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The purpose of this study was to develop the augmented reality (AR) educational program combined with the instructional guidance for supportive learning, which enhanced…
The purpose of this study was to develop the augmented reality (AR) educational program combined with the instructional guidance for supportive learning, which enhanced the thinking process cooperative discussion and problem-solving skills in chemistry subject.
The method used the quasi-experimental research design. Of the 45 students who attended this experiment, only 25 with low achievement qualified in operating the AR learning system of saponification and transesterification environment (ARLS-STE) system.
These results confirmed that the AR educational program could have increased substantial benefits in improvements of students’ knowledge and the ability of the thinking process for the participants with the lowest score. In semi-structured interviews, most of participants enjoyed manipulating the ARLS-STE system, which was realistic, motived and interesting for learning science subjects.
The low-achieving students have often been known with a low learning capability, and they lack in developing constructional knowledge, despite being keen for learning. Regarding educational concerns for this population, providing orientated learning and supportive materials could increase their learning effects. Virtual worlds are an efficient learning tool in educational setting. The AR can offer visual concepts and physical interaction for students with low achievement in learning. Thus, this study investigates the acceptability of an educational program designed in the ARLS-STE, which involves the learning effects of academic knowledge and the capability of thinking process for students with low achievement. The ARLS-STE system was developed for this proposal, based upon the marker-based AR technologies combined with hands-on manipulation.
The assumption that the family migrates as a unit downplays migrants’ circularity. This chapter focuses on China's rural–urban labor migrants that travel back and forth…
The assumption that the family migrates as a unit downplays migrants’ circularity. This chapter focuses on China's rural–urban labor migrants that travel back and forth between the sites of work and home community and between places of work. I argue that migrants and their households pursue work flexibility in order to obtain the best of the urban and rural worlds, by gaining earnings from urban work and at the same time maintaining social and economic security in the countryside. Work flexibility demands flexibility in household organization, in the form of division of labor and collaboration between genders, generations, and households. Based on a study in Sichuan, I examine household biographies and narratives to identify migrants’ work and household strategies.
Migrants change jobs frequently, switch from one type of work to another and one location to another readily, and often return to the home village for months or even years before pursuing migrant work again. Not only are migrants ready to split the household between the city and the countryside, but also they frequently change from one form of division of labor to another. The inside–outside model, where the wife stays in the village and the husband does migrant work, used to be the dominant arrangement. Over time, the outside–outside model, where both the husband and wife migrate to work and leave behind other family members, is increasingly popular. This is facilitated by intergenerational and interhousehold division of labor in the form of assistance by the extended family. Intergenerational division of labor takes place when the second generation is replacing the parents in migrant work. This research's findings support the notion that rural–urban migrants are fast becoming a hybrid segment of Chinese society, playing dual roles of farmers and urban workers and straddling the peasant and urban worlds.
In recent years, the concept of subculture has been fiercely criticized, with some scholars even claiming that it is no longer relevant in a multi-cultural world…
In recent years, the concept of subculture has been fiercely criticized, with some scholars even claiming that it is no longer relevant in a multi-cultural world (Muggleton, 2000; Chaney, 2004; Stahl, 2004). However, the authors argue that by revisiting the Chicago School tradition and reconceptualizing subculture on the basis of acknowledging its limitations and its potential, subculture theory remains applicable in the context of contemporary China. Through an eight-month ethnographic study of a group of deviant students in a secondary school in urban China, the purpose of this paper is to contend that the subculture of these young people from lower-class backgrounds is a means to negotiate their space and power in a failing school system situated in a drastically transforming society full of diversified yet often conflicting values.
In this study, the authors undertook an ethnographic study to follow a group of deviant students for eight months, trying to understand their everyday lives and the process of their identity construction. The research was conducted in Xiamen, a coastal city located in the southeast part of mainland China. Unlike large metropolitan areas such as Beijing and Shanghai, where most studies have been conducted so far, Xiamen represents one of the medium-sized cities, which are the majority in China. After a process of sampling among 11 classes from five schools in different tiers, the authors chose one class in Grade 2 at a medium-level secondary school called “Central Park Secondary School” as a pseudonym. The authors stayed in the field for the main study and the authors also paid another visit to the school to follow up on students’ recent development.
In this study, a group of problem students identified with each other and shared the same problems and situations, and collectively formed a subcultural group, from within which they could challenge the authority of teachers and parents and negotiate power in the school; for example, reaching a truce with teachers so that they could have an easier time at school until they graduated. Their subculture and resistance may seem like a self-defeating practice, because what they learned at school and the qualifications they obtained could only assure them laboring jobs and reproduce their lower class status. However, this subculture offered an alternative way to safeguard their happiness and healthy development, which in this case is psychological well-being and better interpersonal skills.
This paper could provide the teachers and school administrators with a new perspective to look at some of their students’ poor performance and disruptive behaviors. With a deeper understanding of their “deviant” students, the teachers may develop more pertinent measures to help their students.
This paper argues that, through revisiting the Chicago School tradition and reconceptualizing subculture on the basis of acknowledging its limitations and potential, subculture theory remains applicable in the context of contemporary China.
An uncertain product demand in online retailing leads to loss of opportunity cost and customer dissatisfaction due to instances of product unavailability. On the other…
An uncertain product demand in online retailing leads to loss of opportunity cost and customer dissatisfaction due to instances of product unavailability. On the other hand, when e-retailers store excessive inventory of durable goods to fulfill uncertain demand, it results in significant inventory holding and obsolescence cost. In view of such overstocking/understocking situations, this study attempts to mitigate online demand risk by exploring novel e-retailing approaches considering the trade-offs between opportunity cost/customer dissatisfaction and inventory holding/obsolescence cost.
Four e-retailing approaches are introduced to mitigate uncertain demand and minimize the economic losses to e-retailer. Using three months of purchased history data of online consumers for durable goods, four proposed approaches are tested by developing product attribute based algorithm to calculate the economic loss to the e-retailer.
Mixed e-retailing method of selling unavailable products from collaborative e-retail partner and alternative product's suggestion from own e-retailing method is found to be best for mitigating uncertain demand as well as limiting customer dissatisfaction.
Limited numbers of risk factor have been considered in this study. In the future, others risk factors like fraudulent order of high demand products, long delivery time window risk, damage and return risk of popular products can be incorporated and handled to reduce the economic loss.
The analysis can minimize the economic losses to an e-retailer and also can maximize the profit of collaborative e-retailing partner.
The study proposes a retailer to retailer collaboration approach without sharing the forecasted products' demand information.