Path planning for mobile robot in a 2.5‐dimensional grid‐based map

Jiajun Gu (Research Institute of Robotics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China)
Qixin Cao (Research Institute of Robotics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China)

Industrial Robot

ISSN: 0143-991x

Publication date: 3 May 2011



Two and one half‐dimensional (2.5D) grid maps are useful for navigation in outdoor environment or on non‐flat surface. However, little attention has been given to how to find an optimal path in a 2.5D grid map. The purpose of this paper is to develop a path‐planning method in a 2.5D grid map, which aims to provide an efficient solution to robot path planning no matter whether the robot is equipped with the prior knowledge of the environment.


A 2.5D grid representation is proposed to model non‐flat surface for mobile robots. According to the graph extracted from the 2.5D grid map, an improved searching approach derived from A* algorithm is presented for the shortest path planning. With reasonable assumption, the approach is improved for the path planning in unknown environment.


It is confirmed by experiments that the proposed planning approach provide a solution to the problem of optimal path planning in 2.5 grid maps. Furthermore, the experiment results demonstrate that our 2.5D D* method leads to more efficient dynamic path planning for navigation in unknown environment.


This paper proposes a path‐planning approach in a 2.5D grid map which is used to represent a non‐flat surface. The approach is capable of efficient navigation no matter whether the global environmental information is available at the beginning of exploration.



Gu, J. and Cao, Q. (2011), "Path planning for mobile robot in a 2.5‐dimensional grid‐based map", Industrial Robot, Vol. 38 No. 3, pp. 315-321.

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Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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