Index

Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen (VIVE – The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark)
Peder J. Pedersen (Department of Economics, Aarhus University & VIVE – The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark)

Soldiers on International Missions

ISBN: 978-1-78973-032-6, eISBN: 978-1-78973-031-9

Publication date: 24 July 2019

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Lyk-Jensen, S.V. and Pedersen, P.J. (2019), "Index", Soldiers on International Missions, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 191-199. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78973-031-920191012

Publisher

:

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen and Peder J. Pedersen


INDEX

Administrative records
, 19

Age-dependent relationship
, 92

Alcohol consumption
, 8

Alcohol dependency
, 158

All-volunteer forces (AVFs)
, 1

Anti-depressives
, 158

Antipsychotics
, 158

Anxiety-relieving medicines
, 158

Arbejdsskadestryelsen (ASK)
, 5, 166

Armed Forces Day (AFD)
, 18–19, 23, 151–153, 182

Army chaplain
, 58

Army Operational Command
, 23

of soldiers
, 13

Army Reaction Force Training
, 28

Army Standing Reaction Force
, 47

Army Training Reaction Force
, 47

Average treatment effect on the treated (ATET)
, 19

Backgrounds before deployment
, 28–31

‘Battlemind − Homemind’ Project
, 60

Børge Prien Prøve (BPP)
, 32–33, 34

Børge Prien test
, 32–33

Cannabis consumption among soldiers
, 103–104, 105

Civilian job market
, 32

Combat situations
, 83

Compensation and reimbursement
, 61

Comradeship
, 50, 85

Contacts per person with psychiatric health care service
, 156

Contracts and employment types, military
, 74

Criminality

before to after deployment
, 137–138

among first-timers
, 37–40

among soldiers
, 130–140

in control group
, 136

deployed and control group, difference in
, 136–137

deployment effect
, 139

logistic regression
, 134–136

measuring
, 131

observations
, 131–132

population
, 131

probability
, 135

violent crime
, 132–133, 138

Danish Armed Forces (DAF)
, 1, 65

Danish Health Authority
, 101

Danish International Brigade (DIB)
, 24–26, 74

Danish Ministry of Defence
, 43

Danish Psychiatric Central register
, 142

Danish veterans
, 183

Debriefing with psychologist
, 58

Defined daily doses (DDD)
, 163, 165

Defusing
, 58

Deployed populations
, 20

Deployed stratified by military characteristics
, 146–147

Deployed women soldiers
, 32

motivation
, 114

Deployment

age
, 29

deployed soldiers, recruitment and training
, 24–26

effect
, 139

family situation
, 30–31

gender among deployed soldiers
, 28, 29

missions by country
, 25

mission type
, 25

number by mission
, 26

number of
, 27

out-of-home care
, 31

selection criteria and factors
, 26

soldier deployed, number of times
, 27

Deployment, health profile before and after

analysis of mortality
, 175–182

deployed soldiers
, 175–180

deployed and the control groups
, 151–154

diagnoses
, 145–150

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
, 145–147

registration
, 147–149

soldiers deployment
, 150

first-time deployed in 2002
, 154–155

medication for mental health-related disease and substance abuse
, 158–164

mental health medication
, 158

purchase of
, 158–164

military office of industrial injuries and compensation (FAEK)
, 169–175

wounded, repatriated or reporting a work-related injury
, 171–172

psychiatric diagnoses
, 142

among the deployed between 1995 and 2010
, 142–144

psychiatric diagnosis after deployment
, 150–151

psychiatric service, contacts with
, 155–158

substance abuse among the deployed, 1996-2010
, 164–166

medication purchase
, 165

mental problems
, 165–166

work-related injuries
, 166–169

and occupational disease
, 166–169

Depressive illness
, 147

Descriptive analyses
, 6

Dichotomous transformation
, 115

motivation
, 115

Difference-in-differences (DID) method
, 19

Disability pension
, 78, 79

Divorced household
, 71–72

Draft day
, 23

Draft session
, 18–19

Drug and alcohol consumption, veterans
, 101–105

Drug Database (Lægemiddeldatabasen)
, 158

Educational background and intelligence test results
, 31–33

Employment contracts
, 67

Engagement risk in fighting
, 109

