To read this content please select one of the options below:

Using TiO2 nanofluid additive for engine lubrication oil

Yuh‐Yih Wu (Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan)
Mu‐Jung Kao (Department of Vehicle Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan)

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology

ISSN: 0036-8792

Article publication date: 27 September 2011




Nanoparticles have been studied as additives to lubrication oils for reducing friction and wear. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of nanofluid on engine oil and friction reduction in a real engine.


The nanoparticles were prepared using a high‐temperature arc in a vacuum chamber to vaporize the Ti metal, and then condensed into a dispersant to form the TiO2 nanofluid, which was used as lubricant additive. Experiments were performed in both real engine running and test rig.


It was found that the engine oil with nanofluid additive with an ethylene glycol dispersant of nanoparticles, had gelled after 10‐h of engine running. The problem of oil gelation (jelly‐like) was solved by replacing the dispersant with paraffin oil. The engine oil with TiO2 nanoparticle additive exhibited lower friction force as compared to the original oil. The experiment showed that a smaller particle size exhibits better friction reduction with particle size ranging from 59 to 220 nm.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is restricted to findings based on the dispersed nanoparticles in fluid as additive for engine lubrication oil.

Practical implications

The test results are useful for the application of nanofluid additive for engine oil.


Most previous researches in this field were executed on tribotester, rather than the actual engine. This paper describes experimental methods and equipment designed to investigate the application of TiO2 nanofluid as lubricant additive in internal combustion engine.



Wu, Y. and Kao, M. (2011), "Using TiO2 nanofluid additive for engine lubrication oil", Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 63 No. 6, pp. 440-445.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2011, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles