Middle-Power Responses to China’s BRI and America’s Indo-Pacific Strategy

ISBN: 978-1-80117-024-6, eISBN: 978-1-80117-023-9

Publication date: 14 April 2022


(2022), "Prelims", Karalekas, D., Liu, F.-k. and Moldicz, C. (Ed.) Middle-Power Responses to China’s BRI and America’s Indo-Pacific Strategy, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xi.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2022 Dean Karalekas, Fu-kuo Liu, and Csaba Moldicz. Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited

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Middle-Power Responses to China's BRI and America's Indo-Pacific Strategy

Title Page

Middle-Power Responses to China's BRI and America's Indo-Pacific Strategy: A Transformation of Geopolitics

Edited by

Dean Karalekas

University of Central Lancashire, UK

Fu-kuo Liu

National Chengchi University, Taiwan


Csaba Moldicz

Budapest Business School, Hungary

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley BD16 1WA, UK

First edition 2022

Editorial matter and selection © 2022 Dean Karalekas, Fu-kuo Liu, and Csaba Moldicz

Individual chapters © 2022 the authors

Published under exclusive licence by Emerald Publishing Limited.

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ISBN: 978-1-80117-024-6 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-80117-023-9 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-80117-025-3 (Epub)

About the Editors

Dean Karalekas is a Research Fellow affiliated with the Centre for Austronesian Studies at the University of Central Lancashire in Preston, UK. He is also Cofounder and Editor-at-Large of Strategic Vision for Taiwan Security, published by the Taiwan Center for Security Studies and the ROC's National Defense University. His research focuses on civil–military relations, self-identification, nation building, and traditional ecological knowledge. He spent several years as a journalist, educator, and immigration consultant in East Asia, and authored the book Civil-Military Relations in Taiwan: Identity and Transformation.

Fu-Kuo Liu is a Research Fellow at the Institute of International Relations and Professor in the International Doctoral Program in Asia Pacific Studies (IDAS), College of Social Sciences, National Chengchi University. He is also Director of the Taiwan Center for Security Studies (TCSS). His research focuses on Asia-Pacific security, Asian regionalism, national security, and the South China Sea, the peace process across the Taiwan Strait, US strategy in Asia, Asian maritime security, and Taiwan foreign and security policy.

Csaba Moldicz, PhD, is Associate Professor at the Department of International Relations, Faculty of International Business and Management, Budapest Business School, Hungary. His main research area is the economic integration process of the European Union and China, with a special focus on the Central and Eastern European region. Currently, he is a Head of Research at Oriental Business and Innovation Centre, which was established in 2016 by the Budapest Business School and the Central Bank of Hungary. He is an Associate Research Fellow of the Institute for Foreign Affairs and Trade (Hungary) and the China-CEE Institute.

About the Contributors

Rommel C. Banlaoi is President of the Philippine Association for Chinese Studies (PACS) and a member of the Management Board of the World Association for Chinese Studies (WACS). He is also a Professorial Lecturer at the Department of International Studies of Miriam College Philippines, an Adjunct Professor at the National Institute of South China Sea Studies in Hainan, Chairman of the Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research (PIPVTR), and a member of the board of the China-Southeast Asian Research Center on the South China Sea (CSARC).

Tobias Burgers is a Project Assistant Professor at the Cyber Civilization Research Center, Keio Global Research Institute, Keio University, where he is researching a wide array of topics regarding the (further) integration of cyber technologies into our societies. His research explores how new technologies change the dynamics of conflict and subsequently, the relationship between conflict, politics, and society. He is increasingly interested in understanding how new technologies are changing the relationship between states and citizens in East Asia, and in particular, the high-tech governance model of China.

Pál Gyene is an Associate Professor at Budapest Business School, Faculty of International Management and Business. His main fields of research are comparative politics and transitology, with a special focus on the post-Soviet Central Asian region.

Hank Lim is Director for research at the Singapore Institute of International Affairs. He has extensive experience and exposure in international and regional cooperation issues. His areas of specialization include ASEAN, APEC and East Asian economies. He was the first Singapore Representative to the APEC Eminent Persons Group (EPG). From 1990 to 1993, he served as the first Director General of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) International Secretariat in Singapore.