Experiences during mission

combat situations
, 83

duties during deployment
, 82–83

family tradition, evidence for
, 82

objective factors
, 80–81

subjective factors
, 84

External support groups
, 61

Family members, psychological well-being
, 50–51

Financial crisis
, 34–35, 78

Financial incentives
, 107–108

Financial situation before and after deployment

and criminality
, 18–19

debt among deployed
, 121, 123–125, 127–128

difference-indifference regressions
, 130

disposable income
, 122–123, 124–125

economic incentives
, 121

home ownership
, 124–125

questionnaire
, 121

socio-demographic background variables
, 129

variables in analysis

one-time and many-time deployed
, 122

population
, 122

First-time deployments
, 35–36

First-timers soldiers
, 34–35

Forsvarets Arbejdsskade- og Erstatningskontor (FAEK)
, 166, 169–175

Forsvarets Personeltjeneste (FPT)
, 60

Forsvarets Sundhedstjeneste (FSU)
, 59

‘Front-line’ situation
, 1

Gulf war
, 184

Haerens Konstabelog Korporal Forening (HKKF)
, 61–62

Haerens Operative Kommando (HOK)
, 23

Haerens Reaktionsstyrke Uddannelse (HRU)
, 47

Haerens Staaende ReaktionsStyrke (SRS)
, 47

‘Hard’ mission
, 58–59

Health profile before and after deployment
, 141

analysis
, 19–21

analysis of mortality
, 175–182

deployed soldiers
, 175–180

deployed and the control groups
, 151–154

diagnoses
, 145–150

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
, 145–147

registration
, 147–149

soldiers deployment
, 150

first-time deployed in 2002
, 154–155

medication for mental health-related disease and substance abuse
, 158–164

mental health medication
, 158

purchase of
, 158–164

military office of industrial injuries and compensation (FAEK)
, 169–175

wounded, repatriated or reporting a work-related injury
, 171–172

outcomes in analysis
, 20

psychiatric diagnoses
, 142

among the deployed between 1995 and 2010
, 142–144

psychiatric diagnosis after deployment
, 150–151

psychiatric service, contacts with
, 155–158

substance abuse among the deployed, 1996-2010
, 164–166

medication purchase
, 165

mental problems
, 165–166

work-related injuries
, 166–169

and occupational disease
, 166–169

Heaping effect
, 167

Highest ranked psychiatric diagnoses
, 148

Highest risk category soldiers
, 63

Homecoming soldiers

criminality
, 130–140

financial situation before and after deployment
, 121–130

motivations, before-and-after analysis
, 108–121

Housing, owned and rented
, 71

IFOR
, 24, 151, 157

Improvised explosive devices (IEDs)
, 42

Income and socio-economic status
, 33–37

Individual deployments
, 87, 90

Industrial Injuries Board (ASK)
, 172–174

Institute for Military Psychology (IMP)
, 58–59, 84

Intelligence tests
, 6

International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)
, 142

International military

deployment, recommendation
, 91

mission
, 108

Interview-based surveys
, 2

Interview data
, 14–17

INTOPS data
, 13

‘Invisible’ veterans
, 184

Iraq
, 24

war
, 143

ISAF
, 24

Job market
, 36

K35
, 74, 78

contract
, 67

KFOR
, 24

Labour market
, 36

Last deployment and seniority, military
, 73–74

Leadership
, 49–50

during deployment
, 90

Legal rights
, 63

Logistic regression
, 161–162, 176–177

criminality
, 134–136

on probability of dying after deployment
, 177

Many-times deployed soldiers
, 66, 91

Maturation and masculinity
, 47

Media coverage, returning home
, 53–54

Medication

for mental illness
, 158–164

for substance abuse
, 158–164

mental health medication
, 158

purchase of
, 158–164

Mental disorders
, 153

Mental health medication
, 10, 142, 183–184

Mental illness
, 141

after deployment
, 173

Mild-traumatic brain injury (MTBI)
, 143

Military

contracts and employment types
, 74

Denmark’s International Brigade (DIB)
, 74

duties
, 48

hardware
, 48

K35
, 74

last deployment and seniority
, 73–74

leaving reason
, 77–78

respondents
, 73

technical volunteers
, 74

true volunteers
, 74

veterans

contract type and employment status
, 74

educational status of
, 75–77

volunteer status on entry
, 74, 75

volunteering for military service
, 74–75

work after
, 78–79

Military Health Service
, 59

Military Office of Industrial Injuries and Compensation (FAEK)
, 166, 169–175, 172–174

