Prelims

Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen (VIVE – The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark)
Peder J. Pedersen (Department of Economics, Aarhus University & VIVE – The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark)

Soldiers on International Missions

ISBN: 978-1-78973-032-6, eISBN: 978-1-78973-031-9

Publication date: 24 July 2019

Citation

Lyk-Jensen, S.V. and Pedersen, P.J. (2019), "Prelims", Soldiers on International Missions, Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xix. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78973-031-920191001

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen and Peder J. Pedersen


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SOLDIERS ON INTERNATIONAL MISSIONS

Title Page

SOLDIERS ON INTERNATIONAL MISSIONS: THERE AND BACK AGAIN

BY

STÉPHANIE VINCENT LYK-JENSEN

VIVE – The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark

PEDER J. PEDERSEN

Department of Economics, Aarhus University & VIVE – The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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First edition 2019

Copyright © Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen and Peder J. Pedersen. Published under exclusive license.

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ISBN: 978-1-78973-032-6 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-78973-031-9 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-78973-033-3 (Epub)

List of Figures

Chapter 4
Figure 4.1. Overview of Deployments by Type of Mission, 1992–2009. 25
Figure 4.2. Division of Missions by Country, 1992–2009. 25
Figure 4.3. Total Number of Deployments by Mission, 1992–2009. 26
Figure 4.4. Number of First Deployments and All Deployments, 1992–2009. 27
Figure 4.5. Deployments from 1992 to 2009 by Number of Times Each Soldier Was Deployed. 27
Figure 4.6. Age of Soldiers Deployed for the First Time. 29
Figure 4.7. Proportion of Women among First-timers by Year of Deployment. 29
Figure 4.8. Proportion of First-timers Who are Immigrants or Descendants of Immigrants by Year of Deployment. 30
Figure 4.9. Proportion of First-timers Who were in Out-of-home Care during Their Upbringing, by Year of Military Deployment. 32
Figure 4.10. Average Results on the BPP Intelligence Test for Deployed and Not-deployed Eligible for Military Service, 1976–1987 (Year of Birth). 33
Figure 4.11. Average BPP Results for Deployed and Not-deployed Women Eligible for Military Service, 1976–1987. 34
Figure 4.12. First-timers by Income (in 2,000 prices), 1992–2009. 34
Figure 4.13. Per cent of Income of Soldiers on Their First Deployment, by Mission (in 2,000 Prices), 1992–2009. 35
Figure 4.14. Socio-economic Status of Men the Year before the First Field Deployment, 1992–2009. 36
Figure 4.15. Deployed Who Were Employed the Year before Their First Mission. Unskilled and Blue-collar Employees, 1992–2009. 37
Figure 4.16. Convictions for Property Crimes before and in the Year of Deployment, for First-timers and Men Aged 15–59 in the General Population. 38
Figure 4.17. Convictions for Violent Crimes by Year of Deployment and Separately for First-timers and Men in the Population Aged 15–59 Years. 39
Figure 4.18. Convictions among the Deployed by Year of Deployment, 1992–2009. 39
Figure 4.19. Proportion of Repatriated Soldiers and Deployments by Location of Mission. 40
Figure 4.20. Causes of Wounds for All Missions, 1992–2009.
Figure 4.21. Proportion of Wounded by Country of Mission. 42
Figure 4.22. Causes of Death. 43
Chapter 6
Figure 6.1. Civilian Status of Veterans According to Number of Deployments and Employment Status (%). 69
Figure 6.2. Veterans According to the Number of Children, by Employment Status and One or More Than One Deployment. 71
Figure 6.3. Veterans’ Current Housing Situation, Proportion with Owned Property or Rented Property. Divided by Employment Status and Deployment on One or More than One Mission. 72
Figure 6.4. Veterans by Number of Years Since Their Last Deployment and Whether They Are Still in Service. 73
Figure 6.5. Veterans Classified by Volunteer Status on Entry into the Military, by Employment Status and One or More Than One Deployment. 75
Figure 6.6. Background for Leaving the Military of Veterans No Longer in Service, by One or More Than One Deployment. 77
Figure 6.7. Veterans Sent on Single or Multiple Deployments by Year of Deployment. 81
Figure 6.8. Veterans Categorised by Per cent of Family Members Deployed Previously. 82
Figure 6.9. Reasons for Repatriation. 92
Figure 6.10. Share of Veterans Who Have Dealt with Various Support Services, Categorised as Repatriated and Wounded, and Those with Self-assessed Damage. 100
Chapter 7
Figure 7.1. Overview of the Soldiers on ISAF 11 (PE) and UNIFIL 4 (PK) Missions and Number of Deployments Includes All Previously Deployed Soldiers Who Answered Questions about Their Motivations before and after Deployment (n = 447). 109
Figure 7.2. Yearly Net Debt, by Amount Interval, from Two Years before to Five Years after Deployment. Deployed between 1999 and 2004. 2,000 Prices. 124
Figure 7.3. Median Values for Net Debt by Age Group for Each Year from Two Years before to Five Years after Deployment. Deployed between 1999 and 2004. 2,000 Prices. 125
Figure 7.4. Share of One-time and Many-time Deployed Soldiers Who Committed Crimes in the Years before, during and after the Year of Deployment. 132
Figure 7.5. The Share of One-time and Many-time Deployed Soldiers Who Committed Violent Crimes in the Years before during and after the Year of Deployment. 133
Figure 7.6. Annual Share of Those Committing a Crime among the Control and the Deployed Group, Divided into the One-time and the Many-time Deployed. 137
Figure 7.7. Annual Share of Those Committing Violent Crimes among the Control and the Deployed Group Separately. The Deployed are Divided into the One-time and the Many-time Deployed. 138
Chapter 8
Figure 8.1. Psychiatric Diagnoses during 1995–2010 in Deployed and the Control Group Born in 1975–1982. 154
Figure 8.2. Men Born in 1975–1982 with a Registered Psychiatric Diagnosis in 1995–2010, Divided into Those Deployed for the First Time in 2002 and the Control Group and into One-time and Many-time Deployed. 155
Figure 8.3. Average Number of Psychiatric Contacts in the Period for First-time Deployed in 2002 and the Control Group. 157
Figure 8.4. Deployed Soldiers and Controls Who Bought Mental Health Medication in 1995–2010, before and after Deployment. 163
Figure 8.5. Soldiers Deployed for the First Time in 2002 and the Control Group Who Bought Medicine for Mental Illnesses in 1995–2010, Divided into One-time and Many-time Deployed. 164
Figure 8.6. Average Number of Daily Doses (DDD) of Medicine for Mental Illnesses among First-time Deployed in 2002 and the Control Group. 165
Figure 8.7. Work-related Illnesses Reported to ASK in 1997–2009 among Deployed Divided by Year in Which the Accident was Reported. 170
Figure 8.8. Work-related Accidents Registered with FAEK in 1997–2009 by Year in Which the Accident Occurred. 171
Figure 8.9. Deployed Men Who Died in 1992–2009 by Year, Assessed as the Total Number of Dead and Those Dying after Coming Home. 176
Figure 8.10. Men Deployed in 1992–2009 by Cause of Death, Divided into Age Groups and Times of Death. 178
Figure 8.11. Men Deployed in 1992–2009 Who Died, by Cause of Death and the Latest Mission. 179
Figure 8.12. Men Deployed in 1992–2009, by Number of Deployments for Those Still Alive and Those Who Died. 180
Figure 8.13. Men Deployed in 1992–2009 Who Died After Returning Home, by Number of Years since the Most Recent Deployment. 181

