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Article
Publication date: 26 May 2021

Olona Mtintsilana, Babatope Ebenezer Akinyemi and Leocadia Zhou

This paper aims to determine factors affecting adaptation to climate variability on crop production among farming households in Tyhume Valley.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine factors affecting adaptation to climate variability on crop production among farming households in Tyhume Valley.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted an empirical analysis of the impact of adaptation on crop yield of farming households and estimated the factors affecting adaptation to climate variability on farming households. The analysis used primary data from 205 farming households practicing crop production in Tyhume Valley communities.

Findings

Based on binary logit results, factors affecting rural farming households’ adaptation to climate variability are gender, age, heatwave, employment status, strong high wind occasional experience and cell phone. The adaptation measures adopted by the farming households in the study area include irrigation (94.8%), crop rotation (66%), changing crop variety (7.4%) and other methods of adaptation were found to be (1.3%). The other methods of adaptation used included the use of ash to kill (intuku) mole and using dirty water from washing dishes and clothes when irrigating to kill parasites on crops.

Originality/value

This research paper will be an addition to the body of knowledge on adaptation strategies to climate variability in South Africa, especially at the rural farming household level. This study may assist the rural communities in decision-making when dealing with the challenges of climate variability on their crop production, thereby increasing their crop production. The information gathered in this study might assist policymakers in revising the existing policies. This study will also help rural farming households to practice appropriate adaptation strategies.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 24 December 2020

Peng Huang and Yue Lu

We examine the effect of institutional blockholders on the variability of firm performance.

Abstract

Purpose

We examine the effect of institutional blockholders on the variability of firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

We use OLS regression models to estimate the effect of institutional blockholders on within-firm, over-time variability of firm performance.

Findings

We find that firms with more institutional blockholders experience less variable firm performance. In particular, more institutional blockholders are associated with less variability of annual stock returns, ROA and the market-to-book ratio. We further explore several underlying mechanisms through with institutional blockholders reduce firm performance variability. We find that more institutional blockholders are associated with less variable capital expenditures and R&D investments, and less frequent acquisition activities.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this paper is that our sample period only covers 1996–2006. Future studies can extend our research to a more recent period (e.g. 2009–2019) to test whether our findings remain valid in other periods.

Practical implications

We document a significant relation between institutional blockholders and firm performance variability in this paper. However, we do not make any judgment as to whether firms should increase their institutional blockholders as it is unclear whether the caused reduction in risk-taking is socially efficient. We argue that the value implication of institutional blockholders depends on the existing blockholder structure and the different levels of risk appetite between the CEO and shareholders. Thus, the decision on the increase or decrease of institutional blockholders should be carefully made based on a firm’s specific characteristics.

Originality/value

This paper is a first study which examines the impact of the presence of institutional blockholders on the variability of firm performance, while most prior studies focus on the stock ownership of institutional blockholders and examine its impact on the level of firm performance.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Maropene Tebello Rapholo and Lawrence Diko Makia

Literature contends that not much is known about smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate variability and the impacts thereof on agricultural practices in Sub-Saharan…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature contends that not much is known about smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate variability and the impacts thereof on agricultural practices in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa in particular. The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of smallholder farmers from Botlokwa (a semi-arid region in South Africa) on climate variability in relation to climatological evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

The study area is in proximity to a meteorological station and comprises mainly rural farmers, involved in rain-fed subsistence agriculture. Focus group discussions and closed-ended questionnaires covering demographics and perceptions were administered to 125 purposely sampled farmers. To assess farmers’ perceptions of climate variability, their responses were compared with linear trend and variability of historical temperature and rainfall data (1985-2015). Descriptive statistics were used to provide insights into respondents’ perceptions.

Findings

About 64% of the farmers perceived climate variability that was consistent with the meteorological data, whereas 36% either held contrary observations or were unable to discern. Age, level of education, farming experience and accessibility to information influenced the likelihood of farmers to correctly perceive climate variability. No significant differences in perception based on gender were observed. This study concludes that coping and adaption strategies of over one-third of the farmers could be negatively impacted by wrong perceptions of climate variability.

Originality/value

This study highlights discrepancies in perceptions among farmers with similar demographic characteristics. To guarantee sustainability of the sector, intervention by government and other key stakeholders to address underlying factors responsible for observed discrepancies is recommended.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Yen-Chun Chen, Yung-Cheng Shen, Crystal Tzu-Ying Lee and Fu-Kai Yu

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a multidimensional hierarchical scale for measuring “e-service quality variation.”

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate a multidimensional hierarchical scale for measuring “e-service quality variation.”

