Coordinator of Research, Consultancy and Publications Division at the Pan African Institute for Development – West Africa. He is an Associate Editor for Nature Social Sciences (Springer); an Editor for Scientific African (Elsevier); and editorial board member for Environmental Research Communications (IOPscience), Forest Policy and Economics (Elsevier) and Canadian Journal of Tropical Geography (Laurentian University – Canada). Since 2018, he has been serving as Facilitator at a United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) International Postgraduate Course on Environmental Management for Developing Countries. He is a Pioneer Fellow of the Cameroon Academy of Young Scientists (CAYS), an Associate Fellow of the African Academy of Sciences and a Board Member of the Global Environmental Non-Migration Network.

Richard Achia Mbih is an Assistant Teaching Professor of African Studies and Rural Sociology at the Pennsylvania State University. He holds a PhD in Geography from the University of Missouri-Kansas City. His research interests focus on agro-pastoralism, natural resource conflicts, environment and development studies in sub-Saharan Africa.

Roland Azibo Balgah is Associate Professor of Development Studies at the University of Bamenda (UBa), Cameroon, and a Volkswagen Foundation Research Fellow. He holds a Dr Agriculturarum from MLU, Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. Prior to engaging with UBa, he coordinated several development projects in Africa and was Dean of Studies at the Pan African Institute for Development in West Africa (PAID-WA). His research focusses on human–nature interactions, the sustainability of both, thrusting on hazards and livelihoods. He is editorial board member of several journals and member of Emerald Literati Network. He is credited with 3 postdoctoral research experiences and over 80 publications.

Henry Ngenyam Bang is a scholar in African disaster management with substantial teaching, research and professional experience in Africa and the United Kingdom. He has been lead researcher in several disaster management projects at the national, regional and local levels in many African countries. Additionally, he is a Disaster Management Trainer with the Bournemouth University Disaster Management Centre (BUDMC0). He has a strong track record for high-quality publications on disaster management and related themes in top international journals. His background is in Geology (BSc, MSc) obtained in Africa and International Development (PhD) obtained in the United Kingdom.

Jeremiah Ogaga Ejemeyovwi holds a PhD Economics degree with a successful academic and work track record. He naturally tends to maximise opportunities through the successful development and implementation of well-researched and successful initiatives. He is a research fellow at Center for Economic Development and Policy Research (CEPDeR). He was also the best doctoral graduate in the Department of Economics and Development and the College of Management and Social Sciences, Covenant University, Nigeria. He has authored several high-impact published papers in the field of Knowledge Economics, Development and Energy Economics.

Evans Stephen Osabuohien is a Professor of Economics and Head of Department at Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria. In 2020, he was recognised as one of the six youngest professors in Nigeria. He pioneered the Centre for Economic Policy and Development Research (CEPDeR) as well as the Regional Centre of Expertise, Ogun State (RCE Ogun) at Covenant University. He is a Visiting Professor at Witten/Herdecke University, Germany, and Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique. He is a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and Swedish Institute, among others. He has published 3 books and over 150 scholarly articles. He is a member of numerous professional associations, a reviewer and editorial board member for many journals.

Oseghale Baryl Ihayere is a PhD candidate in the Department of Economics and Development Studies at Covenant University, Nigeria. He is an Academic Staff at the National Institute of Construction Technology and Management where he lectures macroeconomics, quantitative finance, applied statistics. He is also the Acting Head of the Department of Statistics. To further boost his knowledge base and contribution to knowledge, he was recently inducted as a Research Associate, Centre for Economic Policy and Development Research. His research areas include development economics, inclusive growth and applied economics. When he is not teaching, he contributes to impact programmes as a child rights advocate where he sits on the board of directors of various non-governmental organisations such as G.I.V.E Foundation, Target a Child, Art and Child.

