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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Ana‐Maria Wahl

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism…

Abstract

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism reflects an urban bias. Examines social security coverage for the rural poor in Mexico and notes that there are great variations depending on area, suggesting that social security coverage is politically negotiable. Outlines briefly the historical development of Mexico’s welfare state and uses a power resource model to demonstrate how groups with competing interests go about securing benefits from the state. Cites literature on dependency theory, indicating that rural groups have failed to mobilize politically and have therefore not secured the same state resources (such as social security benefits and housing) as urban groups, yet argues that this does not always apply in Mexico, partially due to party politics and bureaucratic paternalism. Explains how data was collected to examine regional variations in social security coverage among the rural poor and how the data was analysed. Reveal that workers in important international export markets (such as cotton and sugar) have greater political leverage in obtaining better social security benefits. Notes also that areas supporting the political party in power obtain better benefits. Concludes, therefore, that rural workers are not powerless in the face of urban capitalism and that urban bias and dependency theories do not reflect the situation in Mexico – rather social security benefits are politically negotiable.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

LAUCHLIN CURRIE

In his diagnosis Lipton occupies an unusual position. He is critical both of the Left and of the Right, of the classicists as well as of the Marxists. He is strongly…

Abstract

In his diagnosis Lipton occupies an unusual position. He is critical both of the Left and of the Right, of the classicists as well as of the Marxists. He is strongly critical of inequality though he maintains that growth is necessary for development, and development for the abolition of inequality. The struggle is not between the rich and the poor, but between the urban and the rural sectors. The former exploits the latter so that the explanation of poverty (mostly in the rural areas) is urban exploitation in a variety of subtle ways. This exploitation and its consequences — a product of a state of mind — is characterized as “urban bias”, which is the key phrase of the subtitle (“Urban Bias in World Development”).

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2022

Kevin Z. Chen, Rui Mao and Yunyi Zhou

Challenges from the urban–rural disparity immensely burden the world's progress fulfilling Sustainable Development Goals and the goals' central promise, particularly for…

Abstract

Purpose

Challenges from the urban–rural disparity immensely burden the world's progress fulfilling Sustainable Development Goals and the goals' central promise, particularly for developing countries experiencing rapid structural change and urbanization. A knowledge gap lies between the epistemology of urban–rural disparity and the practice of integrated urban-rural development. This paper aims to provide a new approach to bridge the knowledge gap based on the recent Chinese experience.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research reviewed major economic and multidisciplinary studies regarding urban-rural development and the growth-equality tradeoff. Chinese experience is employed to showcase concrete challenges from the urban–rural disparity and how the proposed approach works for urban-rural integration.

Findings

Theoretical and practical approaches with urban bias largely fail to counter the challenges. Building on China's recent practice probing beyond urban bias, IFPRI (2019) proposes the term rurbanomics with a highlight of equalized urban-rural economic partnership, whereafter Zhou and Chen (2021) enrich the term into a conceptual framework. This paper further improves rurbanomics as a new viable approach to integrated urban-rural development under the overarching goal of common prosperity. The approach prioritizes driving forces in the economic, demographic, eco-environmental, social institutional and technological aspects for the policy community to leverage. Long-term mechanisms are decerned to link urban-rural integration to common prosperity.

Practical implications

China has leveraged ingredients of the rurbanomics approach in the political deployment to integrated urban-rural development. However, the application of this approach is yet to be adapted with local heterogeneities and live up to application's potential. Long-term mechanisms recommended by the rurbanomics approach will need to be carried out. Future improvements will need substantial theoretical extension and micro-level empirical studies.

Originality/value

This paper streamlines the epistemological shreds regarding pursuits, challenges, global experiences and theoretical approaches of urban-rural development. The paper also develops rurbanomics to navigate urban-rural integration, Sustainable Development Goals and common prosperity. By decerning long-term mechanisms in the Chinese case accordingly, this paper provides clues for other economies to employ the new approach.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 November 2022

Yongqin Wang and Xin Gao

This paper studies the political economy of the endogenous urban–rural divide in two dimensions: labor market and provision of public goods.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper studies the political economy of the endogenous urban–rural divide in two dimensions: labor market and provision of public goods.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gives a dual-sector model endogenously depending on the consumption of public goods (club goods), the number of rural–urban migrants and the tax rate (transfer payments).

