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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2021

Felix Boronczyk, Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention

Abstract

Purpose

Technological innovations could allow for real-time control of sponsor exposure during sport broadcasts to increase the capacity of sponsor messages to attract attention. While such an approach requires knowledge on the interplay between in-game events and viewers' attention to sponsor signage previous studies have disregarded factors pertaining to the competition itself. To address this gap, this paper investigates the impact of game-related variables on the allocation of viewer attention in live broadcasts.

Design/methodology/approach

Eye tracking is used to examine the impact of variations in score, ball position and ball possession on soccer fans' attention to sponsor messages during broadcasts. In total, the data comprise n = 36,604 second-by-second observations from 11 participants and games.

Findings

Logistic regression analysis reveals game time effects and significant interaction effects between possession and the score as well as the ball position variable. Sponsors receive less attention if the attacking team controls the ball near the opponents' goal, particularly if the viewers' preferred team is in possession.

Practical implications

Property owners and sponsors can exploit these findings to determine the value of sponsor brand exposure more precisely. New systems could further increase message effectiveness through adjustments of sponsor exposure based on real time match event data.

Originality/value

This study is the first to explore the influence of game-related variables on attention to sponsors. By employing live broadcasts in a near-realistic setting, it further addresses a gap in the literature and adds to the knowledge on sponsor message processing.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2021

Guy Moshe Ross

This research aims to test focus of attention effects in risky choice.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to test focus of attention effects in risky choice.

Design/methodology/approach

As opposed to traditional aspiration-level theory, the shifting-focus concept introduces a second reference point, the survival point, and assumes a shifting focus of attention between the two reference points. In this conceptualization, risk-taking is a function of focus of attention on the survival reference point or the aspiration-level and resources relative to the two reference points. Four randomized controlled studies tested this concept.

Findings

Study 1 showed that with aspiration focus the probability of choosing a risky option was higher below an aspiration-level than above it. With survival focus, the effect was reversed. Study 2 found that close to the survival reference point, the probability of choosing a risky option was higher with aspiration focus relative to survival focus. Study 3 revealed that with scarce resources the risk taken was higher with aspiration focus than with survival focus, and the scarcer the resources the stronger was the effect. Study 4 demonstrated that with aspiration focus the risk taken was higher below an aspiration-level than above it. With survival focus the effect was reversed.

Originality/value

In addition to providing support for the validity of the shifting focus concept, this paper elaborates on the theoretical model by providing evidence for moderation effects. Risk-taking was affected by a focus of attention on one of two reference points, and the effect was moderated by resources relative to the two focal points. An advanced model is proposed to capture the effects of focus of attention and resources on risk-taking behavior.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Guang-Yih Sheu and Chang-Yu Li

In a classroom, a support vector machines model with a linear kernel, a neural network and the k-nearest neighbors algorithm failed to detect simulated money laundering…

Abstract

Purpose

In a classroom, a support vector machines model with a linear kernel, a neural network and the k-nearest neighbors algorithm failed to detect simulated money laundering accounts generated from the Panama papers data set of the offshore leak database. This study aims to resolve this failure.

Design/methodology/approach

Build a graph attention network having three modules as a new money laundering detection tool. A feature extraction module encodes these input data to create a weighted graph structure. In it, directed edges and their end vertices denote financial transactions. Each directed edge has weights for storing the frequency of money transactions and other significant features. Social network metrics are features of nodes for characterizing an account’s roles in a money laundering typology. A graph attention module implements a self-attention mechanism for highlighting target nodes. A classification module further filters out such targets using the biased rectified linear unit function.

Findings

Resulted from the highlighting of nodes using a self-attention mechanism, the proposed graph attention network outperforms a Naïve Bayes classifier, the random forest method and a support vector machines model with a radial kernel in detecting money laundering accounts. The Naïve Bayes classifier produces second accurate classifications.

