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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2019

Christine Jaushyuam Lai and Betsy D. Gelb

This study aims to investigate to what extent salespeople are satisfied, dissatisfied or neither with various aspects of their job in ways predicted by the “two-factor…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate to what extent salespeople are satisfied, dissatisfied or neither with various aspects of their job in ways predicted by the “two-factor model” assocating satisfaction with recognition and personal growth but not “hygiene factors.” It further investigates which aspects of the salesperson’s job are most strongly associated with commitment to the organization – or intention to leave.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviewers gathered data from 176 salespeople in 154 companies. Those data were analyzed to identify aspects of the salesperson’s job that are satisfiers, dissatisfiers or prompt indifference. The data were then correlated with the extent to which salespeople expressed commitment to their organization – and the extent to which they expressed likelihood of leaving their current job.

Findings

Aspects of the salesperson’s job do cluster into categories associated with the two-factor theory: satisfiers, dissatisfiers and other “hygiene factors” that are neither. However, two deviations from the theory appear. Pay is a satisfier, contrary to the assumptions behind the model, and factors beyond those intrinsic to the salesperson are also satisfiers. Supporting relevance of the theory for salespeople, however, is the strong association of recognition/personal growth aspects of the job positively with organizational commitment and negatively with intention to leave.

Research limitations/implications

Although the data come from a convenience sample of salespeople, the results can be useful. For example, consideration of new products and of mergers should take into account their impact on salesperson satisfaction and dissatisfaction as motivational issues.

Originality/value

This study is broader in focus than previous work relating the two-factor theory to salespeople, providing more confidence in the generalizability of the results.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Vincent Onyemah, Jay P. Mulki and Martha Rivera-Pesquera

A significant amount of research has shown that drivers of employee attitudes, and behaviors leading to outcome variables such as turnover intentions, are strongly…

Abstract

Purpose

A significant amount of research has shown that drivers of employee attitudes, and behaviors leading to outcome variables such as turnover intentions, are strongly influenced by national culture. This study focuses on the difference in relationships among some critical variables between two emerging economies with similar cultural indices.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaire was used to collect responses from salespeople in two countries. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were used to provide support for the stated hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicate that Mexican and Indian salespeople differ in how their level of trust in supervisor, regulation of emotion, interpersonal conflict and felt stress related to drive turnover intention. Findings also confirm a strong positive relationship between felt stress and turnover intention.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on survey responses and should be interpreted with the associated limitations of method bias. The hypothesized model of relationships among constructs was based on theory and prior research, but researchers understand that there could be other statistically equivalent models with equal fit. Moreover, stress can result from numerous other combinations of variables in addition to those used in this model. The relationships among constructs as presented could also be due to the absence of other key variables. This study looked at turnover intentions from an employee perspective using responses made when economic conditions worldwide were robust. This is not the case today because of the global pandemic. Economic conditions wield substantial influence on employee responses as well as on turnover intentions. In addition, economic downturn lowers turnover potential and heightens stress level.

Practical implications

Findings confirm a strong positive relationship between felt stress and turnover intention. Efforts to keep stress within a productive range should be encouraged, because while the direct costs of turnover can be substantial, indirect costs may be even greater. For example, when salespeople leave an organization, the customer relationships they formed and developed may be at risk, exposing their companies to potential reduction in revenue. Sales organizations that pay inadequate attention to high turnover rate among their salespeople become susceptible to a phenomenon Dudley and Goodson (1988) identified as “low sales recruiting ceiling syndrome.”

Social implications

Most of the current studies results from developing countries have been compared to those from developed countries where the theories and seminal research originated. The outcome of the authors' research lends yet another argument in favor of more comparative studies on East versus East or developing economies versus developing economies. Such effort could further delineate the applicability of “foreign” theories and inform the development of “local” theories for richer insight on local management practice. The current drive to inject diversity, equity and inclusion in the workplace should be reflected in the development of theory and the conduct of research. No one country or individual or group of individuals can claim ownership of theory development and standards for assessing theories originating elsewhere. Diversity, equity and inclusion have a place in academic research and should be encouraged. Second, the results obtained in this paper offer a cautionary note against over-generalization. Just as small details matter in life, likewise, small differences in variables that explain a phenomenon can make a big difference. Third, the findings confirm a strong positive relationship between felt stress and turnover intention. This is true for the two countries examined in this research.

Originality/value

This study seeks to understand why potential drivers of turnover intention might manifest differently in countries that have a similar cultural outlook. The current research leverages the contingency theory and zeroed in on turnover intention. In addition, two additional cultural dimensions (long-term orientation and uncertainty avoidance) were incorporated, and the model was tested using salespeople (rather than plant workers).

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Tony Wijaya, Moh Nasuka and Anas Hidayat

The development of the banking industry is encouraging increasingly fierce competition. In the face of banking competition, Islamic banks need to build customer loyalty by…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of the banking industry is encouraging increasingly fierce competition. In the face of banking competition, Islamic banks need to build customer loyalty by paying attention to ethical aspects. Ethics has an essential role in forming and preserve relationships between companies and customers in the long term. The measurement model of salesperson ethical behavior in this study was built using the Islamic-based marketing concept. This study aims to test empirical models of Islamic ethics-based salesperson behavior in increasing customer loyalty of Islamic banks through the aspect of customer trust.

