Index

Mohamed Ismail Sabry (Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Germany)

The Development of Socialism, Social Democracy and Communism

ISBN: 978-1-78743-374-8, eISBN: 978-1-78743-373-1

Publication date: 18 August 2017

This content is currently only available as a PDF

Citation

Sabry, M. (2017), "Index", The Development of Socialism, Social Democracy and Communism, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 295-307. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78743-373-120171012

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


INDEX

Accumulation of Capital
, 37

Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein (ADAV)
, 162

Anarchists
, 15

Anti-Austrian Bismarck
, 162

Anti-Semitism
, 176

Anti-war Social Democratic party
, 177

Aristocracy
, 170

“Associationism”
, 30

Austrian–Hungarian Empire
, 23, 25, 26, 92, 229

Austria
, 237–239

and Hungary’s Different Paths
, 239–240

Hungary
, 232, 234–237

religious and linguistic homogeneity
, 231

socioeconomic and institutional development
, 230

Autocratic militarism
, 53–54

Autocratic rule
, 93, 151, 220, 242

Balkan Wars
, 25, 26, 68

Bastion of social democracy
, 197–208

“Battle of ideas”
, 38

Bebel, August
, 24

“Beheaded army”
, 137–138

Blanqui, Louis
, 12, 13

Blanquists
, 11–12

Bolshevik(s)
, 35, 38, 61, 96–98, 105, 109, 110, 140, 143

Communism
, 47

Consolidation of Power
, 123–131

dictatorship
, 37

emergence
, 105

Hammer and Sickle Over Russia
, 131–133

Leninism
, 34–36

from Leninism to Stalinism
, 133–138

Marxists in Russia
, 29

Months of Turbulent Power Struggle
, 114–123

propaganda
, 115

Revolution
, 37, 43, 61, 126, 133, 139, 151, 206, 228, 275

Russia
, 207, 234, 242, 246

Bolshevism
, 35, 153

Bordiga, Amadeo
, 223

Bourgeois class
, 6, 9

Bourgeoisie
, 1, 128, 160

capitalist
, 94

Jewish
, 109

Parisian
, 13

petite
, 238

power
, 18

rise of
, 1–7

in Western Europe
, 32

Britain
, 1, 3, 5, 11, 22, 42, 68, 211, 226, 261

industrial lead
, 23

industrial pioneer
, 216

labor parties
, 70, 216

overseas dominance
, 165

British-settled colonies
, 29

Budapest
, 232, 234, 236, 237

Cape of Good Hope Route
, 1–2

Capital, The
, 10, 16, 42, 107, 111, 121, 127, 269

Capitalism
, 9, 10, 22, 30, 48–49

expansion
, 19

finance
, 20

Marxist prophecy of collapse
, 37

return
, 40

transformation to Communism
, 14

See also Socialism

“Capitalist liberal militarism”
, 54

Catholic Center Party
, 181

Catholic states
, 269

Catholicism
, 58, 107, 239, 251–252

Catholics
, 53, 175, 191, 226

China
, 240, 247, 261

and Communist Guerrilla Warfare
, 242–245

communist movement in
, 30, 243

defenders
, 244

socioeconomic and institutional development in
, 241

weakness
, 245

“Chivalrous enthusiasm”
, 9

Civil War

in Finland
, 207

in France
, 13

“Class struggle”
, 8, 38, 129

outcome
, 33

over representation
, 4

revolutionary
, 31

Comintern
, 35, 39, 135, 182

Comintern-member Labor Party
, 206

directives in Moscow
, 185

recommendations and recommended policies
, 38, 41, 217

“Commercial manufacturing sector”
, 242

Communism
, 48, 208, 240–242, 255, 267, 270

in Far East
, 240–242, 246–247

among Jewish minorities
, 85–86

marginality
, 218

social democracy vs.
, 53

Autocratic militarism
, 53–54

development of Communist Party
, 59–60

inter-group inequality
, 55

“intransigent and intolerant” dimensions
, 57

radicalism
, 55–56, 58

rural migrants
, 56–57

socioeconomic factors
, 55

in Russia
, 110

institutional and socioeconomic dimension
, 100–109

path dependency or deterministic path
, 110–152

Tzarist Russia and Socialism
, 90–99

transformation from Capitalism
, 14

War
, 128–129, 130, 133

See also Fascism; Socialism

Communist to socialist votes ratio (C/S)
, 67

Communist(s)
, 34, 67, 70, 174, 186, 217–218, 227, 229, 235–236, 243

Bolshevik Leninism
, 34–36

election performance of communist parties
, 233

Eugen Levine
, 180

Gramscianism
, 37–38

Guerrilla Warfare
, 242–245

League
, 8

Manifesto
, 8

party
, 37, 243

Spartacists
, 36–37

Stalinism
, 38–39

Trotskyism
, 39–41

Conservatism
, 160, 239, 269, 272

of bourgeoisie in Western Europe
, 32

of rural populations
, 239

wave
, 161

Conservatives (CV)
, 51, 140, 147, 186

Bismarkian regime
, 162

cooperation with
, 187

decision
, 269

“Corporative” approach
, 205

Culture
, 58, 106–107

CV. See Conservatives (CV)

Czechoslovakia
, 29, 41, 217, 229, 236, 239

Das Kapital
, 16, 19

Dataset

names of parties in
, 285–289

setting
, 70–73

DDP. See German Democratic Party (DDP)

Decentralized federalism
, 50

Demobilization
, 60, 180

“Democratic Centralism”
, 35–36, 59, 60, 151

Democratization
, 93, 269–270

alternatives
, 55

process
, 174

Denmark
, 197–198, 205–206

Deterministic path
, 176–190

Communism in Russia
, 110

Russia and two decades of great political transformation

February–March revolution
, 110–114

hammer and sickle over Russia
, 131–133

from Leninism to Stalinism
, 133–138

months of turbulent power struggle
, 114–123

Red October and Bolshevik Consolidation of Power
, 123–131

path dependency or deterministic path
, 147–152

theoretical explanation
, 138

decision rules
, 138

“decision theoretic” with externalities
, 139

power game development
, 141–147

time framework
, 140–141

Dialectic Materialism
, 8

Dialectic of Hegel
, 8

“Dictatorship of the Proletariat”
, 10, 13, 14, 15, 19, 24, 31, 34, 37, 40, 63, 179, 275

