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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Arthur Cheng‐Hsui Chen and Shaw K. Chen

Examines the negative impacts of brand extension failure upon the original brand by calibrating the difference of brand equity. Using data collected from college students…

7694

Abstract

Examines the negative impacts of brand extension failure upon the original brand by calibrating the difference of brand equity. Using data collected from college students in Taiwan, establishes four hypotheses to identify various effects of a failed brand extension in diluting the original brand’s equity. Analyzes the different effects among four types of equity‐source brands for both close and distant extensions. Equity‐source and equity level of the original brand is identified first. All components of brand equity‐source are then used to evaluate the performance of a brand extension. Finds that an unsuccessful brand extension dilutes the original brand for all three high equity‐source brands. Effects of brand dilution differ according to the type of equity source possessed by the original brand, but there is no difference in brand dilution effects from close and distant extension failures.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1995

Walfried Lassar, Banwari Mittal and Arun Sharma

Brand equity is very important to marketers of consumer goods andservices. Brand equity facilitates in the effectiveness of brandextensions and brand introductions. This…

149439

Abstract

Brand equity is very important to marketers of consumer goods and services. Brand equity facilitates in the effectiveness of brand extensions and brand introductions. This is because consumers who trust and display loyalty toward a brand are willing to try to adopt brand extensions. While there have been methods to measure the financial value of brand equity, measurement of customer‐based brand equity has been lacking. Presents a scale to measure customer‐based brand equity. The customer‐based brand equity scale is developed based on the five underlying dimensions of brand equity: performance, value, social image, trustworthiness and commitment. In empirical tests, brands that scored higher on the customer‐based brand equity scale generally had higher prices. Discusses the implications for managers.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2010

Ilias Kapareliotis and Anastassios Panopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to determine the variables of brand equity measurement for Greek companies quoted in the Greek exchange stock market.

3472

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the variables of brand equity measurement for Greek companies quoted in the Greek exchange stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

The measurement of brand equity has been a hot issue both for marketing and financial practitioners. Different attempts to measure brand equity have been made by both sides. The present study, by the use of Tobin's Q methodology, tries to measure brand equity for Greek firms in the stock market. The present study tries to adopt both a methodology related to marketing and financial literature.

Findings

Tobin's q can be a measure of brand equity for firms in the stock market. The variables which need to be examined are related to research and development but also to financial and marketing activities.

Originality/value

Simone and Sallivan tried to measure brand equity throughout Tobin's q. The present paper is an international attempt to measure brand equity thorough Tobin's q in Greece. Another attempt related to Simon and Sallivan's research had never been done, either in marketing or financial literature.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Paulette Kish, Dwight R. Riskey and Roger A. Kerin

The conceptualization and measurement of brand equity, including its sources and outcomes, are a challenging task, particularly in a global marketplace. This paper briefly…

10116

Abstract

The conceptualization and measurement of brand equity, including its sources and outcomes, are a challenging task, particularly in a global marketplace. This paper briefly describes how PepsiCo, Inc. conceptualizes and measures brand equity across brands, countries, and over time. Special attention is given to the EquitrakTM brand equity model developed by PepsiCo, Inc. and the global brand equity tracking methodology employed by the company in 14 countries. The paper concludes with managerial insights obtained from this effort.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Marisa Maio Mackay

Many practitioners and researchers believe that differences exist between service and product markets, which warrant different marketing practices. The branding

7042

Abstract

Many practitioners and researchers believe that differences exist between service and product markets, which warrant different marketing practices. The branding literature, however, remains biased towards products. This is especially true in the realm of brand equity. Brand equity, however, like many of the branding concepts, has an equally important role in the service markets. For this reason, this study applied ten existing consumer based measures of brand equity to a financial services market (credit cards). The convergent and predictive validity of these measures was assessed, which in turn helped to determine whether these measures that have typically been applied in product markets can be used to capture brand equity in a service market. The results found that most measures were convergent and correlated highly with market share in the predicted direction, where market share was used as an indicator of brand equity. Brand recall and familiarity, however, were found to be the best estimators of brand equity in the credit card market.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Edo Rajh, Tihomir Vranesevic and Davor Tolic

The purpose of the paper is to determine the level of brand equity in the food industry in the Republic of Croatia, so according to this aim, research on five product…

2837

Abstract

The purpose of the paper is to determine the level of brand equity in the food industry in the Republic of Croatia, so according to this aim, research on five product categories from the food industry (coffee, chocolate, beer, milk, and carbonated soft drinks) has been conducted. Brand equity is most often defined as an added value that brands add to the products. There are two different approaches to brand equity – financial and customer‐based. With regard to used dimensions of consumer behavior, customer‐based approach can be further differentiated as cognitive and behavioral approach. A behavioral conceptualization of brand equity has been employed in this research. A telephone survey has been conducted on a sample of 495 respondents from all parts of Croatia, with proportional representation of counties in regard to population size. In order to determine brand equity, a measure of substitutability has been used. By this measure, consumers can be categorized into one of a possible six segments. According to this method, a repeat rate is a key indicator of brand equity. The brands with highest equity have been identified as an outcome of this survey.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 105 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Thomas Bamert and Hans Peter Wehrli