To-hai Liou is a Professor of diplomacy and Director of the Center for WTO Studies at the College of International Affairs, National Chengchi University. He has been a Visiting Fellow at the University of Melbourne (2001–2002), the University of Calgary (2002), Australian National University (2006–2007), Masaryk University (2008 and 2009) in the Czech Republic, Hallym University of Graduate Studies (2010), and at the Centre for Dialogue at La Trobe University (2011) under the Executive Endeavour Award of the Australian Government and Kyungpook National University. He is the author or coauthor of multiple books on Korea. He received his PhD from the University of Arizona.

Patrick Mendis is a former American Diplomat and military Professor, and is currently a Taiwan Fellow of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China and a distinguished Visiting Professor of Global Affairs at the National Chengchi University in Taipei.

W. Lawrence S Prabhakar is currently an Author, Researcher and Professor of International Relations and Strategic Studies. He is Advisor to the Centre for Public Policy Research, Kochi, India and formerly Associate Professor Department of Political Science at Madras Christian College in Chennai, India. He specializes in academic and policy research on the following areas: Nuclear Missile issues in Southern Asia; on Maritime Security issues in the Indian Ocean and the Asia Pacific Region, Grand Strategy of China and on research in India-United States Strategic Relations; Grand Strategy of India.

Mor Sobol is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Diplomacy and International Relations at Tamkang University, as well as an Affiliated Research Fellow at the European Union Centre in Taiwan (EUTW). His main research interests center on European and Chinese foreign policy, Mediterranean politics, Taiwan/China–Israel relations, and institutionalist theories.

Judit Szilágyi is an Assistant Professor at the Budapest Business School. Her main fields of research are global shifts in economic and political power between the US and China and specific areas of the Belt and Road Initiative. She previously worked as a research fellow at the Institute of World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and more recently has conducted research projects with the Oriental Business and Innovation Center of the Budapest Business School, including a research scholarship at Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto, Japan.

Joey Wang is a Defense Analyst as well as an Alumnus of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.

Teodora Wiesenmayer is an Editor at Budapest's Helikon Publishing and formerly served as Head of International Affairs at Budapest Business School, Faculty of International Management and Business. She received her Doctorate from the Modern English and American Literature Programme at Eötvös Loránd University's Faculty of Humanities, Doctoral School of Literature and Literary Theory. She also holds an MA in International Relations, and has qualified as an International Relations Expert.

Hon-min Yau is an Assistant Professor at the Graduate Institute of Strategic Studies (GISS), War College, ROC National Defense University. He received his PhD from the Department of International Politics at Aberystwyth University in Wales. His research interests focus on global security, technology, and national security policy.

Ruei-Lin Yu received his PhD from the Graduate Institute of National Development, National Taiwan University. He also holds an MS of Electronic Engineering from New York's Columbia University and an MA in International Relations from Salve Regina University. He also graduated from the Naval Staff College of the United States for his military degree. He currently serves as an Associate Professor and the Director of Graduate Institute of Strategic Studies, National Defense University, ROC. He is also an active-duty Navy Caption who spent more than 10 years at sea. His research fields include international relations theory, international law and politics of the sea, social system theory, national security, and nontraditional security.

Part 1 Perspectives on the Competing BRI-FOIP Strategies
Chapter 1 Geopolitical Templates, Trends, and Transformation: The Evolving Maritime Security Architecture and Implications for the Indo-Pacific
Chapter 2 Analysis of Legal Warfare and Corresponding Actions in the South China Sea
Chapter 3 Clash of Interests between China and the United States along the Development of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road
Chapter 4 The Romance of Three Economic Blocs: EU-China Economic Relations Evolving in an Era of Uncertainty
Part 2 Responses by Individual Countries/Regions
Chapter 5 Europe-Asia Connectivity Strategy: A Balancing Act vis-à-vis China's Belt and Road Initiative?
Chapter 6 China's Central Asian Nexus and the New Silk Road Project: Comparing the Cases of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan
Chapter 7 The Sino-American Geopolitics and Geo-Economics from Taiwan to Sri Lanka and beyond
Chapter 8 ASEAN's Perspective on the Belt and Road Initiative and Indo-Pacific Strategy
Chapter 9 Philippine National Security Interests and Responses to China's Belt and Road Initiative and US Indo-Pacific Strategy
Part 3 Competition in the Digital Domain
Chapter 10 Great Power Politics on Information and Communications Technology: Between the United States’ Blue Dot Network and China's Belt and Road Initiative
Chapter 11 The Fight for Economic and Digital Supremacy in the New Bipolar World Order: The EU's Response to Global Challenges
Chapter 12 Assessing the Economic and Political Success of the Digital Silk Road throughout the Indo-Pacific Region