List of Tables

Chapter 3
Table 3.1. Completion and Drop-out Rate in the Interview Survey of Previously Deployed Veterans. 15
Table 3.2. Total Response Rate in Terms of Background Factors. 16
Table 3.3. The 12 Statements of Motivation in the Analysis, Classified According to Eighmey’s (2006) Typology. 18
Chapter 6
Table 6.1. Veterans by Number of Deployments and Whether They are Still in Service or Not. 66
Table 6.2. The Deployed Soldiers’ Ages According to Whether They Are Still in Service or Not, and Whether They Have Been Deployed Only Once, or More Than Once (Age). 67
Table 6.3. Veterans Divided by Age and Sex, According to Whether They Are Still in Service or No Longer in Service, by Number of Deployments. 68
Table 6.4. Veterans Divided up by Civilian Status Currently and in the Year before Deployment (%). 70
Table 6.5. Veterans by Contract Type and Employment Status (%). 74
Table 6.6. Educational Status of Veterans at the Time of Entry into the Military and at the Time of the Questionnaire, Divided into Those in Service and Those No Longer in Service (%). 76
Table 6.7. Main Occupations for Veterans Who Have Left the Service by the Number of Years Since Their Last Deployment (%). 79
Table 6.8. Veterans Deployed Once or More Than Once by Number of Years Since Deployment (%). 80
Table 6.9. Veterans with Single Deployments by Type of Work. 83
Table 6.10. Statements about Experiences of the One-time Deployed during the Mission. 85
Table 6.11. One-time Deployed Veterans’ Rating of Enriching Statements. 86
Table 6.12. Average Assessment of Enrichment Statements by Veterans in Service and Those no Longer in Service. 87
Table 6.13. One-time Deployed Veterans’ Rating of Stressful and Negative Statements Statements. 89
Table 6.14. One-time Deployed Who Experienced Combat, by Self-assessed Psychological Problems and Age at Deployment. 93
Table 6.15. The Share of Veterans with Self-assessed Problems by Number of Years Since Last Deployment (%). 94
Table 6.16. One-time Deployed with Self-assessed Problems Divided by Missions (%). 95
Table 6.17. Many-time Deployed with Self-assessed Problems by Type of Mission, Based on the Most Recent Mission (%). 95
Table 6.18. Male Veterans and Men in the General Population Who Often Are Alone Not by Choice. 97
Table 6.19. Share of Male Veterans and of Men in the General Population Indicating That They Never or Almost Never Have Someone to Talk to If They Need to. 98
Table 6.20. Male Veterans and Men in General Who Say They Have Been Very Troubled by Pain/Discomfort Within the Last 14 Days. 99
Table 6.21. Share of Male Veterans and Men in the General Population Who Admit Exceeding the Danish Health Authority’s Recommended Low and High Alcohol Limits. 102
Table 6.22. Male Veterans and Men in General Who Drink More Than Five Drinks on the Same Occasion at Least once a Month. 103
Table 6.23. Share by Age of Male Veterans and Men in General Who Are Daily Smokers. 104
Table 6.24. Per cent of Male Veterans and of Men in General Consuming Cannabis Within the Last Year, by Age (%). 104
Chapter 7
Table 7.1. Soldiers’ Average Rating of 12 Areas of Motivation before and after Deployment. 111
Table 7.2. Average Assessment of the Motivational Factors for Deployed Soldiers on ISAF 11 (PE) by Mission Experience and the Responses before and after Deployment. 112
Table 7.3. Average Ratings of the Motivations for Deployment on UNIFIL 4 (PK), by Mission Experience and Responses before and after Deployment. 113
Table 7.4. Overview of the Social Background Variables (the Structuring Variables) and Which Axes They Contribute to in the Multiple Correspondence Analysis. 116
Table 7.5. Summary of Motivational Variables (Supplementary Variables) and the Axes They Contribute to in the Multiple Correspondence Analysis. 117