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the psychometric scale-development approach, qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to develop the e-SERVAR scale. A multidimensional hierarchical factor structure of e-SERVAR is proposed, along with a set of preliminary items derived from literature and the qualitative study. Furthermore, the Yahoo website in Taiwan was chosen to be the target e-service website for data collection to develop the e-SERVAR scale. A series of statistical methods (i.e. item-to-total correlations, exploratory factor analyses, CFAs and structural equation modeling) were adopted to verify construct reliability and validity as well as nomological validity of the scale.

Findings

A 41-item e-SERVAR scale based on the structure of a hierarchical factor model was developed that contains three primary dimensions (i.e. information, system and fulfillment) and nine subdimensions (information accuracy, information quantity, information timeliness, information usefulness, system reliability, system security, merchandise quality, merchandise delivery timeliness and merchandise security).

Practical implications

The results of this study help managers identify sources of quality variability and design efficacious strategies to reduce such variability in order to improve the overall e-service quality.

Originality/value

Prior research of e-service quality has paid less attention to the role of e-service quality variability. Discussion of e-service quality variability was mainly conceptual in nature. This research presents the e-SERVAR scale as a measurement tool that provides a new avenue for researchers to study how to improve e-service quality by measuring service variability.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Simone Severini, Antonella Tantari and Giuliano Di Tommaso

The purpose of this paper is to assess how direct payments (DPs) of the Common Agricultural Policy affect income and revenue variability faced by Italian farmers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess how direct payments (DPs) of the Common Agricultural Policy affect income and revenue variability faced by Italian farmers.

Design/methodology/approach

Balanced farm-level panel data are used to construct coefficients of variation over the period 2003-2012. Nonlinear robust regression techniques are used to measure the effect of DP, farm size, fixity in resources, labor intensity, farm production orientation, and specialization on the variability of farm income (FI) and farm revenue. This is done on the overall sample as well as on subsamples of farms located in different regions and belonging to different types of farming.

Findings

DPs have mixed effects on the variability of FI. While a negative and significant relationship is found on the whole national sample, this is not generally the case when models are run on the considered subsamples. On the contrary, DPs have always significant variability increasing effects on revenue. This suggests that DPs reduce the degree of risk that farmers face allowing them to engage in riskier activities. Thus, DPs are less effective than expected in terms of income stabilization because these distort farmers’ risk management behavior. Because of this, DPs could constrain the development of markets for risk management instruments and reduce the effectiveness of policies supporting the use of these instruments.

Originality/value

The analysis is inspired by El Benni et al. (2012) but uses a different approach, applies it to a different country, and yields different results. Volatility measures are calculated over more years, and the paper accounts for differences in farm production orientation and is not based on an unbalanced panel of farms. Because of these differences, the authors obtained different results regarding the correlation between DP and income and, even more, revenue variability. Finally, comparing the results of models referring to FI and farm revenue improves the author’s understanding of the impact of DP on farmers’ risk management behavior and allows interesting policy considerations.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Göran Svensson

This paper seeks to describe a conceptualisation of the multiple facets of the bullwhip effect between stocking levels within and between value chains and value systems.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to describe a conceptualisation of the multiple facets of the bullwhip effect between stocking levels within and between value chains and value systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a conceptual discussion of the bullwhip effect. It is refined and re‐defined.

Findings

The bullwhip effect has usually been explored between inter‐organisational stocking levels. Recently, it has also been explored within intra‐organisational stocking levels. A broader descriptive framework is introduced, one that positions the bullwhip effect construct in intra‐ and inter‐organisational, as well as intra‐ and inter‐channel, stocking levels in and between value chains and value systems.

Research limitations/implications

A research agenda is provided that goes beyond current definitional boundaries and state‐of‐the‐art research of the bullwhip effect.

Practical implications

The refined and re‐defined bullwhip effect is of interest to practitioners. It considers inter‐organisational and intra‐organisational stocking levels. In addition, it considers intra‐ and inter‐channel stocking levels. It is of great concern to achieve best practices in business.

Originality/value

The principal contributions are – a dynamics model of the bullwhip effect construct; a principle of stocking level variability; a typology of stocking level variability; a framework that describes different levels of analysis of the bullwhip effect; and a re‐definition of the bullwhip effect construct – within or between value chains and value systems.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2011

Paul Chapman, Michael Bernon and Paul Haggett

This research seeks to identify and apply techniques that can be used in a supply chain context to diagnose the causes of variability in delivery lead time.

Abstract

Purpose

This research seeks to identify and apply techniques that can be used in a supply chain context to diagnose the causes of variability in delivery lead time.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted and a number of quality management (QM), techniques were selected as candidates for diagnosing delivery time variability. A case study of the application of these techniques is provided on the UK‐based defence supply chain that supported UK operations in the Iraq war of 2003.

Findings

Candidate QM techniques for diagnosing delivery time variability were identified, namely: Process Chart; Histogram; Failure Mode and Effect Analysis; and Cause and Effect Analysis. These techniques were successful in enabling the diagnosis of the causes of delivery time variability in the context of the case study investigated.