Originality/value

This paper develops a new money laundering detection tool, which outperforms existing methods. This new tool produces more accurate detections of money laundering, perfects warns of money laundering accounts or links and provides sharp efficiency in processing financial transaction records without being afraid of their amount.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Hee-Kyung Ahn, Seung-Hwa Kim and Wen Ying Ke

This study examines the impact of incidental pride on consumer preference for attention-grabbing products. This effect is mediated by the desire to gain attention. This…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of incidental pride on consumer preference for attention-grabbing products. This effect is mediated by the desire to gain attention. This study also shows that the effect of incidental pride is qualified by visibility of consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Using two studies with between-subjects designs, this research examines the difference in preferences for attention-grabbing products between hubristic and authentic pride.

Findings

Individuals who experience hubristic pride (vs authentic pride) show greater preference for attention-grabbing products and have a strong desire to gain attention from others. However, when consumption is perceived as private (vs public), preferences for attention-grabbing products weaken for those who experience hubristic pride.

Research limitations/implications

This research studies the effect of incidental pride on consumer preference. By examining dispositional pride effects, future research may expand these findings, which enrich the literature on emotion. Future research can identify the potential mechanism for the relationship between authentic pride and preference for attention-grabbing products in the context of private consumption.

Practical implications

Marketers and salespersons can guide and recommend products with attention-grabbing features to customers celebrating a friend’s success in recognition of their innate ability. Second, marketers may encourage consumers to buy attention-grabbing products with targeted advertising or emotion-eliciting advertising (i.e., evoke a certain type of pride).

Originality/value

While prior studies focused on basic emotions, this research has investigated self-conscious emotions that are central to consumer behavior. This research contributes to the understanding of self-conscious emotions that affect consumers’ behavioral responses in unrelated situations. Investigating the two facets of pride, the findings show the impact of pride on the preference for attention-grabbing products and reveals that visibility of consumption moderates the effect of pride.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 27 August 2021

Ripsy Bondia, Pratap C. Biswal and Abinash Panda

Can something that drives our initial attention toward a stock have any implications on final decision to buy it? This paper empirically and statistically tests…

Abstract

Purpose

Can something that drives our initial attention toward a stock have any implications on final decision to buy it? This paper empirically and statistically tests association, if any, between factors fostering attention toward a stock and rationales to buy it.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses survey responses of individual investors involving multiple response categorical data. Association between attention fostering factors and rationales is tested using a modified first-order corrected Rao-Scott chi-square test statistic (to adjust for within-participant dependence among responses in case of multiple response categorical variables). Further, odds ratios and mosaic plots are used to determine the effect size of association.

Findings

Strong association is seen between attention fostering factors and rationales to buy a stock. Further, strongest associations are seen in cases where origin is the same underlying influencing factor. Some of the most cited attention fostering factors and rationales in this research stem from familiarity bias and expert bias.

Practical implications

What starts as a trivial attention fostering factor, which may not even be recognized by majority investors, can go on to become one of the rationales for buying a stock. This can result in substantial financial implications for an individual investor. Investor education agencies and regulatory authorities can make investors cognizant of such association, which can help investors to improve and adjust their decision making accordingly.

Originality/value

The extant literature discusses factors/biases influencing buying decisions of individual investors. This research takes a step ahead by distinguishing these factors in terms of whether they play role of (1) fostering attention toward a stock or (2) of reasons for ultimately buying it. Such dissection of factors/biases, to the best of authors' knowledge, has not been done previously in any empirical and statistical analysis. The paper uses multiple response categorical data and applies a modified first-order corrected Rao-Scott chi-square statistic to test association. Application of the above-mentioned test statistic has not been done previously in context of individual investor decision-making.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Wen Pan Fagerlin and Yueqi Wang

The purpose of this study is to map different kinds of tensions in product innovation and investigate how top managers use communication to shape subordinates' attention

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to map different kinds of tensions in product innovation and investigate how top managers use communication to shape subordinates' attention and thereby respond to these tensions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted an embedded case study of four innovation centers within a Nordic multinational firm.

Findings

This study identifies three kinds of tensions that reside in product innovation, namely dilemma, paradox and trade-off. Further, this study reveals how joint attention (among top managers and subordinates) as a response to tensions can be achieved through different aggregates of top managers' communication efforts.