Dollfuss, Dr. Engelbert
, 239

“Dual agrarian-industrial societies”
, 50–51

Dual monarchy
, 232, 234

“Duma”
, 97, 104, 128

committee
, 113

election results for Russian Duma
, 98

seats
, 98, 104

Early path dependence
, 139, 148

“Economically exploited” minority
, 249, 251

Education (Ed)
, 64, 132, 220

Election performance of socialist and communist parties

in Austria and Hungary
, 233

in Italy and Spain
, 221

in Latin America
, 256

in Scandinavia
, 203–204

in USA
, 250

in Western Europe
, 209–210

Empirical study
, 67, 271–272

data statistics
, 71

empirical evidence
, 73

Communism among Jewish minorities
, 85–86

Communist activism
, 87

economic significance
, 77–78

explanatory variables
, 80

effect of independent variables
, 79

inequality
, 82–83

results of conducted regressions
, 74–76

Social Democrat vote
, 81, 84, 86–87

Social Democrats
, 86

socioeconomic and political explanations
, 88

human capital
, 68

level of democracy and political freedoms
, 68–69

NLD
, 67

setting dataset
, 70–73

“Entente Cordiale” agreement
, 165

Entente’s secret treaties
, 117

“Erfurt Program”
, 24, 31, 165, 179

Ethnic and religious heterogeneity
, 153, 174–176

Exchange value
, 9

Exclusion of variables
, 290–292

Far East
, 240–242

Communism in
, 246–247

in former times
, 25–26

Fascism
, 29, 218–229

in Austria
, 239

benefit of
, 267

Italian
, 184

South Europe between Socialism and
, 218–229

See also Communism

Fascist

atrocities
, 227

era in Austria
, 239

Italian Fascist regime
, 42

militancy
, 223–224

movement
, 218, 223, 240

Nationalists
, 226

regimes
, 239, 261

threat
, 217, 261

Ferdinand, Archduke Franz
, 26

Feudalism
, 3, 6, 9, 160, 188

Finance capital
, 19–23

Finance Capitalism
, 20

Finland case
, 206–207

“First International”
, 11, 13, 14, 16, 23, 162, 267

“Fiscal-military crisis”
, 4

Forces of production
, 8

Foreign capital
, 100, 234, 255, 259

Fourth International
, 41

France
, 3, 11, 12, 92, 100, 172, 209, 211, 217, 261, 270

colonial expansionism
, 22

events in
, 160

and long socialist heritage
, 216–218

Napoleonic
, 162

Franco-Russian alliance
, 25, 26

Frankfurt Parliament
, 160, 161

Free trade
, 9, 23, 275

French Revolution
, 3, 91, 92

French-British Entente
, 26

GDP
, 72, 73

growth rate
, 69, 88

per capita
, 101, 211, 231

Genuine Marxist movement
, 34

German

allies
, 13

army
, 27, 126

cases
, 197

economy
, 168, 170, 184, 191

Empire
, 13, 22, 23, 28, 99, 115

forces in World war II
, 41

Intelligence
, 99

losses
, 42

military supremacy
, 143

naval schemes
, 26

reallocation of forces to Western Front
, 127

Socialism
, 8

states
, 8, 13

Third German Reich
, 42, 43

troops
, 42, 99, 111

German Democratic Party (DDP)
, 181

German Social Democratic party
, 24

Germany
, 159, 174

of 19th and early 20th century
, 159

ADAV
, 162

case of
, 191–192

conservatism
, 160

election results and labor disputes in
, 166

German domains of Austrian Empire
, 161

institutional and socioeconomic dimension
, 168–176

path dependency
, 176–190

SDAP
, 163

socialist threat
, 164

SPD
, 165

GNP. See Gross National Product (GNP)

Gramsci, Antonio
, 37

Gramscianism
, 37–38

Great Depression
, 33, 184–185, 190, 205, 239, 251

Great War
, 19–24, 261, 269

and socialist triumph
, 25–28

storm
, 98–99

Gross National Product (GNP)
, 171, 184

Habsburg Austrian–Hungarian throne
, 26

Hamid II, Abdel
, 23

Hegemony
, 16, 38

Historical determinism
, 9

Homogeneity
, 215

linguistic and religious
, 69, 87, 175, 198, 215, 220, 252

of proletariat
, 30

Human capital
, 57, 64, 68, 168, 229, 231, 242, 247, 252, 260

Human development
, 103–104, 172–173

Hungarian

army
, 236

case
, 229, 232

Communist Party
, 234

Kingdom
, 234

nationalism
, 240

Red Army
, 236, 237

state
, 235, 240

version of Red Terror
, 237

“Hungarian Socialist Party”
, 236

Hungary
, 232, 234–237

Austria and Hungary’s Different Paths
, 239–240

Imperialism
, 20

Imperialist strive
, 19–23

Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI)
, 275

Ind. See Level of Industrialization (Ind.)

Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD)
, 177

Industrial revolution
, 1–7

Industrialization
, 6, 100–103, 148, 168–172, 216–217, 222, 224, 231, 242

effect on GDP
, 198, 202

process
, 171

Inequality (I)
, 51–52, 65, 69, 72, 82–83, 87, 202, 215, 257, 273

Institutional

dimension
, 100

culture and religion
, 106–107

human development
, 103–104

industrialization
, 100–103

nationalist sentiments
, 107–108

role of minorities
, 108–109

Russian economy
, 100–103

Tzarist authoritarianism
, 104–106

urbanization
, 100–103

factors
, 176–177, 211, 246–247, 251

and socioeconomic dimension
, 168

ethnic and religious heterogeneity
, 174–176

human development
, 172–173

industrialization and socioeconomic transformation
, 168–172

nationalist sentiments
, 174

political freedoms
, 173–174

“Institutionalized mechanisms”
, 50

Inter-group inequality
, 55

Internal Affairs
, 137, 138, 235

“International Workers Aid”
, 183

“International Workingmen’s Association”
, 11

Interwar period
, 29

multiideological struggle, years of
, 29–30

Socialism and Communism
, 30

communists
, 34–41

social democrats
, 30–34

“Invisible hand”
, 18

ISI. See Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI)