Findings

According to the research findings in this paper, the constraints on the participation of rural residents portray the rural residents' bargaining power, and in the game between the urban elites and the rural residents, tax rates depend on the preferences of the urban elites and the constraints urban elites and the rural residents jointly face. Therefore, the urban elites have to set tax rates deviating from the most preferred ones. The model in this paper can explain a series of empirical findings and yield new theoretical findings for empirical testing.

Originality/value

Significantly, the paper finds that the increase in agricultural productivity will lead to industrialization, accompanied by the disintegration of the dual-sector model. However, though the increase in industrial productivity can accelerate industrialization, it will further expand the urban–rural divide.

Details

China Political Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-1652

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robin Stryker

Introduces a special issue on globalization and the welfare state. Asserts that economic globalization constrains national economic and social policy far more now than…

5814

Abstract

Introduces a special issue on globalization and the welfare state. Asserts that economic globalization constrains national economic and social policy far more now than ever before, although the level of international trade has not increased that much compared to levels at the beginning of this century. Talks about the political consequences of economic globalization, particularly welfare state retrenchment in the advanced capitalist world. Outlines the papers included in this issue – comparing welfare system changes in Sweden, the UK and the USA; urban bias in state policy‐making in Mexico; and the developing of the Israeli welfare state. Concludes that economic globalization has a limited effect in shaping social welfare policy in advanced capitalist countries; nevertheless, recommends further research into which aspects of economic globalization shape social welfare policy.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Content available
788

Abstract

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

B.N. Ghosh

The magnitude of rural poverty is larger as compared to urban poverty in India. The basic explanation for sectoral poverty differentiates in India is the misallocation of…

2520

Abstract

The magnitude of rural poverty is larger as compared to urban poverty in India. The basic explanation for sectoral poverty differentiates in India is the misallocation of resources and urban‐biased strategy of development. Investment allocation in Indian planning is not strictly based on the consideration of equity and economic efficiency. The rural sector gets the smaller share of investible resources, and therefore rural income, output and employment fall short of the optimum level, and rural poverty intensifies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 29 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1980

Charles C. Mueller

The paper questions the widely accepted view according to which distorted factor prices are the main determinant of rural unemployment and under‐employment in Brazil. It…

Abstract

The paper questions the widely accepted view according to which distorted factor prices are the main determinant of rural unemployment and under‐employment in Brazil. It is argued that more than distorted relative prices, the very limited technological alternatives available, together with the pattern of land ownership and the “urban bias” style of the country's agricultural policies are the main forces behind the introduction of capital‐intensive processes in Brazil's more advanced agriculture, and the related problems of labour absorption.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Graphic analysis
Publication date: 23 May 2019

Approaches to tackling the rise in overweight and obese populations have tended to ignore alarming rural trends

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-GA244086

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Book part
Publication date: 26 October 2005

Andrew Schrank

What are the social and ecological roots of export diversification in the developing world? On the one hand, I attribute the growth of nontraditional, manufactured exports…

Abstract

What are the social and ecological roots of export diversification in the developing world? On the one hand, I attribute the growth of nontraditional, manufactured exports from the Dominican Republic to the traditional agro-export elite's use of free trade zones to offset the consequences of urban biased, import-substituting industrialization in the 1970s, and thereby portray diversification as an incremental response to government predation rather than a coherent product of government planning. On the other hand, I hold that the nature, timing, and location of the nontraditional export supply response have necessarily been circumscribed by preexisting social and ecological circumstances, and thereby underscore the structural impediments to similar diversification efforts elsewhere in the developing world. My findings are of both theoretical relevance and policy import, for they serve to underscore the limitations to the regnant neoliberal development orthodoxy as well as the available sociological alternatives.

Details

Nature, Raw Materials, and Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-314-3

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