Originality/value

In opening the black box of tensions in product innovation and identifying multiple tensions, this study contributes to advancing the understanding of the attention-based view. Different from previous studies that simply consider communication as channels for information processing, the findings indicate that the contents and practices of communication can help top managers to shape subordinates' attention and thereby respond to tensions. This study also extends the research focus of attention from top managers to the whole organization, by revealing the importance of building a joint pattern of attention among top managers and subordinates.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2021

A-Reum Jung and Jun Heo

The purpose of this study is to figure out the factors (i.e. ad type and ad personalization) that diminish the detrimental advertising clutter effects in terms of ad…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to figure out the factors (i.e. ad type and ad personalization) that diminish the detrimental advertising clutter effects in terms of ad attention and ad clicks.

Design/methodology/approach

To fulfill the purpose, an eye-tracking study using real-time Facebook accounts of the participants was conducted.

Findings

The findings suggest that not all types of ad format face attentional competition. Consumers have a tendency to selectively care of native advertising area, where clutter becomes a significant issue. Additionally, personalized advertising is beneficial for attracting consumer attention regardless of the clutter level.

Originality/value

This less-artificial study setting with an eye-tracker makes up for the findings from previous ad clutter studies based on self-reported data; this study was able to observe real-life interaction between consumers and social media. The personalized native format may benefit advertisers in grabbing more attention. However, the careful use of native ads is recommended, because excessive ads could increase the attentional competition among native ads.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2021

Ju Fan, Yuanchun Jiang, Yezheng Liu and Yonghang Zhou

Course recommendations are important for improving learner satisfaction and reducing dropout rates on massive open online course (MOOC) platforms. This study aims to…

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137

Abstract

Purpose

Course recommendations are important for improving learner satisfaction and reducing dropout rates on massive open online course (MOOC) platforms. This study aims to propose an interpretable method of analyzing students' learning behaviors and recommending MOOCs by integrating multiple data sources.

Design/methodology/approach

The study proposes a deep learning method of recommending MOOCs to students based on a multi-attention mechanism comprising learning records attention, word-level review attention, sentence-level review attention and course description attention. The proposed model is validated using real-world data consisting of the learning records of 6,628 students for 1,789 courses and 65,155 reviews.

Findings

The main contribution of this study is its exploration of multiple unstructured information using the proposed multi-attention network model. It provides an interpretable strategy for analyzing students' learning behaviors and conducting personalized MOOC recommendations.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that MOOC platforms must fully utilize the information implied in course reviews to extract personalized learning preferences.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to recommend MOOCs by exploring students' preferences in course reviews. The proposed multi-attention mechanism improves the interpretability of MOOC recommendations.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2021

Hyunjoo Im, Hae Won Ju and Kim K.P. Johnson

Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased…

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110

Abstract

Purpose

Little research has been done to understand how individual elements (e.g. advertisements) within a webpage are processed and evaluated when visual complexity is increased. Thus, this study aimed to investigate how consumers allocate attention and evaluate products and advertisements on complex webpages when they are casually browsing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted two experiments to test the causal effects of different degrees of visual complexity on consumer responses to products and advertisements. An eye-tracking experiment (n = 90) and a follow-up online experiment (n = 121) were conducted using undergraduate students as participants.

Findings

Participants formed a global impression from the overall webpage complexity, which spilled over to evaluation of individual elements on the webpage (e.g. product, advertisement). The inverted U-shaped relationships (vs. linear negative relationships) between webpage visual complexity and attitude toward the webpage, products, and advertisements were observed. The focal product was given a consistent level of attention regardless of the complexity level.

Practical implications

This study provides implications for website organization and design to maximize positive consumer experiences and marketing effectiveness. The findings provide implications for retailers and advertisement buyers.