Olanrewaju Olaniyi Omosehin holds a master’s degree (MAgricTech) in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, and bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Economics from Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State. He also holds a mini MBA from Tekedia Institute, Boston, USA. He has some publications to his name with several others under review in a reputable journal. His research interest is focussed on international trade, agribusiness management, agricultural economics, production economics, econometrics, welfare economics and policy analysis. He’s a member of many professional bodies including International Food and Agribusiness Management Association.

Angie Osarieme Igbinoba is a budding academic scholar, researcher and educator who holds a BSc and an MSc in Mass Communication. She has natural abilities and competency skills in various forms of communication, proofreading/editing, counselling/consultation (academic & non-academic), entrepreneurship, teaching and research. Her general teaching/research interests cover communication and leadership issues, communication and management issues, communication and legal/ethical issues, communication and religious/moral issues, communication and educational issues, communication and media issues as well as communication and science/technology issues. Her central research focus is Health Communication (which cuts across human health, animal health, plant health, occupational health and environmental health).

Theobald Mue Nji holds a PhD in Sociology from the University of Buea. He holds three master’s degrees: MSc in Sociology from the University of Buea, MSc in Anthropology of Health and Development from The University of Douala and MPhil in the Teaching of Philosophy from The University of Yaounde I, all in Cameroon. He has over 25 publications and 17 years of professional working experience. He lectures at the Universities of Buea and Bamenda University of Science and Technology and researches at Research Foundation in Tropical Diseases and Environment. His research interest is in climate change-related hazards and disasters, control of emerging and neglected tropical diseases, behaviour change patterns and sustainable development.

Ayienda Kemunto Carolynne holds a Master of Science degree in Statistics from University of Nairobi-Kenya and Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics from the University of Nairobi-Kenya. She has 12 years of professional working experience. She works with National Drought Management Authority Kenya whose mandate is drought risk management and adaptation to climate change. Her research interests are in climate change, disaster risk reduction, food security in changing climate, community sustainable development and support for girl and boy child education from vulnerable communities. She is extremely passionate about climate change and food security.

Emmanuel Yenshu Vubo, who is Professor of Sociology at the Department of Sociology and Anthropology of the University of Buea, holds a doctorate from the University of Yaoundé (1991). Postdoctoral studies at the Universities of Poitiers and Besançon led to the Habilitation (2009). He has published a wide variety of books (single authored or edited), articles and book chapters in the domains of sociology and anthropology with a more recent concern in environmental issues (climate change, hazards and disasters). He is a Fellow of the College of Social Sciences of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences.

Emmanuel Innocents Edoun holds a PhD from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, in Public Sector Economics. He has well-grounded working experience in rural and urban settings in South Africa and abroad in this field, and wide interaction experience with policymakers, implementers and community members across Africa. He is endowed with excellent organisational management skills. He has supervised many postgraduate students and has published many articles in DHET-accredited journals and has conference experiences in Africa, Europe and Canada. Currently, he works at Tschwane School of Business and Society in South Africa.

Genevieve Fotso Bakam holds a PhD in Quality and Operations Management with a focus in digitalisation and management processes from the University of Johannesburg in South Africa. Previously, she worked as IT Consultant on Management Software in many companies in Africa such as Barloworld Logistics, Incledon in South Africa; Heineken Breweries in Ethiopia; and National Electricity Company in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Currently, she is Senior Research Associate at the University of Johannesburg in South Africa. She has published articles in DHET-accredited journals and was lead scientist for ‘Disaster Risk management in South Africa’ Project in 2019.

Lydia Kwoyiga holds a PhD in Environmental Science from Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. She holds two master’s degrees: MSc in International Environmental Studies from Norwegian University of Life Sciences and MPhil in Development Geography from University of Oslo all in Norway. She has about 10 years of professional working experience. She works at the University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana, since 2013 as a lecturer. Her research area straddles groundwater and local livelihoods, institutions and the environment, climate change adaptation, rural women and agriculture, community-based ecotourism and sustainable development and higher education.

