Appendix

Mohamed Ismail Sabry (Bremen University of Applied Sciences, Germany)

The Development of Socialism, Social Democracy and Communism

ISBN: 978-1-78743-374-8, eISBN: 978-1-78743-373-1

Publication date: 18 August 2017

Citation

Sabry, M. (2017), "Appendix", The Development of Socialism, Social Democracy and Communism, Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 285-292. https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78743-373-120171001

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


Table A1.

The Names of the Parties Used in the Dataset.

Socialists Other Socialists Communists Source
Argentina Socialists, independent Socialists (1928–1936), Socialista Argentino (1918) Radical Civic Union (UCR) a Nohlen (2005b)
Australia Australian Labor Party (ALP) New South Wales Labor Party (1931–1934) and state labor party (1940–1943), non-Communist labor (1940) Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Austria Social Democrats Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Belgium Belgian Workers’ Party, Belgian Socialist Party (renamed) Liberal-Workers/Socialist Party Cartels (not entirely Socialists) Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Bolivia Before 1927: Socialist Party.From 1927: Socialist Party (1927–1928), Labor Party (1927), United Socialist Front b (1938); a group of socialist parties (1940); United Socialist Party, and Workers Party of Tarija (1942); United Socialist Party, and Independent Socialist Party (1944) Socialist Republic Party (1927–1933) then (1940) (It was however a part of a Rightist alliance “Concordancia”), then (1942–1944) Revolutionary Left Party (1942); Socialist Workers Party of Bolivia (Trotskyists) (1940–1942) Bilbao (2000), Vera Bustillos and Barrios (1996), and Banks (1927–1944)
Brazil Brazilian Labor Party (1945) Brazilian Communist Party (1945) Nohlen (2005b)
Bulgaria Bulgarian Social Democratic labor party (BRSDP), BRSDP-right, United Labor Socialist Democratic Party BRSDP-left, Socialist Federation Communist Party Nohlen and Stoever (2010)
Canada Labor Party Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Chile Socialists (until 1925); New Public Action, and Chilean Socialists (1933); Socialist Party (1937–1945); Authentic Socialist Party (1945) Democratic Party (1937–1941) Democrat Party–Asalariado-Communist Group (1925); Communist Party (1932–) Nohlen (2005b)
Colombia The Communist Party (1943–) Nohlen (2005b)
Cuba Social Democratic Party Partido Autentico (nationalist and social democratic) Communist Revolutionary Union; and the popular Socialist Party (1944) Nohlen (2005a)
Czechoslovakia Social Democrats, German Social Democrats, Hungarian Social Democrats (1920) Socialist Centralists (1920) Communist Party Nohlen (1969)
Denmark Social Democrats Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Estonia Estonian Social Democratic Laborers Party (ESDTP), Socialists Workers Party (1926–1938) Independent Socialists (1920–1923); labor party(1920–1929); Socialist Workers and Peasants and Russian Party (1932) Communist Party Nohlen and Stoever (2010)
Finland Social Democrats Swedish Left Wing Socialist Workers Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
France Democrats Socialists (1849); Socialists (1893–1902); Socialist Party (SFIO) (1906–) Radical socialist Party (1902–), Independent Socialists (1906–1910; 1919), Socialist Republicans (1914–1936) Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Germany Social Democrats Independent Social Democrats Communist Party (KPD) Mackie and Rose (1974)
Hungary Social Democrats Nohlen (1969)
Iceland Social Democrats Communist Party, the United Socialist Party (1938) Mackie and Rose (1974)
Ireland Irish Labor Party National Labor (1944–1950) c Mackie and Rose (1974)
Italy Socialist Party Independent Socialists (1913–1921); Reformist Socialist Party (1913–1919) Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Latvia LSDSP Bunds, KSZ, Independent Socialists (1928) Nohlen and Stoever (2010)
Lithuania LSDP LSLDP Nohlen and Stoever (2010)
Luxemburg Socialist Party (the Socialist Workers Party since 1924) Radical Socialist Party (1925–1931) Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Malta Labour Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Mexico The Party of the Mexican Revolution d Nohlen (2005a)
Netherlands Social Democratic League (1888–1891); Social Democratic Workers Party (1894-1937) Socialist Party (1918–1925); Revolutionary Socialist Party (1929–1933) Social Democratic Party (latter Communist Party) Mackie and Rose (1974)
New Zealand Labour Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Norway Labour Party (1894–1919), (1924–); Social Democratic Workers’ Party (1921) Social Democratic Workers’ Party (1924) Labour Party (1919–1924); Communist Party (1924–) Mackie and Rose (1974)
Peru American Popular Revolutionary Alliance Nohlen (2005b)
Poland Polish Social Party, Polish social left party (1930); Ukrainian Socialist labor, and peasants union left (1928); Ukrainian Socialist labor block (1928) Communist Party Nohlen (1969)
Romania Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party Federation of the Socialist Parties from Romania (FPSR), FDUS, FUS Communist Party (PCR) Nohlen and Stoever (2010)
Russia In 1906: included Marxists and anarchists;Afterward: Social Democrats, and Mensheviks e In 1906: Trudowiki (Socialist Revolutionary, People Socialists and radicals from Peasant Association)After 1906: Socialist Revolutionary, People Socialists and Trudowiki respectively Bolsheviks Nohlen (1969)
South Africa Labour Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Spain Socialists (1907–1923); Socialist Labor Party (PSOE) (1931–1936) Katalanian Left, Republican left (1936); Republican action (Azana) (1931–1933); independent radical Socialists (1933); radical Socialists (1931–1933) Communist Party (1936); United Marxist block (1936) Nohlen (1969)
Sweden Social Democrats Left Socialists (1917–1921); Socialists (1936–1944) Communist Party (1921–), Hoglund Communists (1924), Kilbom Communists (1932) Mackie and Rose (1974)
Switzerland Social Democrats Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
UK Labour Party Independent Labour Party Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Uruguay Socialist Party Civic Union Nohlen (2005b)
USA Socialist Labour Party Socialist Party (1900–1920), (1928–1956) Communist Party Mackie and Rose (1974)
Yugoslavia Socialist Democrats Communist Party (1920); Independent Labor Party (1923–1927) Nohlen (1969)
a