Italy
, 25, 28, 51, 58, 164, 218, 220, 222–224

election performance of socialist and communist parties and labor disputes in
, 221

religious and linguistic homogeneity in
, 220

socioeconomic and institutional development in
, 219

Spain and
, 228–229

Japanese invasion effect
, 247

Japanese-Chinese war
, 244–245

Jews
, 52, 53, 132, 175–176, 234

East European
, 86

German
, 176

Russian
, 109

Karolyi, Michael
, 235

Kautsky, Karl
, 31

Keynesian ideas
, 33

Keynesianism
, 33

KMT. See Kuomintang Party (KMT)

Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (KPD)
, 179, 183

Kun, Bela
, 234–235

Kuznets, Simon (Nobel Award winner)
, 51

Labor Party
, 202, 206, 208, 216

“Labor repressive institutions”
, 55

“Labor Theory of Value”
, 17

Laissez faire
, 33

Lassalle, Ferdinand
, 31, 161–162

Latifundium
, 259

Latin America
, 251

election performance of socialist and communist parties
, 256

Mexican case
, 255, 257–260

religious and linguistic homogeneity
, 252

socioeconomic and institutional development in Latin America
, 253–254

“League of Just”
, 8

“Lebensraum”
, 42

Leftist anarchists
, 11–12, 14, 15, 16

Lenin
, 14, 31, 34, 49, 95, 115, 116, 120, 122, 125, 126, 129, 131, 154

death
, 134

health threat
, 133

Imperialism, the highest stage of Capitalism
, 20, 37, 48

revolutionary approach
, 35

Leninism to Stalinism
, 133–138

Level of Democracy and Political Freedoms (Dem)
, 64, 68–69

Level of Industrialization (Ind.)
, 63, 67, 83

Level of Urbanization
, 63–64, 68, 220

“Liberal reformist incorporation”
, 54

Liebknecht, Karl
, 36

Linguistic and Religious Homogeneity/Heterogeneity
, 64, 69

Literacy
, 53, 64, 211, 220, 252

Luxemburg, Rosa
, 36, 37, 167, 180, 208

Magyarization
, 232–234

Majority Social Democratic Party (MSPD)
, 177

Marx, Karl
, 5, 7–19, 23, 30–32, 34, 52, 60, 89, 95, 162, 164

See also Das Kapital; Socialism

Marxism
, 1, 7, 51

birth of
, 7–11

Communist Manifesto
, 8

“Dictatorship of Proletariat”
, 10

historical determinism
, 9

Marxist-leaning revolutionary wing
, 11

Marxist Socialism
, 4, 11, 64, 89, 197, 242

“International Workingmen’s Association”
, 11

“Labor Theory of Value”
, 17

Scientific Socialism
, 19

surplus value
, 16

See also Socialism

Marxist theory
, 15, 47–48

Massive state growth
, 3–4

Mediterranean South European countries
, 218

Menshevik–Socialist Revolutionary alliance
, 117

Mexican

modernization
, 255

Revolution
, 258–259

social democracy and postcolonial nationalism
, 255, 257–260

Modernization
, 52, 109, 152–153, 257

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
, 41

Mongolia
, 245–246

Monopolistic alliances
, 31

Moral hazard model
, 61

Moscow’s international leadership
, 35

MSPD. See Majority Social Democratic Party (MSPD)

Multiideological struggle, years of
, 29–30

Munich Agreement (1938)
, 217–218

“Municipal Socialism”
, 238

Mussolini, Benito
, 29, 184, 223–224, 229

Napoleonic Code
, 3

Napoleonic Wars
, 3, 25

Nationalism
, 4, 107, 222, 228, 267–268, 270–271, 272, 273–274, 275

and nationalist sentiments (German case)
, 191–192

postcolonial
, 255, 257–260

Nationalist(s)
, 225–227, 255

aspirations
, 222

Nationalist Fascists
, 276

sentiments
, 107–108, 174

Nazis
, 184–188, 190, 269

New Economic Policy (NEP)
, 132–133

NLD. See Number of workers in labor disputes per population (NLD)

Non-German nationalities
, 176

Norway

election performance of social democrats and communists and labor disputes in
, 203–206