wounded, repatriated or reporting a work-related injury
, 171–172

Military Personnel Service
, 60

Military Privates and Corporals Union
, 61–62, 99–100

Military’s employment contracts
, 67

Military social workers
, 62

Ministry of Defence Personnel Administration
, 26

Mission bums
, 48, 91

Missions

experiences and subsequent careers

drug and alcohol consumption
, 101–105

experiences during mission
, 79–84

one-time deployment, subjective experiences of
, 84–91

path into and out of military
, 72–79

repatriated
, 92

self-assessed psychological and physical problems
, 93–96

social relationships and health
, 96–101

veterans, demographic profile
, 66–72

veterans’ smoking habits
, 101–105

wounded soldiers
, 92–93

and number of deployments, types
, 24–28

type, psychological well-being
, 49

Mortality
, 141

analysis of
, 175–182

Motivation
, 19, 107

before and after deployment
, 109–114

deployed women soldiers
, 114

dichotomous transformation
, 115

ISAF 11 and UNIFIL 4
, 109

missions and
, 110–114

motivational variables
, 116

multiple correspondence analysis (MCA)
, 110, 114–119

from other-oriented to self-oriented factors
, 109–110

personnel groups
, 114

ratings of
, 113

self-oriented gain
, 116

self-oriented motivation
, 116–118

social background variables
, 116

statements
, 18

structuring and supplementary variables
, 115

supplementary variables describing self-oriented
, 118, 119

Motivational variables
, 116

Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA)
, 110, 114–119

National Board of Industrial Health
, 19

National Board of Industrial Injuries
, 5, 166

National Health Service
, 165–166

Networks, returning home
, 53

Non-combat-related injuries
, 8

Non-commissioned officers (NCO)
, 28, 63

Non-observed personal characteristics
, 19

Occupational disease
, 166–169

Office of Industrial Injury and Compensation for the Military
, 19

One-time and many-time deployed soldiers
, 159

One-time deployed
, 66

One-time deployment, subjective experiences of

negative statements
, 88, 89

families, partners and friends
, 88–89

individual deployments
, 90

leadership during deployment
, 90

recommend international military deployment
, 91

repatriated and wounded veterans
, 90

service status
, 90

veterans with several deployments
, 91

positive statements

comradeship
, 85

experiences in relation to civilian life
, 88

individual deployment
, 87

situations handling
, 85–86

veterans in former Yugoslavia
, 86–87

veterans in service
, 87

Peace-enforcing (PE) missions
, 1, 5, 88, 183

Peace-keeping missions
, 88

Peacekeeping (PK) missions
, 1, 5, 183

Pension
, 78

Personal identification numbers (CPR)
, 5, 13, 14

Physical injuries

returning home
, 54

and support programmes
, 60

Post-concussion syndrome
, 143

Post-traumatic brain injury
, 143

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
, 61, 145–147, 168

diagnosis
, 141–142

numbers of deployed with
, 145–147

Pre-deployment income
, 35–36

Privates income
, 34–35

Property crimes
, 37–38

Psychiatric diagnoses
, 142, 143, 157, 174

during 1995-2010
, 154

after deployment
, 150–151

among the deployed between 1995 and 2010
, 142–144

F32 and F33
, 163

Psychiatric health service
, 142, 155

Psychiatric problems
, 28

Psychiatric service
, 155–158

Psychoactive substance abuse
, 142, 153

Psychological damage
, 61, 88

Psychological problems
, 142

see also deployment, health profile before and after

Psychological reactions, returning home
, 55

Psychological well-being, during deployment

comradeship
, 50

family members
, 50–51

leadership
, 49–50

mission type
, 49

recognition from society
, 51

Psychostimulants
, 158

Qualitative interviews
, 5–6, 7, 14–15

Questionnaire-based data
, 13

Questionnaire study of motivation
, 17–18

Recognition by society, returning home
