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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Zhu-Jun Wang, Yang-Yang Sun, Zhen‐Song Chen, Geng‐Zhong Feng and Qin Su

The emergence of the Software-as-a-service (SaaS) licensing model dramatically changes how enterprise software is released. Especially, it is favored by small and medium…

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of the Software-as-a-service (SaaS) licensing model dramatically changes how enterprise software is released. Especially, it is favored by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) because of the cost-friendly feature. In contrast, many large enterprises (LEs) own relatively abundant budgets and prefer the on-premise software to fulfill demands through customization. Considering the differentiated cost-acceptance level among customers, this study aims to address the versioning problem of the enterprise software faced by software firms.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-point distribution model is formulated to calculate the maximal profits software firm earned from both LEs and SMEs under three strategies (On-premise, SaaS and Hybrid). Then through profit comparison, this paper obtains the optimal versioning strategy and corresponding feasible conditions. Finally, the optimal solutions are derived concerning social welfare.

Findings

A significant finding is that moving to SaaS becomes necessary for the software firms in product releases since the on-premise strategy will not be optimal. Based on this, this paper discovers that when LEs own a cost-acceptance level close to that of SMEs, the hybrid strategy is the only optimal choice. When LEs become less sensitive to costs, the hybrid strategy is suggested if the customization cost falls below the threshold. Otherwise, the SaaS strategy becomes the optimal option. The conclusions explain why some software vendors transit to “cloud companies” thoroughly and provide practical insights for software firms’ future decisions.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first information economics study to consider consumer cost sensitivity in discussing enterprise software versioning. The differentiated cost-acceptance level is introduced to describe the customer utilities, and the results uncover the necessity of moving to SaaS under diversified customer composition. This work provides significant theoretical value and practical insights.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Mojtaba Khosravi, Hadi Sarvari, Daniel W.M. Chan, Matteo Cristofaro and Zhen Chen

As construction of commercial and recreational complex building projects (CRCBPs) is one of the most important issues in many developing countries and requires a very high…

Abstract

Purpose

As construction of commercial and recreational complex building projects (CRCBPs) is one of the most important issues in many developing countries and requires a very high cost of implementation, it is important to identify and prioritize the risks of such projects. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify and rank the risks of CRCBPs by studying the case of the “Hamedanian Memorial,” a CRCBP in Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

To pursue this aim, a descriptive-survey method was used. The statistical population of the study consists of 30 experienced experts (consultants, contractors and employers) of the “Hamedanian Memorial” project selected according to the Cochran formula and minimum population census. A questionnaire was used as the data collection tool, administered in all stages of risk identification and evaluation, and was devised by using library and field methods based on the literature and research background, as well as interviewing experts in the risk identification and evaluation stages. Kendall’s coefficient of agreement was used to validate the experts’ opinions in the risk identification stage. The ranking in qualitative evaluation was done based on the risk intensity and the cumulative risk index.

Findings

The results show that the risks are associated with exchange rate fluctuation, inflation fluctuation, access to skilled workers, contractors’ claims and foreign threats from international relations.

Originality/value

The results and findings of the present study can be of interest to the executives of large commercial, leisure, public and private projects in developing and developed countries; understanding risks can significantly improve the decision-making process of CRCBPs.

Details

Journal of Facilities Management , vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-5967

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Chao Ma, Chia-Huei Wu, (George) Zhen Xiong Chen, Xinhui Jiang and Wu Wei

The purpose of this paper is to build a moderate mediation model to delineate the effects of leader humility on employee constructive voice behavior based on conservation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to build a moderate mediation model to delineate the effects of leader humility on employee constructive voice behavior based on conservation of resources theory and crossover of resources model. Specifically, when a leader behaves with humility, the followers will be more likely to feel they receive psychological resources from their interactions with the leader (i.e. relational energy), and thus engage in more constructive voice behavior. In addition, this energizing effect only occurs when the leader is perceived as having higher apparent sincerity by their subordinates.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses of this study were empirically tested using multi-timepoint and multi-source (i.e. supervisors and subordinates) survey data in China. Study 1, based on data from 449 subordinates and 88 immediate supervisors, was conducted to test the proposed mediation effect. Study 2, based on data from 185 subordinates and 50 immediate supervisors, was conducted to replicate the findings of Study 1 and test the integrated model.

Findings

The results of Study 1 support the proposed mediation effect that leader humility positively predicts followers’ constructive voice behavior via boosting followers’ relational energy. The results of Study 2 replicate the findings of Study 1 and further indicate that leader humility is only positively related to perceived relational energy when a leader is perceived as having higher apparent sincerity by their subordinates.

Practical implications

This paper provides detailed instructions for business practitioners. First, given that employee constructive voice behavior is related to employee relational energy and is beneficial to organizations, leaders are encouraged to behave with humility when interacting with their subordinates. Second, from the perspective of human resource management, well-designed training programs can be used to help leaders to develop leader humility. Third, the findings of this paper call attention to a potential risk for humble leaders. Organizations should educate leaders on the potential negative consequences of false humility and encourage leader humility that will appear in leaders’ sincerity.