GDP per capita
, 198

Number of workers in labor disputes per population (NLD)
, 67

Orthodoxy
, 106, 107, 131

Ottoman Empire
, 23, 25, 27–28, 29, 86, 89–92, 107

“Paris Commune”
, 13, 14, 217

Parliamentary democratic systems
, 180, 207

Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM)
, 258–259

Party of France (PCF)
, 217

Path dependency
, 110, 176–190, 229, 240, 246–247

dramatic years of Weimar Republic
, 177–186

Russia and two decades of great political transformation
, 110–138

theoretical explanation
, 138

decision rules
, 138

“decision theoretic” with externalities
, 139

path dependency or deterministic path
, 147–152

power game development
, 141–147

time framework
, 140–141

theoretical understanding for German case
, 186–190

PCF. See Party of France (PCF)

Philippe, King Louis
, 10

Platonic Utopian dreams
, 7

PLM. See Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM)

Political citizenship
, 4

Political freedoms
, 173–174

Political reform
, 197–198

Political transformation, Russia and

February–March revolution
, 110–114

hammer and sickle over Russia
, 131–133

from Leninism to Stalinism
, 133–138

months of turbulent power struggle
, 114

“April Doctrine”
, 116

Bolshevik leadership
, 120

Bolsheviks’ Central Committee
, 122

expatriate Socialist intellectuals
, 116–117

Petrograd Soviet
, 121–122

provisional government
, 115

revolutionary military committee
, 123

Socialist Russians
, 119

Soviet-based rule for Russia
, 118

Tzarist Russia
, 114

Red October and Bolshevik Consolidation of Power
, 123–131

Popular Front
, 217, 225, 226–227, 228, 229

Population growth
, 69–70

Postcolonial nationalism
, 255, 257–260

Power game development
, 141–147

Proletariat’s permanent revolution
, 40

Proletriatization
, 239

“Protohegemonic parties”
, 58

Radicalism
, 55–56, 215, 220, 275

Radicalization
, 206, 208

Rasputin episode
, 111

Red Finland
, 207

“Red Front Fighters League”
, 183

Red October and Bolshevik Consolidation of Power
, 123

“All Russia Congress of Peasants Deputies”
, 125

Bolshevik antiwar propaganda
, 126

Bolshevik attack
, 124

“Council of People’s Commissars”
, 124

monopolized power and totalitarian Soviet regime
, 127

“Red Terror”
, 128–129

Socialist Revolutionary “Fanni Kaplan’s” assassination trial
, 130

strategic Peter and Paul Fortress
, 123

Tzarist rule
, 124

War Communism and Red Terror
, 130–131

“White movement”
, 128

“Red Terror”
, 128–129, 130–131

“Red Vienna”
, 238, 240

“Red welfare”
, 183

Reichstag
, 163, 164, 173–174, 178, 186

“Reinsurance Treaty”
, 164

Religion
, 106–107

Religious and linguistic homogeneity

in Austria and Hungary
, 231

in Italy and Spain
, 220

in Latin America
, 252

in Scandinavia
, 198

in Western Europe
, 215

Revolution
, 161, 174

Bolshevik
, 61, 275

February–March
, 110–114

French
, 3, 91, 92

industrial
, 1–7

Mexican
, 258–259

November
, 1918, 177–180

Proletariat’s permanent
, 40

Second Industrial Revolution
, 19–23, 198

Victorious Mexican
, 258–259

Revolution Betrayed, The
, 151

Revolutionary military committee
, 123

Revolutionism
, 55–56

Rivera, Miguel Primo de
, 224

RSDLP. See Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP)