Practical implications

The work illustrates how QM techniques can be employed to address issues with supply chains, not least with regard to the important problem of variability in delivery leadtime. In practice, this highlights benefits that result to practitioners in order to improve the performance of operations in a dynamic setting, such as the defence supply chain studied here.

Originality/value

This work has value in presenting the findings of an in‐depth case study on the application of QM techniques in a multi‐echelon supply chain setting. It is also original in employing the FMEA technique together with an end‐customer perspective to assess the effect of failure modes in operations across a supply chain. FMEA also provided the means to examine supply chain risk, thus providing a research instrument for deploying risk as a lens. The application of QM techniques in this novel setting provides support for their application beyond the conventional setting of internal operations.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Jason Loughrey and Thia Hennessy

The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential relationship between farm income variability and off-farm employment decisions in the short and medium term for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential relationship between farm income variability and off-farm employment decisions in the short and medium term for the case of Irish farm operators.

Design/methodology/approach

Panel probit models of off-farm labour supply are estimated using Teagasc National Farm Survey data for Irish farms. The framework is based largely on standard expected utility but includes a constraint for recent employment history.

Findings

The analyses identifies some evidence of a positive association between farm income variability and off-farm employment in the medium term but no significant relationship in the short term. This suggests that off-farm employment is part of a wider portfolio decision but is not a strong solution to short-term farm income shocks.

Practical implications

European farmers increasingly face high income variability but financial risk management tools are not sufficiently developed or widely accessible to assist farmers in managing the associated risk. This deficiency can have negative implications for household economic welfare and future farm investments and hence the future farm income. Off-farm employment can form part of a wider medium-term portfolio strategy but more effective tools are also required for risk management particularly in dealing with short-term volatility and where off-farm employment is not a realistic endeavour given time constraints and/or demographics.

Originality/value

The estimation of farm income variability includes a detrending method thus reducing the likelihood of overestimating farm income variability for farms in deliberate expansion or decline. While previous research has typically focused on the short-term response of farmers to historical farm income variability, this research has distinguished between the short and medium term.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Irene Goll and Abdul A. Rasheed

This paper aims to examine the effects of 9/11/2001 on strategic variability in the US air carrier industry. The paper also seeks to examine the role of firm size in these…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of 9/11/2001 on strategic variability in the US air carrier industry. The paper also seeks to examine the role of firm size in these relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper tests two different perspectives on organizational adaptation to environmental jolts: the punctuated equilibrium model and institutional isomorphism. The two counter hypotheses predict either increasing or decreasing variability in strategic response to 9/11, respectively. This is a longitudinal study of the US air carrier industry. The sample includes the major, national, and large regional air carriers in the US from 1979 (post‐deregulation) to 2008. The data come from archival sources. The study includes measures of variability in differentiation and low cost strategies as well as scope.

Findings

Time series regressions examine the effects of the 9/11 jolt on business strategy variability in the majors, nationals, and large regionals. The results lend some support to both perspectives on organizational adaptation. Air carrier size had a significant relationship to strategic variability.

Originality/value

The paper studies the behavior of firms in the US air carrier industry following the terrorist attacks of 9/11/2001. It examines two different theoretical approaches to environmental jolts and should provide useful information to both academics and managers who are interested in the effects of significant environmental changes on the behavior of an industry.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Oskar Roemeling, Martin Land and Kees Ahaus

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the roles that employee-initiated Lean improvement projects play in health care. Lean ideas are introduced to improve flow in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the roles that employee-initiated Lean improvement projects play in health care. Lean ideas are introduced to improve flow in health care. Although variability is detrimental to flow performance, it is unclear whether Lean initiatives set out to reduce this variability and the associated buffers.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal field research is combined with an exploratory field-quasi-experiment. First, a large set of Lean interventions were explored and their focus classified. Semi-structured interviews with practitioners supported the initial findings regarding the focus. Second, this study investigated whether a knowledge deficiency could explain the identified focus through a quasi-experiment in which the authors’ stimulated knowledge on the roles of variability and buffers and then classified subsequent interventions.

Findings

The results reflected a narrow application of Lean, with most interventions directed at reducing direct waste. A quasi-experiment demonstrated that a small investment in knowledge enables the focus to shift toward buffers and variability issues – i.e. toward a more complete Lean approach.

Research limitations/implications

This research supports the commonly held view that there is a tendency to focus on waste. Furthermore, a lengthy experience of Lean does not guarantee interventions will focus on buffers and variability, issues with arguably a higher complexity compared to obvious waste. However, small investments in knowledge can broaden the focus of practitioners’ interventions.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to research the focus of Lean interventions through a data set spanning several years. The results are based on a unique data set covering a large number of documented Lean interventions.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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