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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2009

David A. Kenny and Stefano Livi

The social relations model (SRM; Kenny, 1994) explicitly proposes that leadership simultaneously operates at three levels of analysis: group, dyad, and individual…

Abstract

The social relations model (SRM; Kenny, 1994) explicitly proposes that leadership simultaneously operates at three levels of analysis: group, dyad, and individual (perceiver and target). With this model, researchers can empirically determine the amount of variance at each level as well as those factors that explain variance at these different levels. This chapter shows how the SRM can be used to address many theoretically important questions in the study of leadership and can be used to advance both the theory of and research in leadership. First, based on analysis of leadership ratings from seven studies, we find that there is substantial agreement (i.e., target variance) about who in the group is the leader and little or no reciprocity in the perceptions of leadership. We then consider correlations of leadership perceptions. In one analysis, we examine the correlations between task-oriented and socioemotional leadership. In another analysis, we examine the effect of gender and gender composition on the perception of leadership. We also explore how self-ratings of leadership differ from member perceptions of leadership. Finally, we discuss how the model can be estimated using conventional software.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Organizational Behavior and Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-503-7

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Sanja Kovačić, Nemanja Milenković, Iva Slivar and Milica Rancic

The purpose of this paper is to provide a suggestion for the research framework on tourists as target groups for planning city branding strategies with reference to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a suggestion for the research framework on tourists as target groups for planning city branding strategies with reference to possible differences for tourists having a different country of origin. This framework was applied to analyze and compare the perception of Banja Luka city brand (Bosnia and Herzegovina) by four main target group by country of origin.

Design/methodology/approach

The suggested research framework combines qualitative generation of tourist’s city brand associations and brand personality with quantitative measurements of city brand perception (scale developed following the framework of Anholts’ (2006) City Brand Index adjusted to tourists as target groups).

Findings

The developed research framework was demonstrated in the example of Banja Luka main target groups. Three dimensions of city brand which largely coincide Anholt’s (2006) dimensions were extracted: tourist attractiveness, life standard and safe and pleasant atmosphere. Differences between analyzed countries were found in city brand perception, brand associations, brand personality, but also in all other analyzed categories.

Research limitations/implications

Possible limitation of the study is the fact that results were interpreted including both those who have visited Banja Luka and those who are not personally familiar with it.

Practical implications

Practical implications of research findings are demonstrated in form of branding suggestions focused on particular target groups.

Originality/value

The study suggests a research framework on tourists as target groups in the city branding process. Also, it contributes to a very scarce research on differences in city brand perception by target groups by country of origin, but also to the literature related to Banja Luka city brand and tourism development.

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International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2010

Muhammad Mohsin Butt and Ernest Cyril de Run

This article aims to explore attitudinal and behavioural differences between target and non‐target groups of ethnic advertisements. It seeks to expand the existing body of…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to explore attitudinal and behavioural differences between target and non‐target groups of ethnic advertisements. It seeks to expand the existing body of knowledge by investigating these differences from the perspective of young consumers in an Eastern context. This helps in testing the established theories of distinctiveness and cultural schemas in an Eastern society.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consists of 1,600 randomly selected adolescents from different states of Malaysia. Data were analysed using MANOVA, ANOVA and t‐test to explore the group differences between adolescents based on their ethnicity and advertisement type.

Findings

The results indicate a significant group difference between target and non‐target respondents to the advertisement. It also shows that ethnicity is a viable target variable for both majority and minority ethnic groups in Malaysia.

Research limitations/implications

Although there are many ethnic groups in Malaysia this research only investigated two ethnic groups. Therefore, the results may not be applicable to other ethnic minority groups in Malaysia.

Originality/value

The study explores the possibility of using ethnicity as a target variable for adolescents in an Eastern context. It investigates the issue in a holistic manner by incorporating views from target as well as non‐target groups.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

Ernest Cyril de Run

This paper sets out to extend current knowledge on advertising effects on those not targeted by noting unintended consequences on attitudinal, emotional, and behavioral reactions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to extend current knowledge on advertising effects on those not targeted by noting unintended consequences on attitudinal, emotional, and behavioral reactions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tests these effects based on relevant theories in the communication and advertising literature on two distinct ethnic groups (Malay and Chinese) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia utilizing questionnaires based on a fictitious advertisement for the dominant and non‐dominant ethnic group in Malaysia. The advertisement used was for a fictitious can of drink and its design was common in Malaysia. Data collected were analyzed using Manova, General Linear Model, and Bonferoni.

Findings

There were negative attitudinal, emotional, and behavioral reactions by those not targeted who saw these advertisements.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is that the study used two different advertisements, but each respondent saw only one. The advertisement was also for a fictitious product. Future research will benefit from further improvements (impact of product type or advertisement format) and replication of other ethnic groups or targeted groups.

Practical implications

A practical implication is the importance of predetermining the appropriate use of language and dominance of the targeted group. Targeted communications strategy may not be the most effective method of communicating with a specific ethnic group in a plural society.

Originality/value

The major contribution of this paper consists of the determination of negative effects of advertising on those not targeted, and the finding that the level of dominance plays a role in consumers’ reactions towards targeted advertising. The paper is of value to advertisers, researchers in advertising, and social science scientists.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Joe M. Ricks

This study aims to develop a classification schema for strategic philanthropy as a framework for empirical investigation and managerial decision making. Additionally it…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a classification schema for strategic philanthropy as a framework for empirical investigation and managerial decision making. Additionally it aims to present experimental assessments of various types of philanthropy based on the classification schema.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents the results of two experiments examining the effects of different types and implementation strategies of philanthropy on consumer perceptions of brand equity variables.

Findings

The experiments suggest that in a proactive condition corporate philanthropy does have an overall positive effect on consumer perceptions of corporate associations. However, the effects did not transfer to brand evaluations or patronage intentions. Additionally, philanthropy as a part of a recovery strategy has a consistent but non‐significant effect on consumer perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

In the study manipulations respondents received the response at the same time as they read about the crisis. This generally would not happen in actual situations. A second limitation is the lack of control or manipulation for history between the company and the target segment in the directed philanthropy conditions.

Practical implications

The findings of this study have three managerial implications. First, traditional philanthropy may be effective for corporate or brand image objectives, but ineffective for brand evaluation and purchase objectives. Philanthropy directed toward a particular segment may also have a positive effect on consumers beyond that segment. Finally, in cases in which the objective is simply to thwart negative publicity, reactive philanthropy may not be a viable strategic option.

Originality/value

This study examines the effects of philanthropic activity on consumer perceptions of firms and the brands they market.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Anita Jackson and Ray DeCormier

E‐mail is the most used of the electronic media. It is a cheap and quick means of communicating with clients and customers. It is also a means of collecting information on…

Abstract

E‐mail is the most used of the electronic media. It is a cheap and quick means of communicating with clients and customers. It is also a means of collecting information on customers. This study analyses the response rates of a targeted and non‐targeted group to a financial questionnaire. The targeted group provided more complete and useful data than the non‐targeted group. The conclusions indicate strategies for using e‐mail to gather customer information.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Wim Van Opstal, Eva Deraedt and Caroline Gijselinckx

The sector of work integration social enterprises (WISEs) has grown considerably all across Europe during the last few decades. Unfortunately, many governments do not have…

Abstract

Purpose

The sector of work integration social enterprises (WISEs) has grown considerably all across Europe during the last few decades. Unfortunately, many governments do not have a clear sight on the profile of WISEs they are supporting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed profile of WISEs in Flanders and identify shifts and differences within and between WISE work forms.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are utilized from a newly designed monitoring instrument to capture the profile of WISEs in Flanders (Belgium). This paper discusses some methodological issues in using administrative data to monitor this sector, and present a profile at the enterprise level and at the worker level. Parametric and nonparametric tests are applied to assess the significance of profile shifts and differences within this sector.

