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A model for structuring efficient consumer response measures

Jesper Aastrup (Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School, Center for Retail Studies, Frederiksberg, Denmark)
Herbert Kotzab (Department of Operations Management, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark)
David B. Grant (School of Management and Languages, Logistics Research Centre, Heriot‐Watt University, Edinburgh, UK)
Christoph Teller (Institute of Retailing and Marketing, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria)
Mogens Bjerre (Department of Marketing, Copenhagen Business School, Center for Retail Studies, Frederiksberg, Denmark)

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management

ISSN: 0959-0552

Article publication date: 20 June 2008




The purpose of this paper is to propose a model which structures and links different types of efficient consumer response (ECR) measures; it does so by considering the use of both quantitative or “hard” and qualitative or “soft” measures in ECR, emphasizing the importance and causal role of “soft” measures throughout the ECR process.


This paper reviews the ECR and performance measurement literature and proposes a model that explains linkages from intra‐organizational, inter‐organizational and industry prerequisites through ECR activities to ECR outcomes; and highlights the role of performance, behavioural, attitude and capability measures. Two extant studies from Austria and Denmark are examined in the context of the model to exemplify some of its features.


Similarities regarding issues of inter‐organizational and intra‐organizational prerequisites were found, but the two studies also demonstrated variety in the use of measures in ECR research.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model is presented for primarily future investigation; thus there is no empirical study in this paper other than a comparison of the two extant studies to support some constructs and variables. However, the model represents a structure that can guide future research on more specific ECR elements.

Practical implications

The model makes a practical contribution by providing a structure from which measurement or scorecard systems can be established.


The model makes a theoretical contribution by providing an overall structure to link different areas of ECR research such as barriers for ECR implementation, and specific ECR concepts, activities, and their outcomes.



Aastrup, J., Kotzab, H., Grant, D.B., Teller, C. and Bjerre, M. (2008), "A model for structuring efficient consumer response measures", International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 36 No. 8, pp. 590-606.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2008, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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