Russia
, 159, 174, 197

authoritarian Tzarist state
, 267

Communism in

institutional and socioeconomic dimension
, 100–109

path dependency or deterministic path
, 110–152

Tzarist Russia and Socialism
, 90–99

and two decades of great political transformation

February–March revolution
, 110–114

hammer and sickle over Russia
, 131–133

from Leninism to Stalinism
, 133–138

months of turbulent power struggle
, 114–123

Red October and Bolshevik Consolidation of Power
, 123–131

Russian
, 108

army
, 28, 93, 111

economy
, 100–103

Empire
, 23, 25–27, 29, 36, 48–49, 51, 91–94, 98, 99, 107, 108

expansionism
, 92

Intellectuals
, 106

Marxist movement
, 34, 94, 96

Parliament
, 104

Tsar
, 34, 90

Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP)
, 35, 95

“Saint Petersburg” city
, 91, 96, 97, 268

Sanctioning model
, 61

SAP
, 205

Scandinavia
, 197

case of Finland
, 206–207

election performance of social democrats and communists
, 203–204

inequality
, 202

linguistic and religious homogeneity
, 198

social democrats
, 207–208

socioeconomic and institutional development
, 199–201

Sweden, Norway, and Denmark
, 205–206

Schlieffen Plan
, 27, 28, 165, 167

Scientific intelligence
, 16

Scientific Socialism
, 19

SD. See Social Democrats (SD)

SDAP. See Sozialdemokratische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (SDAP)

Second Industrial Revolution
, 19–23, 198

Second International
, 23–24, 28, 30, 33, 34

Section Francaise de l’ Internationale Ouvriere (SFIO)
, 217

“Sectional organizations”
, 20

“Segmental organizations”
, 20

“Selection model”
, 61

“Semi parliamentary constitutions”
, 54

“Semi-authoritarian incorporation”
, 54

Semi-authoritarianism
, 190, 268–269

Sensitivity to initial conditions
, 139, 190

SFIO. See Section Francaise de l’ Internationale Ouvriere (SFIO)

Social Democracy
, 29–30, 70, 218, 255, 257–260, 269–270

bastion of
, 197–208

Communism vs.
, 53

Autocratic militarism
, 53–54

development of Communist Party
, 59–60

inter-group inequality
, 55

“intransigent and intolerant” dimensions of
, 57

radicalism
, 55–56, 58

rural migrants
, 56–57

socioeconomic factors
, 55

Social Democratic Party (SPD)
, 24

Social Democrats (SD)
, 24, 28, 29, 30, 34, 67, 70, 83, 98, 174, 177, 186, 205, 206, 207–208, 215, 229, 232, 235