Design/methodology/approach

Research data were obtained from 165 Islamic bank customers in the Central Java, Indonesia, using the purposive sampling method. Data analysis in this study uses structural equation modeling.

Findings

The study shows that the Islamic ethics-based salesperson behavior has a positive effect on customer trust in a salesperson, customers’ trust in Islamic banks and customer loyalty. Customer trust in a salesperson has positively and significantly influenced customer trust in Islamic banks and customer loyalty. Customer trust in Islamic banks has a positive and significant effect on customer loyalty.

Practical implications

This study’s results are expected to be used to reference maintenance salesperson in Islamic banking to behave based on Islamic principles. Islamic marketing principles need to be applied through salespersons behaving realistically (al-Waqi’iyyah) and humanistic concepts (insaniyyah). The application of Islamic ethics can limit and avoid deviant behavior from salespeople that is detrimental to consumers and organizations. The behavior of salespeople based on Islamic ethics will build consumer trust in both organizations and salesperson so that it has implications for consumer loyalty.

Originality/value

This paper provides new findings to understand Islamic banking consumer loyalty that focuses on Islamic ethical salesperson behavior point of view. This paper also presents a new measurement of research variables from an Islamic perspective in examining the role of Islamic ethics-based salesperson behavior toward banking customer loyalty. This study takes the object of research in Islamic banking that has different characteristics from conventional financial institutions.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Bruce D. Keillor, R. Edward Bashaw and Charles E. Pettijohn

One of the primary characteristics of the sales environment of the next century will be the proliferation of technology as an important component of the sales process. The…

Abstract

One of the primary characteristics of the sales environment of the next century will be the proliferation of technology as an important component of the sales process. The successful salesperson of the future will be marked by an ability to incorporate and directly apply a wide range of technology in their interactions with customers. More than simple data access, sales technology is increasingly being used as a means by which the salesperson and customer interact. The overall objective of this study is to measure the attitude of salespeople toward the use of computer technology in a sales job and then ascertain the relationship between these attitudes and a salesperson’s job experience and productivity. The results of the study outline important managerial implications related to introducing and implementing new technology uses within a salesforce.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 12 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1991

Arun Sharma and Douglas M. Lambert

Logistics managers need to collect timely and accurate data oncustomers′ needs, as well as customer perceptions of the firm′s andcompetitors′ performance levels. Today, a…

Abstract

Logistics managers need to collect timely and accurate data on customers′ needs, as well as customer perceptions of the firm′s and competitors′ performance levels. Today, a large number of companies collect this from their salesforce – a good, inexpensive and timely source of customer and competitive information but caution is needed since a majority of salespeople are inaccurate. Reviews the conceptual issues associated with using the salesforce to collect information and reports results of an empirical study which examined the accuracy of salesforce information.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Gillian Naylor and Kimberly E. Frank

Extant research suggests that salespeople can significantly impact consumers’ outcome perceptions. Examines the importance of initial contact with salespeople on…

Abstract

Extant research suggests that salespeople can significantly impact consumers’ outcome perceptions. Examines the importance of initial contact with salespeople on consumers’ perceptions of value and the impact of salesperson service failure on perceptions of value among non‐purchasers. An exit survey of shoppers was conducted to realistically study these issues. Results show that outcome perceptions were significantly lower when either there was no contact with salespeople, or the consumer had to initiate the contact. The retailer that had the highest percentage of salesperson initiated contact, earned the highest perception ratings and also had the highest ratio of buyers to browsers. Furthermore, non‐purchasers that experienced service failures (slow service or offended by a salesperson) discounted not just the perception of that retail visit, but also overall value compared to other retailers. These results suggest that retailers must encourage their sales staff to initiate consumer contact.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Michael L. Mallin

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it provides the results of a study of key characteristics of proactive salespeople and the impact of salesperson proactive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it provides the results of a study of key characteristics of proactive salespeople and the impact of salesperson proactive behavior on selling performance. Second, it provides recommendations for sales management to implement organizational strategies designed to develop, train and coach salespeople to be more proactive.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 278 business-to-business salespeople were surveyed to identify key traits and outcomes of proactive salespeople. The average subject was 28 years of age with 5 years of selling experience. Scales from the management, organizational behavior and sales performance literature were used to identify the degree that subjects engaged in proactive behavior in their selling role, a self-assessment of their sales performance and individual traits thought to predict higher levels of proactive behavior.

Findings

The findings revealed that proactive salespeople exhibited high levels of selling behavior performance – an important contributor to measurable selling results. In addition, proactive salespeople were intrinsically motivated, confident in the tasks of selling and willing to take calculated risks.

