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In general, music has an effect on emotion. Information compiled by Bruner states generalities of emotional expressions that are associated with different components of…
In general, music has an effect on emotion. Information compiled by Bruner states generalities of emotional expressions that are associated with different components of music. For example, a faster tempo creates feelings of happiness or animation, whereas a slower tempo evokes tranquil and sentimental feelings. Songs in higher keys and/or major mode are generally considered happier than songs in lower and/or minor keys. Consonant harmonies are described as playful and happy, with dissonant harmonies see more ominous and sad. This is a generally accepted use of music, which has been implemented in working and retail environments, and in advertisements. However, does emotion actually affect behaviour and is there any evidence? One experiment showed a short video of a TV drama and played different musical moods along with it. Results indicated that the different moods produced different interpretations of same video stimulus (Vinovich, 1975). Bruner concludes that human beings non‐randomly assign emotional meaning to music, experience non‐random affective reactions to music, and thus, when used in a marketing‐related context, music is capable of evoking non‐random affective and behavioural responses in consumers.
Inter-municipal cooperation (IMC) has been increasingly adopted worldwide to tackle issues of size and cost reduction in the provision of public services. Although the…
Inter-municipal cooperation (IMC) has been increasingly adopted worldwide to tackle issues of size and cost reduction in the provision of public services. Although the determinants of cooperation among municipalities have been widely investigated in the prior literature, little is known about the link between a municipality's financial health and that of the supra-municipal entity formed under IMC. The purpose of this study is to fill this research gap by analyzing the case of municipal unions (MUs) in Italy.
A quantitative approach has been used, applying OLS and quantile regression on financial information and other variables of municipalities and their MUs.
The study finds that the most important condition of operation for IMC, that is, financial sustainability, is directly linked to the financial health of member municipalities and the functional integration reached with the supra-municipal entity.
The study analyses all MUs in Italy, focusing on the factors affecting their financial sustainability. In doing so, it sheds light on the factors that influence the financial sustainability of second-tier governments, which rely on external funding.
To meet the challenges of global competition, American managers are forcing to re think the way they do business and re‐evaluate the way they communicate. Effective…
To meet the challenges of global competition, American managers are forcing to re think the way they do business and re‐evaluate the way they communicate. Effective corporate communication plays an essential role to make American companies become fast, flexible and competitive. This article covers two major areas of the new developments of corporate communication: changing corporate communication flow and bridging culture differences by cross‐cultural communication.
WITH, no doubt, tears in his eyes, Mr. Russell Miller, who is a National Officer employed by the Association of Scientific, Technical and Managerial Staffs (ASTMS) complains in a recent issue of his Union's Journal that quangos are “under attack”. Facing drastic cuts, he cries, their very existence is in jeopardy. Is this such a bad thing?
This paper reviews experience with credit union demutualisation to date in the light of increasing discussion about whether demutualisation is a likely (or inevitable) future stage in the evolutionary process. It is argued that the credit union industry faces an inherent demutualisation bias which emerges as the sector develops maturity. Contributing factors include the emergence of professional management pursuing personal objectives, together with the economic realities of technological change, financial liberalisation, increased competition, and prudential regulation based on minimum capital requirements. Demutualisation incentives may partially reflect the unsuitability of the mutual form of governance in larger, more sophisticated financial institutions, but there is also a significant risk of demutualisation based on wealth expropriation motives. Alternative policies and strategies which might avoid this demutualisation bias are examined.
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…
Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.
AS soon as ever possible it is to be hoped that those responsible for looking after the interests of work study technicians will sit at a round table and agree upon what the relative rewards of the various grades of technicians should be.
IT would seem, at the moment of writing, that two at least of the most powerfull trades unions are out to wreck what is left of the Social Contract. They see no reason in having a gap of twelve months between wage claims.
The Cyprus conflict is a classical case of protracted ethnic conflict with very obvious and important international dimensions. It is one of the major unresolved inter…
The Cyprus conflict is a classical case of protracted ethnic conflict with very obvious and important international dimensions. It is one of the major unresolved inter national conflicts, which for decades attracts the attention of the international community. The involvement of many countries and international organizations in the Cyprus conflict demonstrates the importance and seriousness of the conflict. During the last decades the conflict has cost a lot both for the Greek Cypriots and for the Turkish Cypriots. It claimed a lot of lives and caused serious economic damages and psychological destruction. The conflict began in the 1950s, erupted violently with blood shed at the end of 1963,and culminated in 1974 with the interventions of Greece and Turkey that led to the island’s current de facto division as the Greek Cypriot South and Turkish Cypriot North. Over the past 40 years many states have came out with various initiatives and have proposed various approaches for final settlement of the conflict. It also has been addressed by dozens of UN Security Council resolutions but all these have proved to be futile so far.
SAYS the handout from the Department of Industry: “The key role played by managers in improving British industry's economic performance was emphasised by Mr. Eric Varley, Secretary of State for Industry. He said that the publication of a discussion paper on industry, education and management underlined that industry in Britain today had many first class managers who made vital contributions to the economy.