Ebenezer Owusu-Sekyere is a Professor of Human Geography at the University for Development Studies, Ghana. He holds a PhD in Geography and Resource Development; Masters in Geography and Resource Development, from the University of Ghana and BEd(Hons) in Social Science with specialisation in Geography from the University of Cape Coast. His research interests include urban environment and governance, waste management, informal sector and disaster management. He has over 15 years of professional working experience and has collaborated with local and international partners on several research and development projects, funded by DFID, WFP and the World Bank, among others.


More than ever before, disaster risk reduction (DRR) and disaster risk management (DRM) policies, institutional frameworks, processes and related issues are gaining increasing importance at national, regional and international levels. The importance is not surprising, given the current surging levels of hazards and disasters and their future predictions. According to the Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR, 2019), multi-hazards affected over 88 million people worldwide between 1997 and 2017. Floods alone are accounting for almost 88% (76 million) of those affected by natural hazards and disasters.1 In the past 50 years, some 11,000 mostly weather-related disasters (such as floods and droughts) claimed over 2 million lives, leaving behind economic losses to the tune of US$3.6 trillion. Thirty-five percentage of deaths related to weather, climate and water extremes occurred in Africa (WMO, 2020). Two of the three top affected countries (Kenya and South Africa) are in sub-Saharan Africa (CRED, 2019). In the absence of sufficient efforts, the number of people affected by disasters will surge by 50% in 2030 (UNDRR, 2019). A rapid paradigm reversal at global and regional levels is needed to backstop natural disaster effects. Policies that move from response strategies towards disaster preparedness, risk reduction and mitigation are urgently needed (Buchenrieder, Brandl, & Balgah, 2021).

The international community recognises this and has made tremendous efforts in the last decade towards DRR. The two key instruments in this direction are the Hyogo Framework for Action (2005–2015) and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015–2030). Both are indicators of international political will to rapidly drift from disaster management towards risk reduction.2 It then becomes imperative for developing countries, which are currently hardest hit by hazards and disasters to develop policy frameworks which align with these international instruments (UNISDR, 2021; WMO, 2020). In fact, about 80% of the world’s poorest countries will be living in fragile contexts by 2030 if considerable efforts are not made to enhance and strengthen DRR strategies in these countries (OECD, 2018).

Over 90% of the world’s current poorest countries are located in Africa, the bulk of them in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, sub-Saharan Africa is hardest hit by natural hazards and disasters in Africa (UNDRR, 2019). The presence of widespread poverty and increasing natural disasters suggest an urgent need for policies and institutions, to backstop the escalation of hazards and disasters in the short run and their potential transformation into complex emergencies in the long run.3 What is the current state of policy and institutional frameworks in sub-Saharan African countries? What challenges or shortcomings abound? How do these policies resonate with the African Union’s strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (AU-DRR)? To what extent does the AU-DRR align with international risk reduction frameworks? This edited volume provides urgently needed initial responses to these questions.

To set the stage, Chapter 1 presents a review of key concepts commonly used in the disaster parlance. This is intended as a quick reminder for experts in the field and to motivate understanding for non-expert readers. Chapter 2 reviews key international DRM frameworks, particularly the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Hyogo Framework for Action. This is important to eventually situate the African policies within important international regime frameworks. Chapter 3 critically assesses the AU-DRR strategy. Central to this is the analysis of processes, institutions and arrangements that shaped the development of the AU-DRR strategy document and the AU-DRR’s alignment to international expectations. Chapters 4 and 5 analyse policies and institutional frameworks for DRR in Cameroon (Central Africa) and Nigeria (West Africa), respectively. These five review-based chapters constitute the first part of this book: A Review of Disaster Management Concepts and Policy Processes.

Part II of this book, Disaster Management Institutions, Policy and Processes: Empirical Evidence, constitutes three empirically oriented chapters from Kenya (Eastern Africa), The Republic of South Africa (Southern Africa) and Ghana (West Africa), respectively.