Originality/value

Overall, drawing on conservation of resources theory and crossover of resources model, this paper reveals that boosting relational energy is a mechanism via which humble leaders can shape employees’ voice behavior. Second, by examining the moderation effect of apparent sincerity of leaders from followers’ perspective, this paper suggests an actor–recipient perspective to identify the boundaries of the energizing mechanism. Third, the findings of this paper add to the knowledge on voice research by highlighting an additional source of energy for employee constructive voice behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Usman Ali, Yanxi Li, Jian-Jun Wang and Zhen Chen

Prior research demonstrated that China's Outward FDI (OFDI) is aimed at sustaining long-term economic growth by promoting industrialization and technological upgrading in…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research demonstrated that China's Outward FDI (OFDI) is aimed at sustaining long-term economic growth by promoting industrialization and technological upgrading in the country. However, empirical evidence on the effectiveness of this strategy remains scarce. This study intends to fill this gap by exploiting endogenous changes in industrial productivity stemming from OFDI to examine if China's new strategy to spur OFDI is economically beneficial for the industries involved.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employed the two-step system-GMM and pooled mean group approaches on a panel dataset of 18 Chinese industries over the 2004–2017 period. The industrial sectors are further classified into the state dominated and non-state dominated ones to evaluate whether the productivity growth impact of OFDI varies by the level of ownership structure. Besides, the dataset is further decomposed into the ex ante and ex-post BRI era to test if this initiative has altered the underlying relationship.

Findings

The results provide robust evidence that China's OFDI through reverse spillover effects promotes productivity growth in the domestic industries, and such productivity gains are greater for the non-state dominated industries, and the OFDI in the BRI era. The findings suggest that OFDI can act as a catch-up strategy to release excess capacity and acquire technology and smart business practices.

Originality/value

This study is the first attempt to highlight the reverse productivity spillovers associated with OFDI at the industrial level. The study's findings guide the government officials and the practitioners of foreign investment to better understand the implications of their investment projects in terms of technology improvements and to optimize market opportunities.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Chao Ma, (George) Zhen Xiong Chen and Xinhui Jiang

This paper aims to build a moderate mediation model to delineate when and how employee with perceived overqualification will exert extra effort and therefore engage in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to build a moderate mediation model to delineate when and how employee with perceived overqualification will exert extra effort and therefore engage in more altruistic helping behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The research hypotheses were empirically tested using multitime and multisource survey data. Given the nested nature of data (i.e. 52 immediate supervisors rated 143 subordinates), multilevel structural equation modeling analyses within Mplus were conducted to test the proposed model.

Findings

The results support the proposed moderated mediation effect and indicate that perceived overqualification is positively related to extra effort on a condition that there is either strong desire for higher workplace status or more developmental job opportunities. The extra effort will subsequently lead to more altruistic helping behavior.

Practical implications

Based on the findings of this paper, human resource managers should consider the job applicant’s desire for workplace status and the organizational context the employer can provide when hiring overqualified employees. Second, organizations should carefully conduct job design to improve overqualified employees’ on-the-job developmental experiences. Third, training programs should be conducted to help satisfy needs and improve workplace status of overqualified employees, so that they can exert extra job effort and engage in pro-organizational behaviors.

Originality/value

Drawing on motivation–opportunity–ability theory, this paper extends the limited understanding of important boundary conditions under which perceived overqualification can be beneficial. The findings add to the knowledge on extant literature by identifying altruistic helping behavior as a new outcome of perceived overqualification.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Zhen Chen, Zhengqi Gu and Zhonggang Wang

This paper aims to propose a precise turbulence model for vehicle aerodynamics, especially for vehicle window buffeting noise.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a precise turbulence model for vehicle aerodynamics, especially for vehicle window buffeting noise.

Design/methodology/approach

Aiming at the fact that commonly used turbulence models cannot precisely predict laminar-turbulent transition, a transition-code-based improvement is introduced. This improvement includes the introduction of total stress limitation (TSL) and separation-sensitive model. They are integrated into low Reynolds number (LRN) k-ε model to concern transport properties of total stress and precisely capture boundary layer separations. As a result, the ability of LRN k-ε model to predict the transition is improved. Combined with the constructing scheme of constrained large-eddy simulation (CLES) model, a modified LRN CLES model is achieved. Several typical flows and relevant experimental results are introduced to validate this model. Finally, the modified LRN CLES model is used to acquire detailed flow structures and noise signature of a simplified vehicle window. Then, experimental validations are conducted.

Findings

Current results indicate that the modified LRN CLES model is capable of achieving acceptable accuracy in prediction of various types of transition at various Reynolds numbers. And, the ability of this model to simulate the vehicle window buffeting noise is greater than commonly used models.

