An open social systems model is used to frame and test a series of hypotheses. The socioeconomic status of the environment and four internal system elements (structure, individual, culture, politics) of the school are used to explain two sets of school outcomes: student achievement and teachers' assessments of overall school effectiveness. A typical sample of 145 elementary schools in Ohio is used to test the relationships. The model and results are useful in understanding how this set of key variables as a whole defines quality elementary schools.
Tarter, C.J. and Hoy, W.K. (2004), "A systems approach to quality in elementary schools: A theoretical and empirical analysis", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 42 No. 5, pp. 539-554. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230410554052
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