and Communists
, 159

Keynesian ideas
, 33

laissez faire
, 33

revolutionary approach
, 31

social democratic factions
, 96

Socialist Democrats’ Second International
, 34

SPD
, 30

urban population
, 32

“Social Fascists”
, 185

Social reform
, 197–198

Social Revolution, The
, 31

Socialism
, 1, 4, 47, 51, 166, 267–268, 275

birth of Marxism
, 7–11

towards great war
, 19

second industrial revolution, finance capital, and imperialist strive
, 19–23

second international
, 23–24

socioeconomic and institutional development in Western Europe
, 21

great war and socialist triumph
, 25–28

interwar period
, 29–41

map of Europe
, 2

popularity of
, 48–53

rise of popularity of
, 23–24

South Europe between Socialism and Fascism
, 218

Italy
, 222–224, 228–229

literacy and education
, 220

religious and linguistic homogeneity
, 220

socioeconomic and institutional development
, 219

Spain
, 224–229

Tzarist Russia and
, 90

election results for Russian Duma
, 98

storm of great war
, 98–99

toward 20th century
, 90–96

years of revolutionary build-up (1905–1914)
, 96–98

Western Europe, industrial revolution, and rise of Bourgeoisie
, 1–7

World War II
, 41–43

See also Capitalism

Socialist Party of Austria (SPO)
, 238, 239, 240

Socialist Revolutionary “Fanni Kaplan’s” assassination trial
, 130

Socialists
, 67, 70, 207, 217–218, 238

election performance of socialist parties
, 233

intellectuals
, 32

party
, 222–223

policies
, 225

Socialist vote
, 81–82

socialist-induced activities
, 82–83

socialist–liberal rule
, 114

triumph
, 25–28

variants
, 251–260

Socialization
, 38

Socioeconomic

factor
, 176–177, 211, 246–247, 251

transformation
, 6, 168–172

Socioeconomic and institutional development

in Austria and Hungary
, 230

in Italy and Spain
, 219

in Latin America
, 252

in Scandinavia
, 199–201

in USA
, 248

in Western Europe
, 212–214

Socioeconomic dimension
, 100

culture and religion
, 106–107

human development
, 103–104

industrialization
, 100–103

nationalist sentiments
, 107–108

role of minorities
, 108–109

Russian economy
, 100–103

Tzarist authoritarianism
, 104–106

urbanization
, 100–103

Sonderweg
, 168

South Europe between Socialism and Fascism
, 218

election performance of socialist and communist parties
, 221

Italy
, 222–224

religious and linguistic homogeneity in Italy and Spain
, 220

socioeconomic and institutional development in Italy and Spain
, 219

Spain
, 224–227

threads of line
, 228–229

Soviet Communist
, 237, 274–275

Soviet Direct Intervention
, 245–246

Soviet Union
, 30, 38, 40, 242

Sozialdemokratische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (SDAP)
, 163

Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschland (SPD)
, 163, 165

Spain
, 220, 224–227

election performance of socialist and communist parties and labor disputes in
, 221

Italy and
, 228–229

religious and linguistic homogeneity in
, 220

socioeconomic and institutional development in
, 219

Spartacists
, 36–37, 178–179, 180, 187, 188, 189

