The purpose of this paper is to study the determinants of naturalization of non‐EU immigrant household heads with a fresh look at the role of integration and ethnicity.
Employing data on immigrant household heads from the German Socioeconomic Panel differentiation is made among those who already have been naturalized, those who plan to take citizenship, and those who do not have citizenship and do not want it, using multinomial probit models. The subject scope includes literature on naturalization, ethnicity, and integration.
A robust finding is that German citizenship is very valuable to female immigrant household heads and the generally better educated, but not to those educated in Germany. The degree of integration into German society has a differential effect on citizenship acquisition. While a longer residence in Germany has a negative influence on actual or future naturalization, arriving at a younger age and having close German friends are strong indicators of a positive proclivity to citizenship acquisition. Likewise, ethnic origins and religion also influence these decisions. Muslim immigrants in Germany are more willing to become German citizens than non‐Muslim immigrants, but there are also fewer German citizens among Muslims than among non‐Muslims.
Future research should also investigate the second‐generation naturalization proclivities and those of illegals.
Allowing for dual citizenship helps generate more naturalizations among Muslims.
The paper provides a test of the relative importance of the integration approach in comparison with the ethnicity model; demonstrating that integration in German society has a stronger effect on naturalization than ethnic origin and religion.
Zimmermann, K., Constant, A. and Gataullina, L. (2009), "Naturalization proclivities, ethnicity and integration", International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 30 No. 1/2, pp. 70-82. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720910948401Download as .RIS
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