Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.
We examine the emotional lives of the loyal opposition: those who remain steadfast in their duty-oriented, deontological ethical commitment to their workplace…
We examine the emotional lives of the loyal opposition: those who remain steadfast in their duty-oriented, deontological ethical commitment to their workplace organization, but are in conflict with the dominant, utilitarian ethical view emphasizing practicality and revenue. When one is an “outsider” or even an “outcast” due to their deontological ethics, this conflict between personal and organizational ethics can result in a wide variety of emotions ranging from fear and sadness to alienation, and even rarely, to joy. Using qualitative methods, we analyze interview and observational data sets from two distinct populations within different workplace organizations: non-profit human service workers and faculty members who teach ethics in business schools. In both data sets, negative and positive emotions were experienced by participants immersed in a workplace environment characterized by ethical conflict. Though tension between the deontological and utilitarian ethical positions generated powerful emotions among the employee populations, it was not necessarily detrimental to the organization and in fact seemed to have a constructive, steadying influence. Ethical conflict can be constructive, function to make an organization stronger, and contribute positively to organizational success. The likelihood of positive outcomes increases if the emotional work entailed is sufficiently recognized and addressed.
The aim of this paper is to report about a requisitely holistic examination of the business ethics, focused on internal gaps between company’s and employees’ ethics…
The aim of this paper is to report about a requisitely holistic examination of the business ethics, focused on internal gaps between company’s and employees’ ethics. Contribution considers reasons for emergence of business ethics’ internal gaps and their appearance forms.
The authors specify and test model drawing upon modified versions of the ethics and management theory. In all, 1,125 responses were analyzed from an on-going survey conducted biannually among employees in Slovenian companies in the past decade.
Results reveal that company’s real business ethics remained steady over the decade, while employees’ real business ethics have significantly improved. Significant differences exist between employees’ and company’s real business ethics and shape internal business ethics’ incompatibilities. Finally, results reveal a significant influence of employees’ real business ethics on company’s real business ethics.
Research is limited to postulated hypotheses, qualitative consideration of internal gaps of business ethics and quantitative analysis of business ethics’ development in the considered Slovenian companies in the past 10 years.
The authors rethought the habit of separated consideration of managerial business ethics and employees’ ethics as well as the presumption about congruence between company’s and employees’ business ethics. The requisitely holistic understanding and consideration of internal gaps of business ethics is suggested.
Available literature does not provide a similar model for a requisitely holistic consideration of internal gaps of business ethics. The study confirms the proposed model of business ethics gaps.
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…
Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.
The idea of ‘identity politics’ has become quite prominent in news commentary. It has been referred to in explaining the 2016 US Presidential election result, the 2016 Brexit vote and a variety of other events in contemporary social life. The idea emerged under that title in the late twentieth century, and refers to political conflicts where groups unite and act on the basis of some shared identity. While the term initially referred to action by groups seeking to remedy past oppression, ‘identity politics’ may now refer to a wider range of cases where there is contestation based on recognition of some shared identity. Individuals’ identity is central to resurgent modern virtue ethics, but it has been suggested that virtue ethics is less relevant to political conflict than utilitarian views or theories of justice. However, an important distinction can be made between narrative identity, on the one hand, and social identity that emerges from individuals’ self-perceived group membership, on the other hand. It is narrative identity that figures in major accounts of virtue ethics. In many situations, narrative identity is importantly affected by group identity, but it is still only narrative identity that has intrinsic ethical weight. This suggests that virtue ethics has relevance to identity politics just because it urges attention to individuals’ narrative identity rather than to group identity.
Business ethics provide a potent source of competitive advantage, placing increasing pressure on organizations to create and maintain an ethical workforce. Nonetheless…
Business ethics provide a potent source of competitive advantage, placing increasing pressure on organizations to create and maintain an ethical workforce. Nonetheless, ethical breaches continue to permeate corporate life, suggesting that there is something missing from how we conceptualize and institutionalize organizational ethics. The current effort seeks to fill this void in two ways. First, we introduce an extended ethical framework premised on sensemaking in organizations. Within this framework, we suggest that multiple individual, organizational, and societal factors may differentially influence the ethical sensemaking process. Second, we contend that human resource management plays a central role in sustaining workplace ethics and explore the strategies through which human resource personnel can work to foster an ethical culture and spearhead ethics initiatives. Future research directions applicable to scholars in both the ethics and human resources domains are provided.