SPD. See Social Democratic Party (SPD); Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschland (SPD)

SPO. See Socialist Party of Austria (SPO)

Stalinism
, 38–39

institutional cultural factors
, 154

from Leninism to
, 133–138

of Leninist state
, 268

Soviet Russia
, 151

“Strategic voting” model
, 61

Strength of Nationalist Sentiments
, 64, 68

Surplus value
, 16–19, 30

Sweden
, 205–206

Swedish Social Democrats
, 33, 205

Theoretical perspectives
, 47

empirical study
, 67–88

popularity of Socialism
, 48–53

social democracy vs. Communism
, 53–60

theoretical understanding
, 60–67

traditional Marxist theory
, 47–48

Theory of “Permanent Revolution”
, 134

Third German Reich
, 42, 43

Third International
, 35, 38–39, 70

Triple Alliance
, 22

Trotskyism
, 39–41

Trotskyite International
, 41

Tsarist Russian rule
, 34, 94, 109

Tzar’s autocracy
, 105

Tzarist authoritarianism
, 104–106

Tzarist Russia and Socialism
, 90

election results for Russian Duma
, 98

storm of great war
, 98–99

toward 20th century
, 90–96

years of revolutionary build-up (1905–1914)
, 96–98

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
, 133

United States
, 247

“economically exploited” minority
, 249, 251

election performance of socialist and communist parties
, 250

socialist movement
, 249

socioeconomic and institutional development
, 248

Urban population
, 32, 64, 93, 133, 152–153, 211, 215, 276

Urbanization
, 100–103, 148, 215, 218, 220, 231, 252, 268

USPD. See Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD)

USSR. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

Variables and sources
, 289–290

Verband Deutscher Arbeiter-Vereine (VDAV)
, 162

Victorious Mexican Revolution
, 258–259

Vladimir Ilitch Ulyanov. See Lenin

von Baden, Maximilian
, 178

“Vote-mobilization strategy”
, 58–59

War Communism
, 128–129, 130, 133

“War of position”
, 38

Weimar Republic
, 33, 176, 181

dramatic years of
, 177

classical economic principles
, 185

Communist revolutionary threat
, 183

hyperinflation period
, 184

KPD
, 186

November 1918 Revolution
, 177–180

socioeconomic and institutional development
, 182

Welfarism
, 205

Western Europe
, 1–7, 168

socioeconomic and institutional development in
, 21

Western European democracies
, 208

election performance of socialist and communist parties
, 209–210

France and long socialist heritage
, 216–218

GDP per capita
, 211

industrial Pioneer and Labor Party
, 216

religious and linguistic homogeneity
, 215

social democracy
, 218

socioeconomic and institutional development
, 212–214

“White movement”
, 128

World cases

Austria–Hungary empire
, 229–247

Latin America and socialist variants
, 251–260

Scandinavia
, 197–208

South Europe between Socialism and Fascism
, 218–229

United States
, 247–251

Western European democracies
, 208–218

World War I
, 24, 27, 28, 41, 50, 64, 97–98, 104, 131, 153–154, 177, 202, 205, 222, 224, 249, 260–261, 269, 270

World War II
, 41–43, 90, 136, 226, 244, 246, 274

See also Interwar period

Zeitung, Rheinische
, 7