Originality/value

This study expanded the knowledge by examining the interplay between individual elements of webpages and the whole webpage complexity when consumers browse visually complex webpages. It is a novel finding that the overall webpage complexity effect spills over to locally attended products or advertisements.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Francisco Muñoz-Leiva, Luís Miguel Faísca, Célia M.Q. Ramos, Marisol B. Correia, Carlos M.R. Sousa and Marouan Bouhachi

This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of a static promotional banner located on a hotel reservation website in terms of capturing the visitor’s visual attention by…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of a static promotional banner located on a hotel reservation website in terms of capturing the visitor’s visual attention by exploring how this impact depends on the user’s degree of internet experience.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted using the eye-tracking methodology, in addition to a self-administered questionnaire. Through eye-tracking technology, eye movements were recorded whilst participants explored a generic hotel website. The factors used in the analyses were the position of the banner on the website and participants’ experience as internet users.

Findings

The findings showed that positioning a banner at certain locations on the webpage may lead to a better recall, which, in part, seems to result from the visual attention that such locations attract. The mediation analysis showed that the bottom-right and bottom-left positions have a negative effect on banner recall due, in part, to the shorter attention times and the smaller number of fixations those positions induce. Although the visitor’s level of internet experience affected his/her visual attention towards the banner, its impact on banner recall was non-significant. Results are discussed considering which variables produce greater effectiveness in capturing the user’s attention.

Practical implications

The paper draws several implications for the marketing literature, hospitality management and society in general.

Originality/value

The study is the first to analyse the impact of the position of a static ad on users’ visual attention and memory, considering the user’s degree of internet experience.

Propósito

Este estudio analiza la eficacia de un banner promocional estático ubicado en un sitio web de reservas de un hotel en términos de captación de la atención visual del visitante examinando cómo este efecto depende del grado de experiencia del usuario en Internet.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se llevó a cabo un experimento utilizando la metodología de seguimiento ocular (eye tracking), junto con un cuestionario autoadministrado. A través de la tecnología de eye tracking, se registraron los movimientos oculares mientras los participantes exploraban el sitio web genérico de un hotel. Los factores considerados en los análisis fueron la posición del banner en el sitio web y la experiencia de los participantes como usuarios de Internet.

Hallazgos

Los hallazgos mostraron que colocar un banner en ciertas ubicaciones de la página web puede conducir a un mayor recuerdo, lo que, en parte, parece ser el resultado de la atención visual que atraen tales posiciones. El análisis de mediación mostró que las posiciones inferior-derecha e inferior-izquierda tienen un efecto negativo en el recuerdo del banner debido, en parte, a los tiempos de atención más cortos y al menor número de fijaciones que provocan esas posiciones. Aunque el nivel de experiencia de Internet del visitante afectó su atención visual hacia el banner, su impacto en el recuerdo del banner no fue significativo. Los resultados son discutidos considerando qué variables producen mayor efectividad a la hora de captar la atención del usuario.

Implicaciones prácticas

El artículo presenta una serie de implicaciones para la literatura de marketing, la gestión hotelera y la sociedad en general.

Originalidad/valor

Nuestro estudio es el primero en analizar el impacto de la posición de un anuncio estático en la atención visual y la memoria de los usuarios, considerando el nivel de experiencia del usuario en Internet.

目的

本研究分析了位于酒店预订网站上的静态促销横幅在吸引访问者视觉注意力方面的效果, 并探索了这种效果如何受到用户的互联网体验程度的影响。

研究方法

本文除了采用自填问卷的方式, 还使用眼动追踪方法进行了实验。通过眼动追踪技术, 记录了参与者在浏览一般酒店网站时的眼动情况。分析中使用的因素是网站上横幅的位置和参与者作为互联网用户的体验。

研究结果

调查结果显示, 将横幅定位在网页上的某些位置可能会导致更佳的记忆, 这种效果在一定程度上是由于横幅的位置吸引了视觉注意力。调解分析表明, 横幅在右下角和左下角的位置对的回忆有负面影响, 部分原因是这些位置引起的注意时间较短、固定次数较少。虽然访问者的互联网体验水平影响了他/她对横幅的视觉注意力, 但其对横幅记忆的影响并不显著。讨论结果时考虑到了某些变量在吸引用户的注意力方面具有更明显的效果。

实践意义

本文对市场营销文献、酒店管理和社会都具有一定的借鉴意义。

原创性/价值

本次研究是第一个分析静态广告的位置对用户视觉注意力和记忆的影响的研究, 考虑到用户的互联网体验程度。

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