It combined Social Democracy with liberalism, and was member of the Socialist International. Since 1924 it had many offshots winning many votes; but I did not account for them.

b

The United Socialist Front was an alliance of many Socialist parties including the Republican Socialist Party (1938). With regard to the group of leftist parties entering the elections of 1940, I excluded the Worker’s Socialist Party. This party was a Trotskyite party; and that is why I preferred to classify it as a Communist party, despite of being nonconventional one though. At any case, the party won only one vote.

c

The differentiation to Socialist and other Socialists is not significant here, since the combined results of the two Irish parties is given for 1944.

d

It combined nationalism with Socialism. Note that the presented data for 1940 is the composition of the parliament in that year.

e

From 1908 to 1912: I used the averages of the Duma membership between 1.11.1907 and 8.07.1912. For 1913–1917: I used average Duma membership between 2.11.1912 and 02.1917. Note that the old Russian calendar is used.

Table A2.

The Used Variables and the Sources from Which They Are Obtained.

Variables Sources
Share of top 1% and 0.1% in national income and Gini coefficient Atkinson and Morelli (2014)
Average years of schooling; human capital; output per worker Baier, Dwyer, and Tamura (2006)
Religious adherence a Barro (2003)
Railway lines, number of Radios, primary school enrollment; Literacy rate Comin and Hohijn (2004)
Urbanization; Defense expenditure; labor disputes; Religious adherence; language adherence; agricultural, industrial, and service labor share; agriculture, industry, and services as part of GDP Flora et al. (1987); Berend (2013) (Only for Hungary)
Latin American Data on labor share in agriculture and industry; agriculture and industry as part of GDP; literacy; railway in kms; and urbanization b Montevideo-Oxford Latin American Economic History Data Base (2015)
Per capita GDP; Population The Maddison-Project
Size of the country; year of independence or creation; and whether country is at war CIA-The World Factbook
Polity Demo-autocracy indicator Polity IV Project (2015)
a

With regard to religious adherence for Czechoslovakia, the average was taken of both the Czech and Slovak regions. It is to be noted that no big differences existed between the two regions. For Russia, only the statistics for Russian Federation lands were considered; and for Yugoslavia, the data was only for Serbia and Montenegro. Note also that the year of the census is 1900. The statistics of that year are used for the studied countries even those that gained their independence later in the century.

b

Places having10,000 inhabitants or more are assumed to be urban.