Practical implications

Practical implications suggest that sales managers can play a key role in fostering proactive behavior among salespeople through development, training and coaching. First, sales managers can play a role in the development of salesperson intrinsic motivation by stressing the importance of asking good questions to understand their customer’s problems to the extent that they can be proactive and recommend solutions for change. Second, training programs to make salespeople more confident should center on fully understanding product/service functionality and applications to typical customer problems. Finally, coaching tools such as win–loss reviews, post-call analysis/feedback and role-playing are useful mechanisms to reinforce the right type of risk-taking selling behavior decisions.

Originality/value

The value of this research is to shed light on the importance of salesperson proactive behavior as a means to drive selling organizational performance and fostering long-term customer relationships. Understanding the drivers of proactivity among salespeople is the first step for sales management to be able to operationalize organizational strategies to develop, train and coach salespeople to be more proactive in their selling approach.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Xiaoyan Wang, Ping Li, Yi Zheng, Ling (Alice) Jiang and Zhilin Yang

Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory and the motivation-opportunity-ability (MOA) framework, this study examines how salespersons' self-monitoring and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory and the motivation-opportunity-ability (MOA) framework, this study examines how salespersons' self-monitoring and psychological capital influence sales performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses survey data from 293 salespersons employed in China and their archival sales performance to test the hypotheses posited.

Findings

The results show that both salespersons' self-monitoring and psychological capital enhance sales performance via adaptive selling. However, these elements are primarily substitutes in influencing adaptive selling. In addition, by dividing social capital into two types (i.e. family-based social capital and customer-based social capital), the results reveal that salespersons' self-monitoring enhances family-based social capital, but not customer-based social capital. Finally, customer-based social capital, but not family-based capital, improves sales performance.

Research limitations/implications

This paper extends the literature on sales force management, which examines various psychological traits and their influences on sales performance. While self-monitoring and psychological capital have been investigated separately, this research simultaneously examines these two factors by drawing on resource conservation theory. Furthermore, it explores how these psychological traits impact salespersons' ability development (i.e. adaptive selling) and capital accumulation (i.e., family-based social capital and customer-based social capital), which, in turn, affect sales performance.

Practical implications

The results offer managerial insights into sales force selection and management. In particular, managers should encourage salespersons to obtain greater customer-based social capital, which is more valuable than family-based social capital in boosting sales performance.

Social implications

The present research is also beneficial for employee psychological health management, as it seeks to illuminate the role of psychological traits, ability development and capital accumulation. It offers insights into sociological research on social capital by categorizing it into family-based and customer-based capital.

Originality/value

This paper extends the literature on salespersons' psychological traits, selling abilities and social capital by examining the impacts of self-monitoring and psychological capital on adaptive selling and social capital. Specifically, this study examines the interplay between self-monitoring and psychological capital from the perspective of resources conservation theory.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Michel Klein

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of emotional labor refers to the management of emotions in interaction with customers. This study aims to suggest an integrative definition of emotional labor. It develops a conceptual framework that helps organize and synthesize key insights from the literature, in an interactional and multi-level perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

This integrated framework consists in a mapping of key research themes resulting from a systematic literature review, which includes research in sales and marketing. As critical affective processes in sales have not been studied sufficiently, both in business-to-business and business-to-customer selling, this review also incorporates works in other research fields.

Findings

Sales representatives’ emotional labor must be considered as a bi-directional interaction with the customer in a multi-level perspective. Moreover, emotional labor has rather negative consequences for the salesperson (e.g. burnout and job stress), but may have positive sales and customer outcomes. Findings suggest that the expression of genuine emotions should be used during sales interactions. In addition, organizations should prevent customers’ negative behaviors (e.g. mistreatment).

Practical implications

Emotional labor key practical implications with regard to several management functions such as the recruitment, performance management and training (Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002) of the sales representatives.

Originality/value

Research on emotional labor in a sales ecosystem is scarce. It has largely covered service industry employees in contact with customers, but has not paid enough attention to sales representatives (Mikeska et al., 2015). The proposed integrated framework concerning emotional labor focuses on the bi-directional interaction between the sales representatives and their customers.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Catherine Johnson, Timo Kaski, Yvonne Karsten, Ari Alamäki and Suvi Stack

This paper aims to focus on how salespeople use emotions to build connections and facilitate value proposition co-creation (VPCC) in B2B complex services sales.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on how salespeople use emotions to build connections and facilitate value proposition co-creation (VPCC) in B2B complex services sales.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses video recordings of authentic B2B sales meetings in a two-part qualitative study.

Findings

This paper proposes a set of salesperson emotional behaviors that influence the co-creation of value propositions with customers. This paper uncovers five salesperson emotional behavior archetypes influencing VPCC.

Research limitations/implications

This study advances the value proposition literature by linking salespeople’s emotional behaviors with micro-level activities in the collaborative crafting of value propositions. The unique methodology may encourage researchers to apply video recordings in future studies.

Practical implications

The study provides managerial guidelines for improved selling competence and sales team organization.

Originality/value

This study’s findings represent a new insight into the actual manifestations of salesperson emotional behaviors that are commonly discussed but rarely observed directly.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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