Originality/value

Based on the TSL idea and separation-sensitive model, a modified LRN CLES model concerning the laminar-turbulent transition for the vehicle window buffeting noise is first proposed.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2019

Zhen Chen, Zhenqqi Gu and Tao Jiang

The main purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the transient aerodynamic characteristics of moving windshield wipers. In addition, this paper also…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the transient aerodynamic characteristics of moving windshield wipers. In addition, this paper also strives to illustrate and clarify how the wiper motion impacts the airflow structure; the aerodynamic interaction of two wipers is also discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

A standard vehicle model proposed by the Motor Industry Research Association and a pair of simplified bone wipers are introduced, and a dynamic mesh technique and user-defined functions are used to achieve the wiper motion. Finite volume methods and large eddy simulation (LES) are used to simulate the transient airflow field. The simulation results are validated through the wind tunnel test.

Findings

The results obtained from the study are presented graphically, and pressure, velocity distributions, airflow structures, aerodynamic drag and lift force are shown. Significant influences of wiper motion on airflow structures are achieved. The maximum value of aerodynamic lift and drag force exists when wipers are rotating and there is a certain change rule. The aerodynamic lift and drag force when wipers are rotating downward is greater than when wipers are rotating upward, and the force when rotating upward is greater than that when steady. The aerodynamic lift and drag forces of the driver-side wiper is greater than those of the passenger-side wiper.

Originality/value

The LES method in combination with dynamic mesh technique to study the transient aerodynamic characteristics of windshield wipers is relatively new.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2018

Shuya Li, Zhengqi Gu, Taiming Huang, Zhen Chen and Jun Liu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a two-way coupling approach for investigating the aerodynamic stability of vehicles under the combined effect of crosswind and road…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a two-way coupling approach for investigating the aerodynamic stability of vehicles under the combined effect of crosswind and road adhesion.

Design/methodology/approach

The author develops a new two-way coupling approach, which couples large eddy simulation with multi-body dynamics (MBD), to investigate the crosswind stability on three different adhesion roads: ideal road, dry road and wet road. The comparison of the results obtained using the traditional one-way coupling approach and the new two-way coupling approach is also done to assess the necessity to use the proposed coupling technique on low adhesion roads, and the combined effect of crosswind and road adhesion on vehicle stability is analyzed.

Findings

The results suggest that the lower the road adhesion is, the larger deviation a vehicle generates, the more necessary to conduct the two-way coupling simulation. The combined effect of the crosswind and road adhesion can decrease a vehicle’s lateral motion on a high adhesion road after the disappearing of the crosswind. But on a low adhesion road, the vehicle tends to be unstable for its large head wind angle. The vehicle stability in crosswind on a low adhesion road needs more attention, and the investigation should consider the coupling of aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics and the combined effect of crosswind and road adhesion.

Originality/value

Developing a new two-way coupling approach which can capture the complex vehicle structures and the road adhesion with MBD model and the completed fluid filed structure with CFD model. The present study might be the first study considering the coupling of crosswind and low adhesion road. The proposed two-way coupling approach will be useful for researchers who study vehicle crosswind stability.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2021

Lu Xiao, Zhi-Ying Wu, Song-Ling Zhang, Zhen-Song Chen and Kannan Govindan

This paper aims to propose a two-period model in which an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) decides the remanufacturability level of products in product design and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a two-period model in which an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) decides the remanufacturability level of products in product design and unit patent licensing fee at the first period, and a third-party remanufacturer (3PR) that has been licensed by the OEM enters the remanufacturing market to compete with the OEM at the second period.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes the OEM's optimal decisions of remanufacturability level in the product design and unit patent licensing fee at the first period, as well as the OEM's and the 3PR's optimal decisions of selling prices at the second period, under two scenarios that the remanufacturing is constrained or unconstrained by the collected quantity available at the end of the first period, by making use of game theory.

Findings

The study finds that the OEM will choose high remanufacturability in product design only when the unit cost saving of remanufacturing or unit production cost of new products exceed certain thresholds.

Originality/value

The study is the first attempt to simultaneously integrate product design and patent licensing in remanufacturing. It provides useful insights for OEM managers who face competition from 3PRs and may use their product design strategies to deter 3PRs and may protect patent of products by levying patent licensing fees from 3PRs.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Zhen Chen, Heng Li and Conrad T.C. Wong

Although the Trip‐ticket System (TTS) has been implemented to manage construction and demolition (C&D) waste in Hong Kong for over three years, problems still exist in the…

Abstract

Although the Trip‐ticket System (TTS) has been implemented to manage construction and demolition (C&D) waste in Hong Kong for over three years, problems still exist in the landfill disposal of the C&D waste. For example, it is reported that fees are difficult to collect from waste transporters for tipping the C&D waste at the landfill site. Based on an examination of the flexibility of the TTS, this paper proposes an e‐commerce model, namely the Webfill system, in order to enhance the TTS. The computational structure of the Webfill system is described and the usefulness of Webfill is evaluated based on a simulation which provides a direct comparison between the existing TTS and the Webfill‐enhanced TTS.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

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