, 53

Recognition from society, psychological well-being
, 51

Records-based data
, 13–14

Re-deployment
, 149

Regression analysis
, 160

of the probability
, 150–151

Relatives, returning home
, 56

Repatriated and wounded veterans
, 41–43, 90, 92

Respondents
, 15, 16

Response rate, background factors
, 15, 16

Returning home, international military mission

after deployment

media coverage
, 53–54

networks
, 53

physical injuries
, 54

positive consequences
, 55–56

psychological reactions
, 55

recognition by society
, 53

relatives
, 56

return home to family
, 52

before, during and after deployment
, 45–47

motivations and preparation, before deployment
, 47–48

psychological well-being, during deployment
, 49–52

system and challenges
, 57

system − status in 2010

defusing, debriefing and army chaplain
, 57–58

gaps in system, challenges
, 62–64

psychological effects and physical injuries
, 58–62

selection and preparation
, 57

Scandinavian countries
, 1–2

Schizophrenia
, 153

Sedatives
, 158

Self-assessed physical injuries
, 88

Self-assessed psychological and physical problems
, 93–96

Self-assessed psychological damage
, 90

Self-assessed social relationships
, 8

Self-development
, 47

Self-oriented gain
, 116

Self-oriented motivations
, 109–110, 116–118

Self-selection and screening
, 20

Seniority
, 76–77

Sense of satisfaction
, 47

SFOR
, 24

Sleeping tablets
, 158

Smoking, veterans
, 101–105

Social background variables
, 116

Social relationships and health

support services
, 99–100

veterans

different groups of
, 97–98

and general population
, 97

morbidity
, 98–99

Socio-demographic background
, 16

Socio-demographic characteristics
, 5, 144–145

Socio-economic status
, 36

Soldiers before and during deployments

backgrounds before deployment
, 28–31

criminality among first-timers
, 37–40

educational background and intelligence test results
, 31–33

income and socio-economic status
, 33–37

missions and number of deployments, types
, 24–28

repatriated, wounded and killed soldiers
, 41–43

Soldiers deployment
, 150

Specific personality disorders
, 153

Standard mortality rate (SMR)
, 181

Statistics Denmark
, 5, 13–14, 28, 43, 79

Stress syndromes
, 28

Structuring variables
, 115

Substance abuse among the deployed, 1996-2010
, 164–166

medication purchase
, 165

mental problems
, 165–166

Supplementary variables
, 115

describing self-oriented
, 118, 119

Support programmes to relatives
, 61–62

Technical volunteers
, 74

Telephone interviews
, 15

Test and logistical regressions
, 20–21

Three-year (K3) contract
, 67

True volunteers
, 74

UNCRO
, 24

Unemployment
, 36

UNPROFOR
, 24, 151, 157

Unskilled and blue-collar employees
, 37

Veterans’

civilian status of
, 69

contract type and employment status
, 74

demographic profile
, 66–72

deployed soldiers’ ages
, 67

deployments number
, 66

different groups of
, 97–98, 99

drug and alcohol consumption
, 101–105

educational level
, 75–77

educational status of
, 75–77

family relationships of
, 68–70

in former Yugoslavia
, 86–87

and general population
, 97, 98–99

with health problems
, 63–64

housing conditions of
, 71

male
, 97, 98

mental health
, 141

morbidity
, 98–99

occupations after service
, 78, 79

in service
, 87

with several deployments
, 91

smoking habits
, 7, 101–105

upbringing
, 71–72

volunteer status on entry
, 74, 75

Vietnam war
, 175, 184

Violent crimes
, 38, 39, 138

Vocational training
, 6

Voluntary participation
, 47

Volunteering for military service
, 74–75

Work after military
, 78–79

Workers’ Compensation Insurance system
, 61

Work-related illnesses
, 166

Work-related injuries
, 10, 141, 166–169

and occupational disease
, 166–169

registered at FAEK
, 171

World War II
, 175

Wounds causes
, 41, 42

Yugoslavia
, 10