This edited volume contributes to the contextual knowledge on DRM in sub-Saharan Africa. It also contains an extensive glossary of disaster-related terms, which can be helpful to students, lecturers, other scholars and policy actors within and outside of the disaster management discipline. It is my fervent expectation that different actors will optimise the potentials offered by the insights of the scholarly contribution to DRR and DRM.

Gertud Buchenrieder (1 October 2021)

Universität der Bundeswehr München (UniBw M)

Department of Social Sciences and Public Affairs

RISK (Risk, Infrastructure, Security and Conflict) Research Center

Professor for Development Economics and Policy

Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39

85577 Neubiberg, Germany


1By definition, hazards are potentially damaging physical events capable of inflicting injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation (UNDRR, 2020). Disasters seriously disrupt the normal functioning of communities and societies, inflicting widespread (human, economic, material and environmental) losses, superseding the capacity of the affected to cope, based on endogenous resources (UNDRR, 2009). Disasters only occur when existing conditions favour the transformation of hazards into damaging events, which exceed endogenous coping capacities, demanding external interventions (UNDRR, 2015).

2On the one hand, UN (2017) defines disaster risk reduction (DRR) as the application of policies and strategies to prevent new disaster risk and to reduce existing disaster risk. On the other hand, disaster risk management (DRM) ought to contribute to the strengthening of resilience and reduction of disaster losses. This definition suggests that DRR measures are mostly ex ante (e.g. obtaining an insurance policy), while DRM is largely ex post (e.g. paying out insurance premiums).

3A complex emergency is said to exist when humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society results from considerable breakdown of endogenous processes (such as ethnic conflicts and political decay), requiring an international response exceeding the mandate or capacity of the United Nations or any other mandated humanitarian organisation (Albala-Bertrand, 2000).


  • Albala-Bertrand, J. M. (2000). Responses to complex humanitarian emergencies and natural disasters: An analytical comparison. Third World Quarterly, 21(2), 215–227.

  • Buchenrieder, G., Brandl, J., & Balgah, R. A. (2021). The perception of flood risks – A case study of Babessi in rural Cameroon. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 12(4), 1–21.

  • CRED. (2019). Disasters in Africa: 20 year review (2000–2019). CRED Crunch Issue 56. Brussels: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED).

  • OECD. (2018). States of fragility 2018. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from Accessed on March 15, 2021.

  • UN. (2017). Sustainable development: Risk reduction report of the open-ended intergovernmental expert working group on indicators and terminology relating to disaster risk reduction. New York, NY: United Nations (UN) General Assembly (UN A/71/644). Retrieved from Accessed on March 15, 2021.

  • UNDRR. (2009). UNISDR terminology on disaster risk reduction. Geneva: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR). Retrieved from Accessed on September 30, 2021.

  • UNDRR. (2015). The pocket GAR 2015. Making development sustainable. The future of disaster risk management. Geneva: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR). Retrieved from Accessed on September 30, 2021.

  • UNDRR. (2019). Global assessment report (GAR) on disaster risk reduction – 2019. Geneva: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR). Retrieved from Accessed on September 30, 2021.

  • UNDRR. (2020). Terminology. Online glossary. Geneva: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR). Retrieved from Accessed on May 21, 2021.

  • UNDRR. (2021). United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction – 2020 annual report. Geneva: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDDR).

  • WMO. (2020). State of climate services. Risk information and early warning systems. Geneva: World Meteorological Organization (WMO).


We acknowledge the following institutions for their support in this edited volume:

  • The Volkswagen Foundation, Germany, in the form of a Postdoctoral Extension Grant (Grant No. 94 662, 2018–2020) on the topic: ‘Analyzing Policy and institutional Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa’.

  • The Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study – STIAS, Stellenbosch, South Africa, by providing logistic and financial support for Guest Researcher stay by the lead author at STIAS, from 1 May to 11 June 2021.

  • The Technische Universitat Dresden (Faculty of Environmental Science) for providing the necessary working space and research environment to realise this project.