Findings

One of the dominant features of the analysis has been the identification of profound differences that can be observed between the work forms and the slighter differences that are observed within the work forms while comparing start‐ups to their mature counterparts. Therefore, it might be concluded that the policy framework on the social insertion economy as it currently exists in Flanders has a strong regulative impact on the WISEs in Flanders. This impact translates itself through differences in the profile of enterprises, as well as differences in the profile of the target group workers they employ.

Originality/value

A dataset combining administrative data are created to estimate enterprise and target group worker profiles in this sector. The discussion on methodological aspects involved contributes to the literature on monitoring this sector.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Sebastian Zenker and Suzanne C. Beckmann

Cities increasingly compete with each other for attracting tourists, investors, companies, or residents. Marketers therefore focus on establishing the city as a brand…

Abstract

Purpose

Cities increasingly compete with each other for attracting tourists, investors, companies, or residents. Marketers therefore focus on establishing the city as a brand, disregarding that the perception and knowledge of a city differ dramatically between the target audiences. Hence, place branding should emphasize much more the perceptions of the different target groups and develop strategies for advanced place brand management. The aim of this paper is to assess the important discrepancies between the city brand perceptions of different target groups with the help of network analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

In two empirical studies, the important discrepancies between the city brand perceptions of different target groups are assessed with the help of network analysis. Study 1 consists of 40 qualitative in‐depth‐interviews and study 2 uses an online qualitative open‐ended‐question survey with 334 participants.

Findings

Structural differences for the city brand perceptions of two different target groups and the differences between perceptions of an external and internal target group are highlighted. The results and the managerial implications for place marketers are discussed.

Research limitations/implications

The study investigates the brand associations for the city of Hamburg brand with two target groups and this limits the generalizability of the results. However, the focus was on measuring for the first time the difference in the place brand perception of different target group and the results helps to understand how an advanced place brand management could deal with this challenge.

Originality/value

Place branding is increasingly popular in urban management. This paper highlights the challenge of diverse target audiences in this process and discusses implication for an advanced place brand management.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Book part
Publication date: 21 June 2014

Kaisa Hinkkainen

An investigation of parallels between homegrown, international, and domestic terrorism.

Abstract

Purpose

An investigation of parallels between homegrown, international, and domestic terrorism.

Methodology/approach

A comparative method is used to analyze data from two main sources, ITERATE data on international and the TWEED data on domestic terrorism. The similarities are tested in various dimensions – target types, severity, and the method of the attacks.

Findings

Homegrown terrorism is inherently motivated by domestic issues. Moreover, variables of ethnic heterogeneity, political inclusiveness of fringe groups, and problems in the democratization process are good predictors of the occurrence of other forms of domestic and homegrown terrorism alike.

Research limitations/implications

Number of observable cases of homegrown terrorism are low. The two main datasets have potentially overlapping incidents.

Originality/value

Provides and operational definition of homegrown terrorism and test empirically the similarity between homegrown and other types of terrorisms.

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Muhammad Mohsin Butt, Ernest Cyril de-Run, Ammen U-Din and Dilip Mutum

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the impact of increasing the intensity of religious cues in financial service advertisements on target and non-target groups.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the proposed hypotheses, a 2 (Religion: Muslims versus Non-Muslims) x 3 (Religious identity primes: Low versus Medium versus High) factorial design was used. Both target and non-target groups were randomly exposed to factitious advertisements of an Islamic bank embedded with low, medium and high intensity of religious cues.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that within target group the manipulation did result into a more favourable attitudes towards the advertisement (Aad) and attitudes towards the brand (Ab) for the medium intensity advertisement; however, for high intensity advertisement, only Aad was more favourable compared to low intensity advertisement. Relatively strong evidence was found in case of non-target group negative reactions in term of Aad, Ab and purchase intention. The direct comparison between target and non-target groups suggest a general pattern of more positive response from target group as compared to non-target group.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide an important insight into the effectiveness of identity salience messages in financial service marketing. The study provide empirical evidence that intensifying the rhetoric beyond a certain point will generate negative results from both target and non-target respondents.

Originality/value

The authors integrated the research on symbolism, social identity and target and non-target effects to analyse the attitudinal and behavioural differences between and within target and non-target groups of financial service advertisements with different intensity of religious cues.

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