Brand equity has been a topic of interest in consumer goods markets for many years. Several studies suggest that existing consumer‐based measures of brand equity, which…

8204

Abstract

Purpose

Brand equity has been a topic of interest in consumer goods markets for many years. Several studies suggest that existing consumer‐based measures of brand equity, which have traditionally been used in the consumer goods markets, can also be used to capture brand equity in the services markets. The purpose of this research is to assess the quality dimension in consumer‐based measurers of brand equity in the context of services and to compare it with consumer goods.

Design/methodology/approach

A pilot and a main study were conducted. Nine different brands were tested in a consumer‐based experimental online survey. Each participant was assigned randomly to one brand.

Findings

In the consumer goods markets customer service can be considered as a marketing instrument. In the services markets customer service is a part of the perceived quality of a service.

Research limitations/implications

The implication leads to the question whether existing measures of brand equity in consumer goods markets should be used without adaptation in services markets. The findings show that the consumer‐based brand equity should be measured different in these markets. Concerning the differences the findings show also that customer service can be seen as a marketing instrument in consumer goods markets and a part of the perceived service quality in services markets.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research in the difference of measuring brand equity between consumer goods and services. This paper explores this difference of measuring brand equity.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

Marisa Maio Mackay

Presents further empirical results on the convergent and predictive ability of a selection of consumer based brand equity measures. An underlying assumption in this study…

7066

Abstract

Presents further empirical results on the convergent and predictive ability of a selection of consumer based brand equity measures. An underlying assumption in this study was that choice was an indicator of brand equity. It is a replication and extension of work carried out by Agarwal and Rao in 1996. Their work is the only study that has attempted to consolidate existing research on consumer based brand equity. Overall, the results generally concurred with those of Agarwal and Rao. Most of the measures were found to be convergent, and to estimate choice. The results mean that managers should now have more confidence in selecting from a range of brand equity measures, many of which can be collected easily and at minimal cost. More empirical studies, however, need to be carried out in a range of different markets to assess the wider performance of these brand equity measures.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2022

Giovanni Manansala, Chris Niyi Arasanmi and Adedapo Oluwaseyi Ojo

This study aims to examine ethical practices in the banking sector by testing the relationships between customer perceptions of ethicality and brand attributes like…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine ethical practices in the banking sector by testing the relationships between customer perceptions of ethicality and brand attributes like affect, image and equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the social exchange theory, the authors advance the consumer’s perspective in explaining brand equity in the banking sector. Following the survey technique, the authors used the Hayes’ Macro Process in analysing the data collected from 148 bank customers in New Zealand.

Findings

The findings suggest that customers’ perception of ethicality, brand image and affect are significantly associated with brand equity. Also, brand image and affect significantly mediate the relationship between customer’s perception of ethicality and brand equity.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this study is the use of survey and cross-sectional methods. Future research may adopt mixed-method techniques to provide insightful information on how these variables influence brand equity.

Originality/value

The study demonstrates the mechanisms that facilitate brand equity and contributes to theory by analysing the factors of brand equity in the banking sector, which has been less investigated.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2023

Alberto Bravo Velázquez, Haiming Hang and Shengnan Ren

The authors’ research examines the impact of cross-cultural difference in dialectical thinking on consumers' responses to androgynous brands and its implication for brand

Abstract

Purpose

The authors’ research examines the impact of cross-cultural difference in dialectical thinking on consumers' responses to androgynous brands and its implication for brand equity. Their research also aims to see how consumers take both feminine and masculine attributes into consideration to form their judgments of androgynous brand equity and whether this process is moderated by brand positioning.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors did two experiments with 400 Chinese consumers (high in dialectical thinking) and 528 British consumers (low in dialectical thinking) to test our framework.

Findings

The authors’ experimental results suggest an androgynous brand has higher brand equity in China than in the UK. Furthermore, Chinese consumers rate higher feminine/masculine attributes of masculine/feminine brands. In addition, an androgynous brand's equity is mainly driven by its less dominant attributes. Finally, their results suggest that brand positioning moderates the mediating role of less dominant attributes, more evident when brand positioning matches (vs mismatches) an androgynous brand's more dominant attributes.

Originality/value

By focusing on cross-cultural differences in dialectical thinking, the authors’ research offers a novel approach to reconcile existing inconclusive results on androgynous brand equity. Second, to their best knowledge, their research is the first to examine how feminine and masculine attributes jointly decide androgynous brand equity. Finally, by focusing on brand positioning, their research highlights the importance of an androgynous brand's less dominant attributes in driving its brand equity and provides a tool international marketing managers can use to strengthen such influence.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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