This study aims to evaluate the use of vacuum impregnation (VI) for developing vitamin E fortified fresh‐cut apples (Fuji).
A 20 per cent high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or edible coating materials of 1 per cent hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 1 per cent calcium caseinate (CC) were used to make VI solutions, and 0.4 per cent α‐tocopherol acetate, 7.5 per cent gluconal cal\tf="Pi3" \char"31 (GC) and 0.04 per cent zinc lactate (ZL) were incorporated into the VI solutions. Vitamin E content, color, and selected physicochemical properties of fortified fresh‐cut apples were analyzed.
Results showed that VI treatment with 20 per cent HFCS solution containing 0.4 per cent α‐tocopherol acetate increased vitamin E content up to 21.8 mg in 100 g of fresh‐cut apples, while 12.0 mg and 20.2 mg vitamin E were achieved when using 1 per cent HPMC or 1 per cent CC as VI solutions, respectively. Calcium and zinc content were also increased to 146.6 mg and 1.7 mg in 100 g of apples, respectively, when adding 7.5 per cent GC and 0.04 per cent ZL along with the vitamin E into the VI solutions. Use of HFCS, HPMC and CC as VI solutions resulted in different effects on the physiochemical properties of fresh‐cut apples. While HFCS is promising for vitamin E fortification and retention of natural apple color, HPMC and CC can be used to achieve similar vitamin E fortification with the least impact on the soluble solids and moisture contents of apples.
The study demonstrates that there is great potential for developing high quality, vitamin E and minerals fortified fresh‐cut apples using vacuum impregnation technology, thus further enhancing the health benefit of the apples.
Zhao, Y., Park, S., Leonard, S. and Traber, M. (2005), "Vitamin E and mineral fortification in fresh‐cut apples (
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