Table 7.6. Summary of Results Shown by Outcome of the Structuring Variables and Which Quadrants They Are Placed in by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis. 118
Table 7.7. Summary of Results Shown by the Outcome of Supplementary Variables Describing Self-oriented Motivations and the Quadrants They Belong to in the Multiple Correspondence Analysis. 119
Table 7.8. Summary of Results Shown by the Result of Supplementary Variables Describing the Motivations Directed towards Others and the Quadrants They Belong to in the Multiple Correspondence Analysis. 120
Table 7.9. Distribution of Disposable Annual Income among the Deployed, Spread over the Periods before, during and after Deployment. Deployment Period 1999–2007. 2,000 Prices (Percentages). 123
Table 7.10. Analysis of Debt. Before and after the Regression Analysis for All Deployed and One-time Deployed, 1999–2007. 126
Table 7.11. Socio-demographic Background Variables for Cohorts Born in 1975–1982, Shown Separately for Those Deployed for the First Time in 2002 and for the Control Group. The Variables Refer to the Status in 2001. 129
Table 7.12. Effect of Deployment on Debt. Results from the Difference-in-difference Regressions. 130
Table 7.13. Logistic Regression of the Likelihood of Committing a Crime for up to Two Years after the First Deployment for All Deployments and for One-mission Only Deployments in 1992–2007. 134
Table 7.14. Effect of Deployment on Criminality. Results from the Difference-in-differences Regression. 139
Chapter 8
Table 8.1. Deployed Soldiers by Socio-demographic Characteristics One Year before First Deployment. Deployed Registered with or without Psychiatric Diagnoses in 1995–2010 (%). 144
Table 8.2. Deployed Stratified by Military Characteristics One Year before Their First Deployment. Percentage of Deployed with and without Psychiatric Diagnoses in 1995–2010 (%). 146
Table 8.3. Deployed by Their Highest Ranked Psychiatric Diagnoses in 1995–2010, before and after First Deployment. 148
Table 8.4. Deployed Who in 1995–2010 Were Registered with At Least One of the Psychiatric Diagnoses Shown (Diagnoses not Ranked), before and after Their First Deployment. 149
Table 8.5. Deployed by Number of Years between First Deployment and First Psychiatric Diagnosis for Soldiers Deployed Once or More Than Once. 150
Table 8.6. Logistic Regression of Probability of Being Registered with a Mental Illness after Deployment. 152
Table 8.7. Contacts Per Person with the Psychiatric Health Care Service in 1995–2010 by Type of Contact and before and after First Deployment. 156
Table 8.8. One-time and Many-time Deployed Soldiers Who Bought Mental Health Medication in 1995–2010, by Number of Years between Their First Deployment and the First Purchase. 159
Table 8.9. Purchase of Medication for Mental Illness before and after First Deployment in 1995–2010. 160
Table 8.10. Logistic Regression of the Probability of Purchasing Mental Health Medication after Deployment. 161
Table 8.11. Reported Work-related Injuries among the Deployed in 1997–2009 According to ASK, by Year of Injury and Country in Which the Injury Occurred. 168
Table 8.12. Reported Work-related Injuries among the Deployed in 1997–2009 by Degree According to ASK. 169
Table 8.13. Reported Work-related Illness Recorded at ASK in 1997–2009, by Severity of the Problem. 170
Table 8.14. Work-related Accidents Registered at FAEK in 1997–2007 by Country in Which the Accident Occurred. 171
Table 8.15. Work-related Accidents Registered with FAEK in 1997–2009 by Degree of Severity. 172
Table 8.16. Logistical Regression of Probability of Being Wounded, Repatriated or Reporting a Work-related Injury in 1997–2009. 173
Table 8.17. Logistic Regression on the Probability of Dying after Deployment among Veterans in 1992–2009. 177