Ethics initiatives are commonly used by organizations to influence members’ behavior with the expressed goal of aligning the behavior exhibited in the organization with…
Ethics initiatives are commonly used by organizations to influence members’ behavior with the expressed goal of aligning the behavior exhibited in the organization with the organization's stated rules and values (Laufer & Robertson, 1997; Schwartz, 2002; Tenbrunsel, Smith-Crowe, & Umphress, 2003; Trevino, Weaver, Gibson, & Toffler, 1999; Weaver, Trevino, & Cochran, 1999a, 1999b, 1999c). It is hoped that by emphasizing the organization's values and rules, organization members will be more thoughtful about their work behavior and consider these values and rules when making decisions at work.
This chapter proposes a research agenda for the study of large law firm culture and explains how the research would contribute to both legal ethics and organizational theory. It focuses on two sets of questions that are uniquely suited to investigation in large law firms. First: what is the significance of organizational culture, relative to that of professional networks and subgroups? To what extent does organizational membership shape lawyers’ understandings about “how things are done”? Second: how is organizational culture sustained? What are the mechanisms of cultural integration in volatile, multioffice firms? The chapter draws on a pilot study of law firm culture in one 500-lawyer firm.
Despite the existence of a variety of approaches to the understanding of behavioral and managerial ethics in organizations and business relationships generally, knowledge…
Despite the existence of a variety of approaches to the understanding of behavioral and managerial ethics in organizations and business relationships generally, knowledge of organizing systems for fidelity remains in its infancy. We use halakha, or Jewish law, as a model, together with the literature in sociology, economic anthropology, and economics on what it termed “middleman minorities,” and on what we have termed the Landa Problem, the problem of identifying a trustworthy economic exchange partner, to explore this issue.
The article contrasts the differing explanations for trustworthy behavior in these literatures, focusing on the widely referenced work of Avner Greif on the Jewish Maghribi merchants of the eleventh century. We challenge Greif’s argument that cheating among the Magribi was managed chiefly via a rational, self-interested reputational sanctioning system in the closed group of traders. Greif largely ignores a more compelling if potentially complementary argument, which we believe also finds support among the documentary evidence of the Cairo Geniza as reported by Goitein: that the behavior of the Maghribi reflected their deep beliefs and commitment to Jewish law, halakha.
Applying insights from this analysis, we present an explicit theory of heroic marginality, the production of extreme precautionary behaviors to ensure service to the principal.
Generalizing from the case of halakha, the article proposes the construct of a deep code, identifying five defining characteristics of such a code, and suggests that deep codes may act as facilitators of compliance. We also offer speculation on design features employing deep codes that may increase the likelihood of production of behaviors consistent with terminal values of the community.
Globalization, changing demographics, and a push for diversity have resulted in corporate cultures that are less homogeneous, increasing the likelihood that individuals…
Globalization, changing demographics, and a push for diversity have resulted in corporate cultures that are less homogeneous, increasing the likelihood that individuals working side by side may not see eye‐to‐eye when it comes to business ethics. The objective of this study was to examine whether Hispanics and non‐Hispanics, living in the US, shared similar attitudes with regard to business ethics.
Hispanics and non‐Hispanics were asked to indicate their levels of disagreement/agreement with eight business ethics value statements.
Several significant differences in attitudes toward business ethics values were found.
While there were more similarities than differences between the two samples, the findings of this study support the idea that ethics values are in part shaped by subculture and may be further influenced by individual characteristics.
Society expects organizations today to conduct their business in an ethical manner. However, significant differences exist among individuals in terms of what is ethical behavior. Further, differences among subcultures may magnify differences among individuals. Organizations must be able to understand and take advantage of a multicultural workforce; therefore, it is imperative that business leaders gain as much information as possible with regard to the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the subcultures represented in their companies.
A company’s productivity and success in a highly competitive global economy require having employees who are comfortable working in an environment comprised of different races, classes, and backgrounds. These findings should lead to better understanding of the Hispanic subculture, help organizations manage cultural diversity, and promote ethical decision‐making.