Table A3.

The Exclusion of Variables from the Conducted Regressions According to the General to Specific Method and Due to Data Limitations.

Excluded in General to Specific Method Excluded Because of Data Restrictions
Reg. 1 Dep. Variable: Socialist vote – At war (in the last 5 yrs.); Urbanization; 2nd Religion
Test statistic: F(3, 27) = 0.057
– Industry Labor; GDP growth (t − 1)
Test statistic: F(2, 30) = 0.632
Reg. 2 Dep. Variable: Total Socialist votes – Log yrs. since indep.; At war (in the last 5 yrs.); Major Language; Larger religion; Avg. yrs. of schooling
Test statistic: F(5, 27) = 0.915
– Democracy (polity 2); GDP growth (t − 1)
Test statistic: F(2, 32) = 0.298
Reg. 3 Dep. Variable: Communist votes – Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.50
log yrs. since indep.Test statistic: F(1, 20) = 0.255
– GDP growth (t − 1)
Test statistic: F(1, 21) = 1.556
– At war (in the last 5 years); Major Language; 2nd major Language
Test statistic: F(3, 22) = 0.733
– Avg. yrs. of schooling
Test statistic: F(1, 25) = 0.969
Literacy rate
Reg. 4 Dep. Variable: Comm./Total Soc. – Democracy (polity 2)
Test statistic: F(1, 20) = 0.158
– log yrs. since indep.; At war (in the last 5 years)
Test statistic: F(2, 21) = 1.041
– Avg. yrs. of schooling
Test statistic: F(1, 23) = 0.28
– GDP growth (t − 1)
Test statistic: F(1, 24) = 1.02
Literacy rate
Reg. 5 Dep. Variable: Labor disputes per Pop – Literacy rate; GDP growth (t − 1)
Test statistic: F(2, 69) = 0.02
– At war (in the last 5 yrs.); Industry Labor; Currently at war
Test statistic: F(3, 71) = 0.06
– log yrs since indep.; 2nd major Language
Test statistic: F(2, 74) = 1.405
– Pop. growth
Test statistic: F(1, 76) = 1.452
--
Reg. 6 Dep. Variable: Socialist votes – Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.25
Inequ. × GDP growth; Inequ. × Literacy; Inequ. × At war (last 5 yrs); GDP growth (t − 1); At war (in the last 5 yrs); Industry Labor; Inequ. × Democ.; Democ. (polity 2)Test statistic: F(8, 27)=0.373
Major Lang., 2nd major Lang.; Larger Relig.; 2nd Relig.
Reg. 7 Dep. Variable: Total Socialist votes – Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.10
Avg. yrs. of schooling; GDP growth (t − 1); Inequ. × Indust.; Inequ. × Urban; Inequ. × Democ.; Inequ. × GDP growth; At war (in the last 5 yrs; Inequ. × At war (in last 5 yrs); Inequ. × Pop. growthTest statistic: F(9, 27)=0.467
Major Lang., 2nd major Lang.; Larger Relig.; 2nd Relig.
Reg. 8 Dep. Variable: Communist votes – Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.20
Industry Labor; Urbanization; Democ. (polity 2); Inequ. × Indust.; Inequ. × Democ.Test statistic: F(5, 20)=0.132
Major Lang., 2nd major Lang.; Larger Relig.; 2nd Relig.; Literacy rate
Reg. 9 Dep. Variable: Comm./Total Soc. – Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.60
GDP growth (t − 1); Inequ. × avg. yrs schooling; Inequ. × GDP growthTest statistic: F(3, 20)=0.105
– Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.50
Inequ. × Indust.Test statistic: F(1, 23)=0.393
– Dropping Avg. yrs of schooling
Test statistic: F(1, 24)=0.693
Major Lang., 2nd major Lang.; Larger Relig.; 2nd Relig.; Literacy rate
Reg. 10 Dep. Variable: Labor disputes per Pop. – Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.60
Literacy rate; GDP growth (t − 1); Inequ. × log yrs. since Indep.Test statistic: F(3, 106)=0.109
– Sequential elimination using two-sided alpha = 0.25
Inequality (Share of top 1%, t − 1); Inequ. × avg. yrs. schooling; Inequ. × Democ.Test statistic: F(3, 109)=0.744
Major Lang., 2nd major Lang.; Larger Relig.; 2nd Relig.