List of Abbreviations

BPP Børge Prien-prøven is the Danish Armed Forces intelligence test
DIB Danish International Brigade was a peacekeeping force established in 1994. It was officially disbanded on 15 February 2005
FPT Danish Ministry of Defence Personnel Agency (Forsvarets Personeltjeneste)
HBU Basic military education (Hærens Basisuddannelse)
HOK Army Operational Command (Haerens Operative Kommando, HOK)
HRU Military reaction forces education (Hærens Reaktionsstyrkeuddannelse)
IFOR NATO Implementation Force (December 1995, December 1996) in Bosnia Herzegovina
IMP Institute for Military Psychology (Institut for Militærpsykologi), since 1 January 2011: The Military Psychological Department (Militærpsykologisk Afdeling, MPA)
INTOPS International Operation
IRAQ Coalition in Iraq (2003–2007). The coalition forces was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, led by the United States of America, United Kingdom, Australia, Spain and Poland
ISAF International Security Assistance Force (2002–2014) in Afghanistan. Denmark has had deployed soldiers under the NATO-command since January 2002
KFOR NATO Kosovo Force, in Kosovo, since June 1999
MPA The Military Psychological Department (Militærpsykologisk Afdeling, MPA), before 2011: Institute for Military Psychology (Institut for Militærpsykologi, IMP)
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
SFI The Danish National Centre for Social Research. Since 1July 2007, SFI and KORA (the Danish Institute for Local and Regional Government Research) were merged into VIVE – The Danish Centre for Social Science Research. In the book, we refer to SFI for the source of data and some previous analyses
SFOR Stabilisation Force, in Bosnia Herzegovina (December 1996 to 2004)
SRS Army Standing Reaction Force (Haerens Staaende ReaktionsStyrke, SRS)
UNCRO United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation in Croatia (March 1995 to January 1996)
UNIFIL United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, since 1978, and enhanced in 2006
UNIKOM United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission, in Iraq and Kuwait (April 1991 to October 2003)
UN United Nations
UNPROFOR United Nations Protection Forces, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia (February 1992 to March 1995)
VIVE The Danish Centre for Social Science Research

About the Authors

Stéphanie Vincent Lyk-Jensen is Senior Researcher at VIVE – The Danish Center for Social Science Research. She holds a PhD in Economics. Her work focuses on quantitative methods to measure the impact of policies and interventions. Her research areas include behavioural economics, economics of health, labour economics and applied econometrics. She has studied the motivations to sign up for a military deployment, the effect of military deployment on mental health and the impact of military service on men’s income and crime. Her work is published in journals such as Defence and Peace Economics, Economics and Human Biology and Labour Economics.

Peder J. Pedersen has a Doctorate in Economics and is Professor Emeritus at Aarhus University, Denmark. Currently he is Consultant at VIVE – The Danish Centre for Social Science Research and Research Fellow at IZA, the Institute for the Study of Labour, Bonn, Germany. His research focuses on labour economics, international mobility, income distribution and poverty. He has published in books and in such journals as International Journal of Manpower, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Empirical Economics, Review of Income and Wealth and Industrial and Labour Relations Review.

Acknowledgements

The analyses reported in this book were supported by Soldaterlegatet with financial support from Tryg, Lundbeck, Novo Nordisk and Aase and Ejnar Danielsen’s funds. We are grateful to the Danish Armed Forces for facilitating data collection. We also thank Ann Fenger Benwell, Malene Damgaard, Ane Glad, Julie Heideman, Jens Kofod, Agnete Aslaug Kjær and Cecilie Dohlmann Weatherall for their contributions to the whole project.